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Journal of Chemical Reviews
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2676-6868 - ISSN (Online) 2676-4938
Published by Sami Publishing Company Homepage  [3 journals]
  • Progress on Homogeneous Ruthenium Complexes for Water Oxidation Catalysis:
           Experimental and ...

    • Abstract: This work presents a concise review on the homogeneous ruthenium single-, two, and three-center complexes employed in water oxidation catalysis. The design of efficient and robust water oxidation catalysts has much to benefit from an improved understanding of the mechanism. A strong perspective is established on the progress made so far on the water oxidation catalysis through experimental and complementary computational efforts to understand the water oxidation reaction. The general mechanisms postulated so far are including the acid-base mechanism, the water nucleophilic attack and the direct coupling mechanistic approaches. These proposals are briefly discussed and reports featuring each instance are captured. From experimental perspectives, considerable efforts have been made in optimizing catalyst figures of merit (overpotentials, turnover numbers, and operating conditions) in single-center Ru systems, their efficiencies in most cases are not realistic enough to be adopted in commercial scale. While homogeneous multinuclear ruthenium complexes exist in the literature, few studies have been devoted towards understanding their mechanisms.  Further studies in this respect are crucial as they may serve as the golden gate towards understanding (probably) the mechanisms involved in the nature’s photosystem II which is the upper-bound catalyst for water oxidation. The present experimental and computational progress made in single- and two-center homogeneous catalytic systems provide a useful blueprint to build on higher homologous series for efficient water oxidation catalysis.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Aug 2020 19:30:00 +010
       
  • A Review on Gold Nanoparticles Aggregation and Its Applications

    • Abstract: In recent years, nanoparticles have been classified in three categories namely nanocrystals, films, and quantum dots. Due to the various properties of composites in comparison to individual particles, the studies that are related to the understanding and characterization of these materials have gained much importance. Solvated metal atom dispersion (SMAD) is a technique which includes the vaporization of the metal in a high vacuum reactor and the co-deposition of metallic vapor on the freeze reactor walls at liquid nitrogen temperature. An organic solvent is used to stabilize the metal atoms in the reaction, to form a solvation sphere, before they reach the frozen reactor walls. After the reaction, nanoparticles are warming at room temperature to form metal colloids. In this stage, depending on the metal concentration, metal type, organic solvent and delay time to stabilize the colloidal nanoparticles, the nanoparticles aggregation produce in different shapes (spherical, clusters, and fractals). The SMAD technique due to reducing and stabilizing the metal nanoparticles in a polymer matrix at the time of synthesis, avoiding metal agglomeration and oxidizing of metal nanoparticles does not produce salt. There is great concentration on these compounds as they can be used in medicine as antibacterial coatings, due to the biocidal action of Au nanoparticles (AuNps). Undeniably, numerous selective homogeneous catalysts from nanoparticles have been reported; however, the only feature is the ability of the polymer chain to protect and stabilize the metal particles from oxidation, therefore, the penetration of the reagents for the desired catalytic reactions is possible.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Aug 2020 19:30:00 +010
       
  • Antioxidants: A Masterpiece of Mother Nature to Prevent Illness

    • Abstract: Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, generated in usual biochemical reactions with increased exposure to the environment can cause an imbalance in homeostatic process between oxidants and antioxidants leading to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is primarily responsible for a wide array of human diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease), diabetes, cancers, and rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, a subtle balance between oxidation and antioxidation is an essential requirement in order to maintain a healthy biological system. Antioxidants, widely distributed among plants and animals are substances which can significantly prevent or inhibit the oxidative damage to cells. COVID-19 is a major threat to the entire world and the need to boost one’s immunity is crucial. This can be achieved by consuming antioxidants. Thus, this article attempts to delineate different types of antioxidants, their sources in Mother Nature, the need of antioxidants to maintain good health and their mode of action along with mechanisms.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Aug 2020 19:30:00 +010
       
 
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