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Microbes and Infectious Disease
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2682-4132 - ISSN (Online) 2682-4140
Published by Zagazig University Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Continuous medical education; Case No. 2

    • Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Practice of infection control measures is crucial to reducing COVID-19 transmission.  Recently, healthcare workers (HCWs) caring for patients with COVID-19 are exposed to an increased risk of viral infection. Five clinical scenarios are presented here. In each scenario, a different risk exists:   Clinical Scenario No. 1. A 60 years old patient was admitted to the emergency room “ER” with radius and ulnar shaft fractures. He was eligible for surgical corrections. Routine preoperative Chest X-ray raised a high clinical suspicion of COVID-19. the patient was isolated, COVID-19 is confirmed. In ER, the orthopedic surgeon was wearing a mask. In operating room “OR”, the anesthetist was wearing a scrub only. The orthopedic surgeon was wearing a surgical mask, a sterile gown, and gloves (To be continued...)
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Jul 2020 22:00:00 +010
  • Silver nanoparticles: A potential antibacterial and antibiofilm agent
           against biofilm forming ...

    • Abstract: Background: Multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria are seriously endangering the antibiotics. Different alternative strategies are needed to reinforce antibiotics, of, these; nanostructured materials may play a fruitful role. This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against MDR bacteria.Methods: In a cross-sectional study, a total of 33 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)and 52 MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) isolates were recovered from intensive care units (ICUs) admitted patients over a period of 9 months, from December 2017 to August 2018. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs on the clinical isolates of MRSA and MDR P. aeruginosa was assessed byminimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) using broth microdilution method. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined as the lowest concentrations required to kill 99.9% of the initial inoculum. Tissue culture plate method was used to evaluate the antibiofilm activity. Results: The MIC and MBC values ranged from 1 to 16 μg/ml and 2 to 64 μg/ml, respectively. Silver nanoparticles exerted a significant antibiofilm activity against MRSA and MDR P.aeruginosa at all tested concentrations, recording a maximum inhibition value of (82%) and (91%), respectively. Conclusions: AgNPs exhibited a considerable antibacterial and antibiofilm, effect; it could represent a promising weapon in the fight against biofilm forming MDR organisms.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Jul 2020 22:00:00 +010
  • Microbial contamination of some ready-to-eat vended fruits in Sango
           open-market, Saki; Oyo ...

    • Abstract:  Fruits are widely exposed to microbial contamination through contact with soil, dust, water and handling at harvest, during or postharvest processing. It has been recognized that, they can be a source of food borne illnesses that can majorly result to poor hygiene practices and unsanitary conditions at fruit vending points. The main objective of the study was to assess the hygiene status as well as microbial contamination in fruit-vending-businesses in Saki; a Nigerian City. The microbial contamination of ready-to-eat vended fruits in Sango market was examined using standard microbiological methods. A total of eight (8) fruits samples comprising two from each of fresh Apples (Malus domestica), Cucumber (Cucumis sativus), Orange (Citrus sinensis) and Carrot (Daucus carota) of vended fruits were screened for total bacterial count. Identifications was made through their colony appearance, microscopic examination on nutrient Agar, selective and differential Agar (EMB, MacConkey, SSA, MRS, Biochemical tests (Catalase, sugar,) and Gram staining of the samples. Four (4) bacterial species were identified as: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp from the vended fruit samples. The total aerobic plate count ranged from 0.8×104- 0.4×104 CFU ml-1 in apple with the highest count among carrot samples and the lowest among orange samples. The isolated organisms from the vended fruits showed that contamination mainly occurred due to poor hygiene and environmental factors.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Jul 2020 22:00:00 +010
  • Anti-bacterial effects of chewing sticks on periodontal pathogens

    • Abstract: From antiquity, several plants with reported effectiveness against periodontal pathogens, and have oral acidogenic effect against bacteria responsible for dental caries and dental plaque is as old as man. The present study focused on the antibacterial activities of the root of Azadirachta indica (Neem), Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter leaf), Fagara xanthoxyloides, Prosopis africana (mesquite) and Anogesissus leiocarpus were all collected from Saki, Nigeria. The chewing stick were washed, shaded dried for 7 days according to the standard procedure. Five consented individuals, supra-gingival plaques were cultured and subjected to the antibacterial assessment by preparing of the aqueous extracts of the chewing sticks. The test organisms included Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella spp which were isolated from consented individuals. All the isolated periodontal strains were inhibited at 2% concentrations of all aqueous extracts except the Klebsiella which was inhibited at 8% to 16% concentration of A. indica. Both P. africana and V. amygdalina had no inhibitory effect on Klebsiella at all concentrations. Only A. indica at 8% and 16% had noticeable inhibition on Klebsiella. At 2%, 4%, 8% and 16%, Acacia gum showed remarkable antibacterial activity against Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and E. coli. Fagara xanthoxyloides and Anogesissus leiocarpus were the most efficacious among all the tested chewing stick. In conclusion, the tested chewing sticks were effective as antibacterial agents against all the tested organisms.
      PubDate: Sat, 09 May 2020 22:00:00 +010
  • Hospital antibiotic stewardship interventions in low and middle income
           countries: A systematic ...

    • Abstract: Background: In low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), infectious diseases burden and increased rates of antimicrobial use, make the implementation of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) an indispensable choice. The study aimed to demonstrate the characteristics of AS interventions and to assess their impact on antibiotic, economic and clinical outcomes among hospitalized patients in LMICs. Methods: data from studies reporting the efficacy of hospital AS interventions and their impact on antibiotic, economic and/or clinical outcomes across LMICs were collected and interpreted. The data from the same outcomes were pooled and analysed using a random-effects meta-analysis model. Results: The antimicrobial consumption showed a 14.8% reduction (95% CI: 3.02 to 1.82, I2: 94.8%, p < 0.001). No evidence of small-study effect across studies was detected (Egger’s regression: 3.2, p-value 2-tailed: 0.12). The antimicrobial consumption was decreased by 1.1% (95% CI: 1.34 to 0.54, I2: 97.3%, p < 0.001). The implementation of AS has led to decrease in antimicrobial cost of 2.4% (95% CI: 1.47 to 1.27, I2: 92.6%, p < 0.001). The mean hospital length of stay was reduced by 19.1% (95% CI: 5.99 to 0.61, I2: 97.7%, p < 0.001). Conclusion: All the investigated interventions succeeded to positively affect the targeted outcomes.  Education was not underscored as an AS intervention, with complete absence of behavioural elements. Antimicrobial exposure/use/consumption is the most commonly used outcome indicator. For economic and LoS concerned studies, more data is needed to provide a stronger business case to encourage investing in AS. Limited data on AS interventions in LMICs entails urgent attention. 
      PubDate: Fri, 08 May 2020 22:00:00 +010
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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