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Medicina Historica
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2532-2370
Published by Mattioli 1885 srl Homepage  [9 journals]
  • The studies of blood transfusion and the attempts of its implementation
           into medical practice in 1800–1875: the fate of J.-A. Roussel’s device
           in Russia

    • Authors: Maria Sergeeva ; Evgeniya Panova
      Abstract: Since the beginning of the 19th century, physicians’ interest to the study of blood transfusion has increased significantly. The experimental researchers of the first half of the 19th century paid special attention to the issues of intra- and interspecific blood transfusion.  In 1860s numerous military conflicts in Europe led to the necessity of studying the issues of blood transfusion’s practical application in medicine. A choice of donor’s blood source (animal or human), type of blood for transfusion (whole or defibrated blood), methods of preservation, stock and storage of blood became the main priorities of research during this period. Both blood transfusion experimental studies and human-to-human transfusions conducted in Europe and Russia in 1800-1875 have become historical, scientific and technical ground which preceded and largely determined the promotion and distribution of the first device for blood transfusion which had a commercial success. In 1873 the apparatus invented by a Swiss doctor Joseph-Antoine Roussel took the first prize at the Vienna World's Fair. Roussel managed to sell hundreds of copies of his invention to the armies of Austria-Hungary, Belgium, and Russia, taking advantage of the situation of political tension in Europe. The article presents the key circumstances of the implementation of Roussel’s device in Russia in 1874, such as the results of its clinical trials, some financial aspects of the apparatus’ acquisition by the Main Military Medical Department, etc.   
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • Medical approach to disability. A history of a multifaceted relationship

    • Authors: Cinzia Leone
      Abstract: Disability expresses an object, but principally also a concept with an outline difficult to define. A concept as much undefined as complex. In comparison to its definition, disability as a concept has not yet been untangled definitely even due to the fact that disability represents by itself the difficulty to trace a stable and certain dividing line. The present paper will offer a discussion of the so-called interpretative models linked to the meaning and the magnitude of disability under a first medical and then sociological point of view. During last decades, in fact, the understanding towards sociological instances in relation with disability have changed remarkably, trying to bridge the gap existing in the past, when disability was observed only as a personal health issue and consequently only under one specific framework of analysis, abstracting it from the boundary conditions and from the society in a de-constructional approach which lead to disregard disability per se. Thus in the times, disability passed from being a personal and medical problem to a phenomenon with its own social impact and a social construction, deviating the observation of disability from the medical and health point of view to a holistic approach, even if with consistent differences in relation to the diverse paradigms of interpretation.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • Historical gender gap in the authorship of the most impacted general
           nursing journals: a cohort descriptive study.

    • Authors: Elsa Vitale; Francesca Di Dio
      Abstract: Introduction: Gender differentiators in the academic world are characterized by a disparity between men and women in their scientific production, as men are more favored in this area than women. The aim of the research is to evaluate any gender differences in nursing scientific production between journals in the sector with an important impact factor. Materials and Methods: The Web of Science (WoS) citation database was used to select the journals based on the impact factor and the publications of the last 5 years whose data are available, such as from 2014 to 2018. General nursing journals, in the WoS database, with an Impact Factor greater than 2 and published in English language were included in this research. Results: The general nursing journals with an impact factor greater than 2 in 2018 identified in our study are: International journal of Nursing Studies, Journal of Advanced Nursing, Journal of Nursing Scholarship, Nurse Education Today, Nursing Outlook, Nursing Research, Worldviews on Evidence Based Nursing. In total, 2889 names of first authors were recorded in the reference years from 2014 to 2018. Of these 83.7% are female and the remaining 16.3% are male. Conclusion: From our data it emerges how nursing turns out to be against the trend in the field of scientific productivity compared to other disciplines. This counter tendency has its origins in the history of nursing which has always been conceived as an all-female discipline, although history has taught us how several male nurses have made their important contribution in the history of nursing.  
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • Girolamo Fabrici d’Acquapendente’s “nasogastric tube”. Strategies
           for artificial nutrition between the XVI and XVII centuries

    • Authors: Paolo Zampetti; Andrea Cozza, Maurizio Rippa Bonati
      Abstract: The contribution focuses on the idea proposed by Girolamo Fabrici d'Acquapendente to use a nasogastric tube to feed patients who are unable to open their mouths and independently take food and drinks.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • The Babiński sign: from “toes phenomenon” to “great
           toe phenomenon”

    • Authors: Francesco Brigo
      Abstract: Not required for a Letter to the Editor
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • Dental palaeopathology seen through historical, archaeological and
           biological sources in ancient Herculaneum (79 AD, Italy)

    • Authors: Carmen Tanga; Joan Viciano, Francesca Monza, Ruggero D'Anastasio, Luigi Capasso
      Abstract: In the mid-eighteenth century, King Charles III of Spain started to explore the ruins of the ancient city of Herculaneum. Since then, several medical and surgical instruments made of bronze and iron have been found. The archaeological digs carried out in 1982 in the area corresponding to the ancient shoreline of Herculaneum brought to light not only human remains of about 250 victims killed during the eruption of Vesuvius in the year 79 AD, but also remains of carbonised food and other organic-based materials. Collaboration between different disciplines, including Archaeology, Physical Anthropology, History of Medicine, History of Odontostomatology and Palaeopathology, can provide us with more comprehensive pictures of diseases of the past, not only based on historical, literary and archaeological sources, but also directly on human remains. Through such an interdisciplinary approach, valuable information can be obtained on pathologies of the oral cavity and their distributions, on medical therapies and treatments, and on accessibility to healthcare, including odontostomatological care. An integrated study has allowed us to obtain useful data to reconstruct the habits and lifestyles of the ancient people of Herculaneum. In this report, three cases are presented to illustrate the importance of integration of data inferable from such different sources.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • Adult stem cells in cardiovascular medicine: historical overview and
           ethical issues

    • Authors: Maria Rosa Montinari
      Abstract: La capacità rigenerativa dei tessuti adulti dipende dalle popolazioni di cellule staminali specifiche del tessuto che mantengono un numero stabile di auto-rinnovamento e possiedono la capacità di differenziarsi in distinti lignaggi cellulari. Le cellule staminali adulte si trovano nei bambini e negli adulti. La rigenerazione e il rinnovamento nei tessuti di mammiferi adulti sono stati studiati in diversi scomparti come i tessuti ematopoietici, endoteliali, mammari, intestinali, neuronali, cutanei, muscolari e del follicolo pilifero. La medicina rigenerativa pone l'accento sulla terapia cellulare, in particolare le cellule staminali, per riparare o sostituire i tessuti / organi danneggiati ed è un argomento di grande interesse attuale. Mentre l'uso di cellule staminali adulte nella ricerca e terapia non richiede la distruzione di un embrione, l'uso di cellule staminali embrionali è molto più controverso. Anche l'esecuzione di studi clinici con cellule staminali adulte, tuttavia, ha importanti implicazioni etiche. Questa recensione, dopo una breve panoramica storica, esamina concisamente i risultati degli studi clinici in medicina cardiovascolare e si concentra principalmente sulle questioni etiche.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • Medicine education through a Gender lens

    • Authors: Anna Siri; Omar Larentis, Rosagemma Ciliberti
      Abstract: A gender approach is a fundamental ethical and scientific commitment to ensure the best care for each person, respecting the differences, and thus achieving an effective personalized medicine. Italy is the first country in Europe to formalize the inclusion of the concept of "gender" in medical curricula, but the implementation is not the same across universities. Methodology Students (330) enrolled in the first year of the Medicine and Surgery course at the University of Genoa (a.y. 2019-20) were asked to answer a questionnaire on the relevance and usefulness of a gender dimension in medical education, consisting of five closed-ended questions as well as two one open-ended questions. Results The development of a gender approach is viewed very positively by 71.14% of the students. The majority of first-year students agree with a personalized view of medicine. The knowledge of gender medicine is also considered very useful within the educational programs by 82.84% of the students. However, the answers about which medical areas should benefit more from a gender approach reveal that students have still a superficial view of the subject. Only half of the students (52.73%) consider it useful to include a brief course on the history of gender medicine. Conclusion The findings show that future physicians are responsive to the value of a gender approach in medicine. Further studies are needed to investigate how such gender-oriented efforts should be outlined in medical training to be most effective, not forgetting taking into account the different gender approaches in different cultures and healing systems.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • The contribution of ethical reflection during the Coronavirus pandemic. A
           comparative analysis.

    • Authors: Mario Picozzi; Paolo Severgnini
      Abstract: The Coronavirus pandemic has deeply marked all ordinary health care activities and has dictated matters usually faced by the medicine of disasters. The most critical and dramatic dilemma has been the triage and the urge to select patients for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) because there was no place for all at the same time. The need to decide in a very short time has made this decision even more complex. The data of the Italian situation and namely of Lombardia reveal it clearly. Worldwide, there have been many different views on triage, sometimes with very peculiar emphasis. In this paper we will illustrate the contributions of the Unites States compared to the European ones. We have operated a choice among many articles and guide lines about this matter, and we have prioritized those most quoted in literature. We have critically analyzed different views and we have highlighted that nevertheless there are several shared elements such as clinical criteria, if we consider only them we might underestimate the uniqueness of the patient, including vulnerable ones. There is a huge gap between the US view and the European view when it comes to the appointment of the final decision maker in triage. We propose the criteria of proportionality as a guide line to take decisions in triage because it allows to integrate collective public health objectives and the principle of ensuring protection for the individual patient. Finally, we envisage the potential role of ethics consultation in this pandemic scenario.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • Book reviews

    • Authors: Editorial Office
      Abstract: not available
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • Exhumation and anthropological study of the skeletal remains attributed to
           Liutprand, King of the Lombards (c. 690-744 AD)

    • Authors: Raffaele Gaeta; Simona Minozzi, Antonio Fornaciari, Valentina Giuffra, Giulia Riccomi, Carmine Lubritto, Gino Fornaciari
      Abstract: Liutprand, one of the greatest Lombard sovereigns, was born at the end of the 7th century AD and died in 744 AD. According to the Historia Langobardorum of Paolo Diacono, he was King of the Lombards from 712 to 744 AD. Over the centuries, his bones suffered from many episodes of translation and this is a crucial problem for the validation of the authenticity of the skeletal remains. Following a modern survey conducted at the end of the 19th century, the bones were arranged in a wooden box placed at the base of a pillar in the Cathedral of S. Pietro in Ciel d’Oro in Pavia. During the exhumation performed in January 2018 by the Division of Paleopathology of the University of Pisa the bones appeared extremely fragmented and in a poor state of preservation. Anthropological examination, imaging studies (CT and X-ray), 14C dating and stable isotopic analyses were performed. According to the anthropological examination, most of the remains belonged to a robust male with marked muscular insertions and an age at death between 40 and 50 years. The bones of two other individuals, an adult male with similar robusticity and dimensions and a young male, were also detected. A pathological tibia, exhibiting an enlarged diaphysis with a visible cloaca referable to a severe form of osteomyelitis, was associated with the younger male. 14C dating indicated that only one individual lived in the period consistent with that of Liutprand, while the other two were a few decades older than the Longobard king. Stable isotope values showed a rather good nutritional intake, with a varied diet of meat and fish for all the three individuals.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Oct 2020 13:17:06 +000
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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