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IBT Journal of Business Studies
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2414-8393 - ISSN (Online) 2409-6520
Published by ILMA University Homepage  [1 journal]

    • Authors: Gulwish Khan; Pireh Sikander, Ather Akhlaq
      Abstract: Objective: To explore and identify factors attributing towards the rising divorce rate in Pakistan and its consequences.Materials and methods: In-depth semi structured interviews were conducted from 17 divorced participants, five out of which were males. The participants were chosen from Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar and Islamabad. Interviews were conducted via email, telephone and face-to-face meeting.Results: Findings from the interviews highlighted partner violence, sexual dysfunction, in-laws interference and temperamental incompatibility were the most common causes of divorce. Moreover, consequences of divorce included depression and loneliness, and financial and accommodation issues. It was further found that it was difficult for the divorcees to judge and trust the new person requesting marriage proposal. Another major problem found was the child custody in which usually the males have to give up their children to their mothers.  Finally, it was found that children too have to go through psychological issues after their parents separate.  Conclusions: Divorce is an unwanted and undesired act of termination of marriage which brings a flood of financial, social and personal issues to divorcees. Divorce has adverse consequences on both males and females such as financial crisis, psychological issues and emotional breakdown. Children suffer emotionally in the absence of either of parents.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 May 2020 19:00:21 +050
  • Effect of Academic & Personality Development Activities on Competitiveness
           of Business Schools: An Empirical Study through the lens of Islamic

    • Authors: irum khattak; Qadir Bakhsh Baloch, Gohar zaman
      Abstract: The study intended to investigate the effect of academic and personality development activities on competitiveness of business schools through the lens of Islamic perspective. The features of academic & personality development activities of competitive business schools from modern literature were studied in the light of Islamic perspective. Regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis. Data was collected from a sample of 354 students through structured questionaire. The study found that Islam supports businesses education and provides a comprehensive framework that embodies moral and social values leading to a prosper society in long-term. The activities of academic and personality development in modern literature to increase the competitiveness of business schools are supported by Islamic perspective as far as it is within Islamic boundaries. Positive relation was found between academic and personality development activities and competitiveness of business schools from students’ perspective. Future studies are directed to cover other activities required for competitiveness of business schools and its relevance from Islamic perspective.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 May 2020 19:00:15 +050
  • Contribution towards Understanding of Corporate Governance: Thematic
           Analysis of Review Papers on Corporate Governance: 1988- 2017

    • Authors: zeba shariff khan
      Abstract:  ABSTRACT
      PurposeThe purpose of the study was to assemble knowledge, to understand the nuances of corporate governance as it is widely dispersed having multiple dimensions, to organize and categorize review papers on corporate governance under specific subjects, fields, areas of research. Thematic analysis enabled classifying review papers providing insight and spectra about corporate governance. MethodologyThe research study is confined to review of review papers on Corporate Governance downloaded through Google scholar and focuses only on abstracts of these reviews and determines the intensity of respective research published/ undertaken on specific category and sub-categories during the period 1988 to 2017. Document analysis was used to gather information on the (Valiente & González, n.d.) themes, providing further break-up into individual sub-categories and identifying an array of research topics. Findings The paper provides thematic analysis of six hundred and sixty five (665) review papers, classified into nineteen (19) categories, 177 sub-categories comprising 476 review papers. On the basis of classifications significance of Corporate Governance has been observed for firm performance (5th category 71 papers); legislative & regulatory requirement (7th category 64 papers); executive governance (2nd category 59 papers) these three categories have contributed maximum number of review papers.The above three categories have mostly published review papers on the Impact of Corporate Governance Variables on Firm Performance: Country comparison (19 papers), Corporate Governance Effects on/ Relationship with Firm/Corporate Performance (15 papers) and Review of Corporate Governance Reforms Country wise (16 papers). Practical ImplicationsThe research study (1) highlights existing research undertaken (2) identifies avenues for future research this will benefit research scholars & academics to explore potential research areas in context to Pakistan. It will also enhance the acumen and awareness of practitioners and policy makers regarding the vitality of corporate governance for quality decision making.               Keywords: Corporate Governance, Firm & Corporate Performance, Legislative & Regulatory Requirement, Executive Governance.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 May 2020 19:00:05 +050

    • Authors: Syed Kashan Ali Shah; Zulfiqar Ali, Prof. Dr. Syed Shabib ul Hasan
      Abstract: Purpose: The research underpinned the assessment of the link between professional business education and job performance along with career progression in the case of Karachi, Pakistan. The research further tested the moderation of satisfaction level of stakeholders.Design/Methodology/Approach:The research design of the study was quantitative whilst the sample size of the study was 250 respondents of Karachi as the research used the primary method of data collection using a survey questionnaire. The techniques employed are correlation analysis, regression analysis and moderation analysis using hierarchical regression. The software used was SPSS.Findings: The results found that the effect on professional business education on job performance and career progression was found to be significant in the case of Karachi, Pakistan. Moreover, the moderation was also found to be significant of satisfaction level of stakeholders including corporate personalities, managers, students, and teachers between professional business education and job performance. However, moderation was insignificant between professional business education and career progression.Research Limitation/Implications:The research was limited to Karachi, Pakistan and to the domain of professional business studies. In future, the improvements can be brought by conducting comparative research between Pakistan and other developing nations like China, India or others. Originality/Value:The research has added value to business studies conducted in the context of Pakistan and specifically Karachi. It has further contributed to the body of knowledge by making it avid how stakeholders generally perceive students seeking professional education in Pakistan.Keywords:Professional business education, job performance, career progression, satisfaction level of stakeholders, Karachi
      PubDate: Tue, 12 May 2020 18:59:53 +050
  • A Study of entrepreneurial intentions among business and commerce
           graduates: Evidence from Public Sector Universities of Sindh

    • Authors: Dr. Sadia Anwer; , Dr. Javed Ahmed Chandio, Muhammad Ashraf
      Abstract: Developing nations, like Pakistan, have been espousing a host of several economic challenges. Finding a job for an educated person is hard. The governments of these nations are struggling with the scarcity of resources to accommodate the young human capital. Hence under such perplexing conditions, the finding and earning a source of bread and butter under the name of entrepreneurship has been considered as the best solution to the challenge. However, being an entrepreneur in a country like Pakistan requires several cool capabilities and attitudes. The educational pattern in Pakistan is shaping the youngsters to meet the challenges of the job market, by replacing them with an entrepreneurial attitude. This study is, therefore, has attempted to investigate the relationship between business and commerce graduates’ personality traits and entrepreneurial traits. In this regard, the shreds of evidence have gathered from the public sector universities of Sindh, which is imparting professional and academic excellence to the lower-middle-class population of the province. Using the Partial Least Squire approach the gathered data was analyzed. The results revealed that Goals and aspirations significantly predicted the entrepreneurial intention among business and commerce graduates. However Big-5 personality and Risk-taking attitude did not influence the entrepreneur's intention. The findings of the study will add value to this existing entrepreneurial literature, in Pakistani particularly the Sindh context.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 May 2020 18:59:46 +050
  • Impact of Packaging on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Study made on
           Millennials of Karachi

    • Authors: Muhammad Ahmed Soofi Desai; Mohammad Fazal Qureshi, Shaista Fazal
      Abstract:                                                         The aim of this research is to identify the relation of product packaging on consumer’s buying behavior of millennials of Karachi. The objective of this research is to add information in the existing research work which is done in packaging and how it influences the purchase behavior and then decision of the millennials of Karachi. The purpose of the research is to study those factors that can use by companies for driven the success of packaging style.  This study will also be explored the relations between different variables of packaging with consumer behavior. The dependent variable here in the study is consumer buying behavior while about five independent variables also used. This research is the brief overview of some important factors that can influence the purchase decision. The data used in the research is primary that will be collected from the millennials of Karachi through questionnaires (instruments) and then analyzed on SPSS software. The sample size is 311 which are aged between 15 and 40. After analyzing the data, the observations indicate that how much packaging is one of the most important factors for product that can influence the buying behavior especially of millennials. The changing trend and consumer’s life style pattern is increasing the influence in packaging. The color, material of packaging, wrapper design and innovation also played an important role in consumer’s purchase decision. Nowadays, the packaging color and design is also used as a medium of communicating the message to consumer. In last, the implication of the study with some future recommendations and research limitation with future gap has also been provided for exploring the new concept in the topic.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 May 2020 18:59:38 +050
  • Factors affecting Customer Retention in the Restaurant Industry:
           Moderating Role of Restaurant Location

    • Authors: Ammar Ahmed
      Abstract: Objectives: This study investigated the main effects of service quality and price fairness on customer retention.  The study also investigated the moderating role of restaurant location in service quality, price fairness-customer retention relationships.Methodology: Data collected from 182 customers visiting selected restaurants located in Multan city of Pakistan. The collected data relates to the chosen variables i.e. service quality, price fairness, restaurant location, and customer retention.Findings: The significant positive results of linear regression analysis revealed that service quality, price fairness and restaurant location predicted the customer retention. The results of step-wise multiple regression analysis revealed that restaurant location positively moderated the relationship of service quality and customer retention. It also revealed that restaurant location positively moderated the relationship of price fairness and customer retention.Implications: This study may have practical implications for human resource managers regarding recruitment decisions. It may have importance for restaurant managers or owners regarding quality of service and pricing plans which are true reflection of the services provided. Similarly, they may give due consideration to the location factor while launching a food service business. On the basis of the findings of the study, conclusions have been made and recommendations and directions for further research have been offered.Key Words: Service Quality, Price Fairness, Restaurant Location, Customer Retention
      PubDate: Tue, 12 May 2020 18:59:31 +050

    • Authors: Kaenat Malik; Prof. Dr. Tariq Jalees
      Abstract: In today’s competitive world, it has become difficult for organizations to manage and attract a talented workforce. In view of this most firms are using employer branding strategies to attract and retain the employees. In view of its importance, we have developed a new conceptual framework that has five direct hypotheses and three indirect hypotheses. We have collected data from 400 faculty members of the leading business institutes of Karachi. The questionnaire was adapted from the earlier established scales. Smart PLS 3.2 was used for data analysis. This study found that it is important for firms to forego old HR practices and adopt employer branding. The HR manager in the present era required to spend considerable time building the image of the firms by interacting with all the stakeholders of the firms. A strong brand image is not only attractive to new employees but it also enhances the job satisfaction level of the existing employees. Employers branding promotes a conducive environment due to which employees' satisfaction level increases but they also develop a sustainable relationship with firms. Thus both the employees and employers benefit from it.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 May 2020 18:59:25 +050
  • Empirics of Agricultural Production: Comparison of Instrumental Variable
           and Two Stage Least Square Approach

    • Authors: Asif Warsi; Dr. Amena Sibghatullah, Dr Athar Ibal
      Abstract: The study uses data for a set of 81 countries from World Development Indicators from year 2002 to 2015 while applied 2SLS and Instrumental variable approach to estimate the coefficients associated with standard production function of agricultural production and compares its results with the coefficients obtained through OLS. The argument behind this approach that in the standard form, capital is likely to be endogenous in the production function and if it is true, the coefficients obtained through OLS would be inconsistent. Capital is found to be endogenous in the study. It is also noticed as endogeneity exist in our framework and the causal relationships can be controlled through instrumental variable approach (I.V.). The coefficients from I.V approach and 2SLS are compared with OLS estimates. I.V and 2SLS coefficients are found to be slightly different however, the obtained coefficients through both approaches are more reliable then the coefficients obtained through OLS. It is suggested therefore that the approaches like I.V approach and 2SLS should be employed in the studies pertaining to this area of research. 
      PubDate: Tue, 12 May 2020 18:59:19 +050
  • Role of Managerial Competencies and Risk-Taking Behavior in Financial
           Service Outreach of Microfinance Banks in Pakistan

    • Authors: Fozia Taj; Kashif Rashid, Yasir Bin Tariq
      Abstract: Objectives: This study aims to investigate the relationship between the managerial risk-taking, managerial competencies and financial service outreach of microfinance banks in Pakistan.Design/methodology/approach: Primary data was collected from 36 branches of microfinance banks (MFBs) in nine cities. The unit of investigation is the branch manager and senior credit officer of each MFB branch. Descriptive statistics, correlation and regression, are used for data analysis.Findings: This study found a positive relationship between financial service outreach of MFBs and managerial competencies; financial service outreach also has a positive relationship with the risk-taking behavior of managers. There is a positive relationship between risk-taking behavior and financial service outreach of banks. The risk-taking behavior partially mediates the relationship between the managerial competencies and financial service outreach. The magnitude of the relationship between managerial competencies and outreach is significant, and its magnitude reduces when there is the mediation of managerial risk-taking behavior between them. Thus, managerial competencies, along with risk-taking behavior are the keys drivers of financial service outreach of MFBs.Practical Implications: This study informs MFB’s top management and policymakers that competencies of managers and their calculated risk-taking propensities determined outreach performance of the MFBs.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 May 2020 18:59:09 +050
  • Impact of Landscaping of Shopping-Mall on Customer Preferences: A
           Qualitative Study of Shopping Malls located in Karachi

    • Authors: shahzad nasim; Musarrat Shamshir
      Abstract: This study aims at finding the impact of landscaping variables such as interior design, décor and other atmospheric variables of shopping malls on the customers’ preferences and purchase intentions. The research is descriptive in nature and is conducted on the shopping malls of the Karachi; a metropolitan city of Pakistan. Data is gathered through interviews of the customers who visited shopping malls frequently. Semi structured questionnaire and content analysis of interviews is used for the analysis of the results. The findings of this study specify that variables like hygiene, aroma, lighting, and display/layout have significant impact on customers’ purchase intention; whereas temperature, music and color found to be insignificant variables.  
      PubDate: Tue, 12 May 2020 18:59:05 +050
           WHY IT’s IMPORTANT FOR SME’s.

    • Authors: Naveed Saif; Muhammad Tahir Khan, Sadaqat Ali, Fazli Wadood
      Abstract: Objectives; Leadership become one of the most important topic among behavioral scientist and management researchers. The current research study try to investigate the relationship between transactional, transformational styles of leadership in paying way for Quality Management (QM) Practices in Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa  SME’s sector.Methodology; For this purpose data was collected from manufacturing sector through adapted version of questionnaires’. In first stage CFA was conducted to remove item having lower loading. In the next stage through SEM analysis was performed.Findings; Results indicate that During CFA analysis most of the components of the adopted construct were removed due to poor fit model. As a result the original concept of the adopted construct were renamed on the basis of retained factors. During SEM analysis the hypothetical relationship were partially supported and results indicate that for the smooth functioning of manufacturing sector of SME’s it is strongly recommended to adopt the modern techniques of QM practices that must be alien with international standards.Practical Implementation; As the current model of leadership and QM Practices proposed by (Laohavichien,2011) in USA and Thailand.  However in Pakistan cultural set up its results are quite different. And it’s open new way of research in theory of Leadership.KEYWORDS; Transactional, Transformational, Leadership, SME’s,
      PubDate: Tue, 12 May 2020 18:58:58 +050

    • Authors: Masood Ahmed
      Abstract: The acceptability of sustainable development as the concept to response to increasing social environmental challenges has led many firms to adopt sustainable development in the form of corporate sustainability. However, the evidence show there is little impact of the so called sustainable activities of the firms on the society and environment and business as usual continues. In the paper it is suggested that to understand why such impact has not occurred we need to look at the current discourses on sustainable development and corporate sustainability through the lens of critical theory and its methodology of critical discourses analysis. Major discourses prevailing in Sustainable Development and Corporate Sustainability have been discussed.It is found out that dominant discourse of Business Case for Sustainability is marginalizing the other discourses that favor nature or society over economics as the central theme of sustainability.The implications of the findings is such that unless the dominant discourse Business Case for Sustainability is not challenged the goals of Sustainable Development would remain elusive and the path towards social and environmental degradation would continue.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 May 2020 18:58:52 +050
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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