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Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.354
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 200  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0002-2667 - ISSN (Online) 1748-8842
Published by Emerald Homepage  [341 journals]
  • Guest editorial
    • Pages: 585 - 585
      Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 90, Issue 4, Page 585-585, May 2018.

      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-06-05T08:08:25Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-02-2018-0086
  • Wind tunnel tests of the inverted joined wing and a comparison with CFD
    • Pages: 586 - 601
      Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 90, Issue 4, Page 586-601, May 2018.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present the methodology and approach adapted to conduct a wind tunnel experiment on the inverted joined-wing airplane flying model together with the results obtained. Design/methodology/approach General assumptions underlying the dual-use model design are presented in this paper. The model was supposed to be used for both wind tunnel tests and flight tests that significantly drive its size and internal structure. Wind tunnel tests results compared with the outcome of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were used to assess airplane flying qualities before the maiden flight was performed. Findings Extensive data about the aerodynamic characteristics of the airplane were collected. Clean configurations in symmetric and asymmetric cases and also configurations with various control surface deflections were tested. Practical implications The data obtained experimentally made it possible to predict the performance and stability properties of the unconventional airplane and to draw conclusions on improvements in further designs of this configuration. Originality/value The airplane described in this paper differs from frequently analyzed joined-wing configurations, as it boasts a front lifting surface attached at the top of the fuselage, whereas the aft one is attached at the bottom. The testing technique involving the application of a dual-use model is also innovative.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-06-05T08:09:30Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-11-2016-0195
  • Review of current research trends in bird strike and hail impact
           simulations on wing leading edge
    • Pages: 602 - 612
      Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 90, Issue 4, Page 602-612, May 2018.
      Purpose Bird strike and hail impact resistances are considered in relation to the fulfilment of airworthiness/crashworthiness regulations as specified by appropriate aviation authorities. Before aircraft are allowed to go into service, these regulations must be fulfilled. This includes the adaption of the wing leading edge (LE) structure to smart diagnostics and an easy repair. This paper aims to focus on the wing LE, although all forward-facing aircraft components are exposed to the impact of foreign object during the flight. The best practices based on credible simulations which may be appropriate means of establishing compliance with European Aviation safety Agency and Federal Aviation Administration regulations regarding bird strikes, together with the problem of collisions with hailstones, are overviewed in aspect of accuracy and computing cost. Design/methodology/approach The best means of evaluating worldwide certification standards so as to be more efficient for all stakeholders by reducing risk and costs (time and money consuming) of certification process are recommended. The very expensive physical tests may be replaced by adequate and credible computer simulations. The adequate credible simulation must be verified and validated. The statistical approaches for modelling the uncertainty are presented in aspect of computing cost. Findings The simulation models have simplifications and assumptions that generate an uncertainty. The uncertainty must be identified in benchmarking tests. Instead of using “in house” physical tests, there are scientific papers available in open literature thanks to the new trend in worldwide publication of the research results. These large databases can be efficiently transform into useful benchmark thanks to data mining and knowledge discovery methods and big data analyses. The physical test data are obtained from tests on the ground-based demonstrator by using high-speed cameras and a structural health monitoring system, and therefore, they should be applied at an early stage of the design process. Originality/value The sources of uncertainty in simulation models are expressed, and the way to their assessment is presented based on statistical approaches. A brief review of the current research shows that it widely uses efficient numerical analysis and computer simulations and is based on finite element methods, mesh structure as well as mesh free particle models. These methods and models are useful to analyse airworthiness requirements for damage tolerance regarding bird-strike and hail impact and haves been subjected to critical review in this paper. Many original papers were considered in this analysis, and some of them have been critically reviewed and commented upon.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-06-05T08:09:46Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-02-2017-0053
  • Benchmarking New CEASIOM with CPACS adoption for aerodynamic analysis and
           flight simulation
    • Pages: 613 - 626
      Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 90, Issue 4, Page 613-626, May 2018.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present the status of the on-going development of the new computerized environment for aircraft synthesis and integrated optimization methods (CEASIOM) and to compare results of different aerodynamic tools. The concurrent design of aircraft is an extremely interdisciplinary activity incorporating simultaneous consideration of complex, tightly coupled systems, functions and requirements. The design task is to achieve an optimal integration of all components into an efficient, robust and reliable aircraft with high performance that can be manufactured with low technical and financial risks, and has an affordable life-cycle cost. Design/methodology/approach CEASIOM ( is a framework that integrates discipline-specific tools like computer-aided design, mesh generation, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), stability and control analysis and structural analysis, all for the purpose of aircraft conceptual design. Findings A new CEASIOM version is under development within EU Project AGILE (, by adopting the CPACS XML data-format for representation of all design data pertaining to the aircraft under development. Research limitations/implications Results obtained from different methods have been compared and analyzed. Some differences have been observed; however, they are mainly due to the different physical modelizations that are used by each of these methods. Originality/value This paper summarizes the current status of the development of the new CEASIOM software, in particular for the following modules: CPACS file visualizer and editor CPACSupdater (Matlab) Automatic unstructured (Euler) & hybrid (RANS) mesh generation by sumo Multi-fidelity CFD solvers: Digital Datcom (Empirical), Tornado (VLM), Edge-Euler & SU2-Euler, Edge-RANS & SU2-RANS Data fusion tool: aerodynamic coefficients fusion from variable fidelity CFD tools above to compile complete aero-table for flight analysis and simulation.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-06-05T08:09:41Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-11-2016-0204
  • Advanced aircraft performance analysis
    • Pages: 627 - 638
      Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 90, Issue 4, Page 627-638, May 2018.
      Purpose The preliminary aircraft design process comprises multiple disciplines. During performance analysis, parameters of the design mission have to be optimized. Mission performance optimization is often challenging, especially for complex mission profiles (e.g. for unmanned aerial vehicles [UAVs]) or hybrid-electric propulsion. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to find a methodology that supports aircraft performance analysis and that is applicable to complex profiles and to novel designs. Design/methodology/approach As its core element, the developed method uses a computationally efficient C++ software “Aircraft Performance Program” (APP), which performs a segment-based mission computation. APP performs a time integration of the equations of motion of a point mass in the vertical plane. APP is called via a command line interface from a flexible scripting language (Python). On top of APP’s internal radius of action optimization, state-of-the-art optimization packages (SciPy) are used. Findings The application of the method to a conventional climb schedule shows that the definition of the top of climb has a significant influence on the resulting optimum. Application of the method to a complex UAV mission optimization, which included maximizing the radius of action, was successful. Low computation time enables to perform large parametric studies. This greatly improves the interpretation of the results. Research limitations/implications The scope of the paper is limited to the methodology that allows for advanced performance analysis at the conceptual and preliminary design stages with an emphasis on novel propulsion concepts. The methodology is developed using existing, validated methods, and therefore, this paper does not contain comprehensive validation. Other disciplines, such as cost analysis, life-cycle assessment or market analysis, are not considered. Practical implications With the proposed method, it is possible to obtain not only the desired optimum mission performance but also off-design performance of the investigated design. A thorough analysis of the mission performance provides insight into the design’s capabilities and shortcomings, ultimately aiding in obtaining a more efficient design. Originality/value Recent developments in the area of hybrid or hybrid-electric propulsion systems have shown the need for performance computation tools aiding the related design process. The presented method is especially valuable when novel design concepts with complex mission profiles are investigated.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-06-05T08:09:52Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-11-2016-0205
  • Preliminary reliability and safety assessment methodology for
           trans-atmospheric transportation systems
    • Pages: 639 - 651
      Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 90, Issue 4, Page 639-651, May 2018.
      Purpose This paper aims to propose a methodology for a safety and reliability assessment for the conceptual and preliminary design of very complex and disrupting innovative systems like trans-atmospheric vehicles. The proposed methodology differs from existing ones because it does not rely on statistical data at aircraft-level but exploits the statistical population at components-level only. For the sake of clarity, the paper provides some preliminary results of the application of the methodology at system level. The example deals with the safety and reliability assessment of a very complex propulsion system aimed at guaranteeing vertical take-off and landing capabilities of a suborbital vehicle. Design/methodology/approach The proposed methodology is strongly based on a systems engineering approach. It exploits safety and reliability assessment analyses which have already been developed in both aeronautical and space engineering domains, but it combines them in an innovative way to overcome the lack of statistics at aircraft level. The methodology consists of two different steps: a qualitative top-down process, allowing a functional and physical decomposition of the transportation system and a following quantitative bottom-up approach, which provides the estimation of system-level reliability and safety characteristics starting from the statistical estimation of the components’ characteristics. Findings The paper presents a new methodology for the preliminary reliability and safety assessment of innovative transportation systems, such as hypersonic transportation systems. The envisaged methodology will overcome the poorness of statistical data that is usually affecting the conceptual design of breakthrough systems. Research limitations/implications The paper shows the application of the articulated methodology to a limited case study. A complete example of application of the methodology to estimate safety and reliability characteristics at vehicle level will be provided in feature works. Practical implications The methodology has been proposed to be exploited in international research activities in the field of hypersonic transportation systems. Furthermore, a massive application of this approach would allow to create a database for the generation and the update of semi-empirical models focused on high-level estimations of reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS) characteristics. Moreover, the proposed safety assessment has been conceived to be fully integrated within a typical conceptual design process. Originality/value The existing literature about safety and reliability assessment at the early design stages proposes pure statistical approaches which are usually not applicable to highly innovative products, where the statistical population is not existing, for example, in the case of trans-atmospheric vehicles. This paper describes how to overcome this problem, through the exploitation of statistical data at components-level only through the combination of these data to estimate RAMS characteristics at aircraft-level thanks to functional analysis, concept of operations and typical safety assessment tools, like functional hazard analysis, failure mode and effect analysis, reliability block diagram and fault tree analysis.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-06-05T08:08:51Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-11-2016-0214
  • Vertical tail FEA with a CAD/CAE based multidisciplinary process
    • Pages: 652 - 658
      Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 90, Issue 4, Page 652-658, May 2018.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to make an analytical comparison of two vertical tail models from a structural point of view. Design/methodology/approach The original vertical tail design of PZL-106BT aircraft was used for Computer aided design (CAD) modeling and for creating the finite element model. Findings The nodal displacements, Von-Mises stresses and Buckling factors for two vertical tail models have been found using the finite element method. The idea of a possible Multidisciplinary concept assessment and design (MDCAD) concept was presented. Practical implications The used software analogy introduces an idea of having an automated calculation procedure within the framework of MDCAD. Originality/value The aircraft used for calculation had undergone a modification in its vertical tail length, as there was an urgent need to calculate for the plane’s manufacturer, PZL Warszawa – Okecie.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-06-05T08:09:19Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-11-2016-0212
  • From statistics, through new requirements to mathematical modelling of SAT
           aircraft safety
    • Pages: 659 - 666
      Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 90, Issue 4, Page 659-666, May 2018.
      Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the technical and operational specifications of the Small Aircraft Transport System (SAT/SATS) to the achieved safety level. Design/methodology/approach Safety estimation was made with the use of mathematical model of safety of light aircraft in commercial operations developed on the basis of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) data. The analysis was conducted for two different SATS business models based on Direct AiR Transport (DART) concept. It allowed for the investigation of the impact of technical specifications of the aircraft included into the SATS fleet as well as the selected elements of the applied business model on SATS safety level. Findings It was found that the proposed changes to DART system resulted in a significant improvement of safety. Mean Time Between Incidents and Accident (MTBIA) increased by 200 per cent. Additionally, the introduced alterations impacted the weights of particular domains and pilot’s error became less critical than the technical reliability. Practical implications It was shown that the application of new requirements influences both the safety level and the cost of operation, which was demonstrated within the ESPOSA and DART projects. Additionally, it was indicated that further effort to improve the light aircraft safety is absolutely necessary. Originality/value Originality consists in combining in one mathematical model both the aircraft configuration and the rules for business operation. Optimization of selected parameters of the system leads to a significant reduction in the accident number and to keeping the cost increment at a reasonable level. It was also found that the resulted improvement sometimes cannot be sufficient to consider a small aircraft operation fully safe, mainly owing to the numerous restrictions because of its small weight and loading capacity.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-06-05T08:08:28Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-01-2017-0027
  • Experimental investigations into parachute rescue systems
    • Pages: 667 - 678
      Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 90, Issue 4, Page 667-678, May 2018.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of investigations of parachute rescue systems (PRS) for light gyrocopters. Design/methodology/approach Although the investigations were conducted in both stages simultaneously, i.e. experimental mechanics approach and numerical simulations, the paper is focussed mainly on the experimental part of the work. To ensure the safety of experimental works (i.e. for both experimenters and bystanders), the authors applied unmanned, remotely controlled scale models of autogyro for the PRS testing in the air. Findings The critical problem for successful use of the PRS is that the rotation of the rotor blades must be stopped when the main parachute opens, otherwise the influence of the rotor on the improper opening process of the parachute may cause the whole PRS to become useless. Research limitations/implications The existing regulations for the use of unmanned aircraft impose the limitation upon the organisation of in-flight tests of PRS, i.e. the maximum take-off mass of the tested gyrocopter models is limited, and a full-scale test needs the approval of European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). Practical implications The research contributes to increasing the safety level for gyrocopter users. The authors elaborated the original PRS, which currently is in the process of patenting. Originality/value Originality of the work consists of both an innovative PRS, which has never been tested before, and the results of experimental investigations, which cover both ground tests carried on static or moving stands and in-flight testing.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-06-05T08:08:46Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-11-2016-0222
  • Design of composite landing gear for an LSA airplane
    • Pages: 679 - 687
      Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 90, Issue 4, Page 679-687, May 2018.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to introduce a software tool under development by the author. Based on industry demands, a software tool is developed to fill the gap between commercial software and limited closed-form analysis in this specific area. Design/methodology/approach Python programming language offers a great potential to develop relatively simple software that includes graphical user interface and can be turned into an executable file – therefore easily spread. Also, thanks to large community, Python offers extended scientific libraries for solving number of engineering problems. Results are compared to the commercially available software (in this case, MSC NASTRAN). Further evaluation is done to compare results to the laboratory tests. Findings First results were obtained from the comparison between KuFEM and NASTRAN. These results are sufficient reassurance for next stages of development. Next results are the comparison of KuFEM results to the laboratory test. As only one type of product has been tested, no final conclusion can be made. However, within these limits, the results are very promising and optimistic. Research limitations/implications Future development will include further evaluation on different products, even more composite-oriented calculations, enhanced graphical environment. Practical implications KuFEM, within its limits, is an alternative to other commercial programs. It is meant to compromise between limited closed-form designs and detailed designs in expensive software. Originality/value KuFEM is a unique software tool. It allows user to work with finite element method in a simple preprogrammed way. It enhances the standard BEAM elements to go deeper in the analysis. Currant evaluation promises potential good results.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-06-05T08:09:06Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-11-2016-0216
  • Active suppression of freeplay aeroelastic vibrations of ailerons by
           robust control methods with incomplete measurements
    • Pages: 688 - 698
      Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 90, Issue 4, Page 688-698, May 2018.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze the active suppression of the nonlinear aeroelastic vibrations of ailerons caused by freeplay by robust H∞ and linear quadratic Gauss (LQG) methods of control in case of incomplete measurements of the state of the system. Design/methodology/approach The flexible wing with nonlinear aileron with freeplay is treated as a plant-controller system with H∞ and LQG controllers used to suppress the aeroelastic vibrations. The simulation approach was used for analyzing the impact of completeness of measurements on the efficiency and robustness of the controllers. Findings The analysis shows that the H∞ method can be effectively used for suppression of nonlinear aeroelastic vibrations of aileron, although its efficiency depends essentially on completeness and types of measurements. The LQG method is less effective, but it is also able to prevent aileron vibrations by reducing their amplitudes to acceptable, safe level. Research limitations/implications Only numerical analysis was carried out for the problem described; thus, the proposed solution is of theoretical value at this stage of analysis, and its application to the real suppression of aeroelastic vibrations requires further research. Practical implications The work presents a potentially useful solution to the problem of interest and results are a theoretical basis for further research. Social implications This work may lead to a hot debate on the advantages and drawbacks of the active suppression of vibrations in the aeroelasticians community. Originality/value The work raises the important questions of practical stabilizability of the nonlinear aeroelastic systems, their dependence on completeness and types of measurements and robustness of the controllers.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-06-05T08:08:59Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-11-2016-0215
  • Structural dynamics of a gyrocopter: numerical approach in some emergency
    • Pages: 699 - 710
      Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 90, Issue 4, Page 699-710, May 2018.
      Purpose This paper aims to present the assumptions, analysis and sample results of numerical modeling and analysis of dynamic events encountered in emergency cases during deployment of parachute rescue system (PRS) and hard landing of a small gyrocopter. The optimal design requires knowledge of structural loads and structural response – the information obtained often from experiment. Numerical simulation is presented as an alternative tool for estimating these data. Design/methodology/approach Structural analyses were performed using MSC.Nastran. Multibody simulations were done using MADYMO system. Findings Initial design parameters were evaluated and verified in numerical simulations. Some of the resulting conclusions were proven during the test flights. Practical implications Some chosen results of simulation of dynamic problems are presented. They can be useful as reference values for similar cases for light aircraft analysis. Originality/value The paper presents an alternative way of assessing structural response parameters in the case of emergency dynamic events of usage of PRS. The results can be used in other projects.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-06-05T08:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-11-2016-0217
  • Aircraft neural modeling and parameter estimation using neural partial
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to build a neural model of an aircraft from flight data and online estimation of the aerodynamic derivatives from established neural model. Design/methodology/approach A neural model capable of predicting generalized force and moment coefficients of an aircraft using measured motion and control variable is used to extract aerodynamic derivatives. The use of neural partial differentiation (NPD) method to the multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) aircraft system for the online estimation of aerodynamic parameters from flight data is extended. Findings The estimation of aerodynamic derivatives of rigid and flexible aircrafts is treated separately. In the case of rigid aircraft, longitudinal and lateral-directional derivatives are estimated from flight data. Whereas simulated data are used for a flexible aircraft in the absence of its flight data. The unknown frequencies of structural modes of flexible aircraft are also identified as part of estimation problem in addition to the stability and control derivatives. The estimated results are compared with the parameter estimates obtained from output error method. The validity of estimates has been checked by the model validation method, wherein the estimated model response is matched with the flight data that are not used for estimating the derivatives. Research limitations/implications Compared to the Delta and Zero methods of neural networks for parameter estimation, the NPD method has an additional advantage of providing the direct theoretical insight into the statistical information (standard deviation and relative standard deviation) of estimates from noisy data. The NPD method does not require the initial value of estimates, but it requires a priori information about the model structure of aircraft dynamics to extract the flight stability and control parameters. In the case of aircraft with a high degree of flexibility, aircraft dynamics may contain many parameters that are required to be estimated. Thus, NPD seems to be a more appropriate method for the flexible aircraft parameter estimation, as it has potential to estimate most of the parameters without having the issue of convergence. Originality/value This paper highlights the application of NPD for MIMO aircraft system; previously it was used only for multi-input and single-output system for extraction of parameters. The neural modeling and application of NPD approach to the MIMO aircraft system facilitate to the design of neural network-based adaptive flight control system. Some interesting results of parameter estimation of flexible aircraft are also presented from established neural model using simulated data as a novelty. This gives more value addition to analyzing the flight data of flexible aircraft as it is a challenging problem in parameter estimation of flexible aircraft.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-08-13T02:26:26Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-02-2016-0021
  • Optimal wingtip device design for transport airplane
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The present work aims to analyze the feasibility of wingtip device incorporation into transport airplane configurations considering many aspects such as performance, cost and environmental impact. A design framework encompassing optimization for wing-body configurations with and without winglets is described and application examples are presented and discussed. Design/methodology/approach modeFrontier, an object-oriented optimization design framework, was used to perform optimization tasks of configurations with wingtip devices. A full potential code with viscous effects correction was used to calculate the aerodynamic characteristics of the fuselage–wing–winglet configuration. MATLAB® was also used to perform some computations and was easily integrated into the modeFrontier frameworks. CFD analyses of transport airplanes configurations were also performed with Fluent and CFD++ codes. Findings Winglet provides considerable aerodynamic benefits regarding similar wings without winglets. Drag coefficient reduction in the order of 15 drag counts was achieved in the cruise condition. Winglet also provides a small boost in the clean-wing maximum lift coefficient. In addition, less fuel burn means fewer emissions and contributes toward preserving the environment. Practical implications More efficient transport airplanes, presenting considerable lower fuel burn. Social implications Among other contributions, wingtip devices reduce fuel burn, engine emissions and contribute to a longer engine lifespan, reducing direct operating costs. This way, they are in tune with a greener world. Originality/value The paper provides valuable wind-tunnel data of several winglet configurations, an impact of the incorporation of winglets on airplane design diagram and a direct comparison of two optimizations, one performed with winglets in the configuration and the other without winglets. These simulations showed that their Pareto fronts are clearly apart from each other, with the one from the configuration with winglets placed well above the other without winglets. The present simulations indicate that there are always aerodynamic benefits present regardless the skeptical statements of some engineers. that a well-designed wing does not need any winglet.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-08-13T02:24:47Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-07-2015-0183
  • Aerodynamics of plunging airfoil in wind gust
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Growing application of micro aerial vehicle (MAV) sets in demand for accurate computations of low Reynolds number flows past their wings. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of unsteady freestream velocity or wind gust on a harmonically plunging symmetric NACA0012 airfoil at Re = 1,000. The influence of unsteady parameters, such as reduced frequency of plunging motion (0.25 < k < 1.5), non-dimensional plunging amplitude (ho = 0.2) and non-dimensional amplitude of wind gust (0.1 = λ = 0.4) has been studied. Design/methodology/approach Computations have been carried out using commercial software ANSYS Fluent 16.0. To incorporate the plunging motion, the entire reference frame is oscillating, and thereby, a source term is added in the Navier–Stokes equation. Findings The results have been presented in the form of streamlines, vorticity contours, lift and drag signals and their spectra. It is observed that the ratio of plunging frequency to gust frequency (f/fg) has strong influence on periodic characteristics of unsteady wake. It has also been observed that for a fixed plunging amplitude, an increase in value of k results into a change from positive drag to thrust. Practical implications The research has implications in the development of MAV. Originality/value This study is intended to get a better understanding of unsteady parameters associated with gusty flow in flapping wing applications and possible ways to alleviate its adverse effect on it.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-08-09T10:31:58Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-01-2017-0023
  • Simulation of dynamic stall using direct-forcing immersed boundary method
           at low Reynolds number
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this study is simulation of dynamic stall behavior around the Eppler 387 airfoil in the low Reynolds number flow with a direct-forcing immersed boundary (DFIB) numerical model. Design/methodology/approach A ray-casting method is used to define the airfoil geometry. The governing continuity and Navier–Stokes momentum equations and boundary conditions are solved using the DFIB method. Findings The purposed method is validated against numerical results from alternative schemes and experimental data on static and oscillating airfoil. A base flow regime and different vortices patterns are observed, in accordance with other previously published investigations. Also, the effects of the reduced frequency, the pitch oscillation amplitude and the Reynolds number are studied. The results show that the reduced frequency has a major effect on the flow field and the force coefficients of the airfoil. On the other hand, the Reynolds number of the flow has a little effect on the dynamic stall characteristics of the airfoil at least in the laminar range. Practical implications It is demonstrated that the DFIB model provides an accurate representation of dynamic stall phenomenon. Originality/value The results show that the dynamic stall behavior around the Eppler 387 is different than the general dynamic stall behavior understanding in the shedding phase.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-08-02T11:04:24Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-05-2017-0128
  • Autopilot design for an aircraft by using Luenberger observer design
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to design linear quadratic regulator (LQR) based Luenberger observer for the estimation of unknown states of aircraft. Design/methodology/approach In this paper, the LQR-based Luenberger observer is deliberated for autonomous level flight of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) which has been attained productively. Various modes like phugoid and roll modes are exploited for controlling the rates of UAV. The Luenberger observer is exploited for estimation of the mysterious states of the system. The rates of roll, yaw and pitch are used as an input to the observer, while the remaining states such as velocities and angles have been anticipated. The main advantage of using Luenberger observer was to reduce the cost of the system which has been achieved lucratively. The Luenberger observer proposes sturdiness at the rate of completion to conquest over the turmoil and insecurities to overcome the privileged recital. The FlightGear simulator is exploited for the endorsement of the recital of the Luenberger observer-based autopilot. The level flight has been subjugated lucratively and has been legitimated by exploiting the FlightGear simulator. The authenticated and the validated results are offered in this paper. Microsoft Visual Studio has been engaged as a medium between the MATLAB and FlightGear Simulator. Findings The suggested observer based on LQR ensures the lucrative approximation of the unknown states of the system as well as the successful level flight of the system. The Luenberger observer is used for approximation of states while LQR is used as controller. Originality/value In this research work, not only the estimation of unknown states of both longitudinal and lateral model is made but also the level flight is achieved by using those estimated states and the autopilot is validated by using the FlightGear, while in most of the research work only the estimation is made of only longitudinal or lateral model.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-08-02T11:01:24Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-11-2016-0224
  • Digitalization of aircraft performance nomograms
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop a new tool for aircraft performance analysis and optimization. Design/methodology/approach In this paper, the methodology of converting nomogram curves into mathematical functions is presented. Aircraft performance nomograms represent graphical interpretation of influence of several variables on performance such as environmental conditions, runway conditions and aircraft mass. The aircraft performance nomograms are converted in mathematical functions that describe several independent variables’ influence on aircraft performance parameters. To achieve greater accuracy in calculation of aircraft performance parameters, it is necessary to determine mathematical functions presented by dependent variable variations with several independent variables. The method of determining mathematical functions is illustrated on Fokker 100 landing gear extended net climb gradient determination graph. Findings To evaluate model, it was necessary to determine net climb gradient both graphically and analytically using model and compare the results. After solving both analytically and graphically, it was concluded that results are a match. During model evaluation, it was observed that model has a lot of advantages such as it has great precision of calculation, requires less time to calculate results and has minimum error possibility. Practical implications Final result of digitalization of aircraft performance nomograms is software production. The usage of this software can reduce flight planning and aircraft exploitation costs in several different manners. Airliners can produce such a software for those types of aircraft where there is no software provided from aircraft manufacturer. Originality/value Digitalization of aircraft performance nomogram has never been analyzed before, although there is a possibility of this particular methodology implementation in a practical manner in aviation industry.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-07-06T08:10:14Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-05-2016-0070
  • Vision-based relative navigation using cubature Huber-based filtering
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose A novel vision-based relative navigation system (VBRNS) plays an important role in aeronautics and astronautics fields, and the filter is the core of VBRNS. However, most of the existing filtering algorithms used in VBRNS are derived based on Gaussian assumption and disregard the non-Gaussianity of VBRNS. Therefore, a novel robust filtering named as cubature Huber-based filtering (CHF) is proposed and applied to VBRNS to improve the navigation accuracy in non-Gaussian noise case. Design/methodology/approach Under the Bayesian filter framework, the third-degree cubature rule is used to compute the cubature points which are propagated through state equation, and then the predicted mean and the associated covariance are taken. A combined minimum l1 and l2-norm estimation method referred as Huber’s criterion is used to design the measurement update. After that, the vision-based relative navigation model is presented and the CHF is used to integrate the line-of-sight measurements from vision camera with inertial measurement of the follower to estimate the precise relative position, velocity and attitude between two unmanned aerial vehicles. During the design of relative navigation filter, the quaternions are used to represent the attitude and the generalized Rodrigues parameters are used to represent the attitude error. The simulation is conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. Findings By this means, the VBRNS could perform better than traditional VBRNS whose filter is designed by Gaussian filtering algorithms. And the simulation results demonstrate that the CHF could exhibit robustness when the system is non-Gaussian. Moreover, the CHF has more accurate estimation and faster rate of convergence than extended Kalman Filtering (EKF) in face of inaccurate initial conditions. Originality/value A novel robust nonlinear filtering algorithm named as CHF is proposed and applied to VBRNS based on cubature Kalman filtering (CKF) and Huber’s technique. The CHF could adapt to the non-Gaussian system effectively and perform better than traditional Gaussian filtering such as EKF.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-07-04T08:37:17Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-01-2017-0006
  • Trajectory planning for mini unmanned helicopter in obstacle and windy
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Obstacle and wind field are common environmental factors for mini unmanned helicopter (MUH) flight. This paper aims to develop a trajectory planning approach guiding MUH to avoid static and dynamic obstacles and to fly in steady uniform or boundary-layer wind field. Design/methodology/approach An optimal control model including a nonlinear flight dynamics model and a cubic obstacle model is established for MUH trajectory planning. Radau pseudospectral method is used to generate the optimal trajectory. Findings The approach can plan reasonable obstacle-avoiding trajectories in obstacle and windy environments. The simulation results show that high-speed wind fields increase the flight time and fluctuation of control inputs. If boundary-layer wind field exists, the trajectory deforms significantly and gets closer to the ground to escape from the strong wind. Originality/value The key innovations in this paper include a cubic obstacle model which is straightforward and practical for trajectory planning and MUH trajectory planning in steady uniform wind field and boundary-layer wind field. This study provides an efficient solution to the trajectory planning for MUH in obstacle and windy environments.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-07-04T08:35:39Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-05-2016-0080
  • Modelling and hovering control for a coaxial unmanned helicopter using
           sliding mode
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose To facilitate the nonlinear controller design, dynamic model of a novel coaxial unmanned helicopter (UH) is established and its coupling analysis is presented. Design/methodology/approach The chattering-free sliding mode controller (SMC) with unidirectional auxiliary surfaces (UASs) is designed and implemented for the coaxial ducted fan UH. Findings The coupling analysis based on the established model show severe coupling between channels. For coaxial UH’s special model structure, UAS-SMC controller is proposed to reduce the coupling characteristics between channels of the UH by setting controllers’ output calculation sequence. Originality/value The flight control law and control logic are successfully tested in numerical simulation and hardware in the loop (HIL) simulation. The results show best hovering performances without chattering problem, even under the bounded internal dynamics and external disturbances.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-07-02T01:23:21Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-05-2016-0075
  • Design of the composite casing of microstrip antenna for the aerospace
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The paper aims to present a design and numerical verification procedure of a composite casing of a microstrip antenna for an aerospace satellite. Design/methodology/approach The casing for the microstrip antenna was designed in a form of a laminate shell with variable number of layers of reinforcing fabric. The material properties, both static and dynamic, were determined experimentally and then exported to an environment of numerical analyses. The numerical modal analysis allows optimizing the geometry and lay-up of the casing in such a way that a number of modal shapes occurring in the operational frequency band was significantly reduced, several modal shapes with high displacement in flanges of the casing were eliminated and the values of natural frequencies were increased. A final model of the composite casing was subjected to two types of analyses which simulate typical operation conditions during spacecraft mission. These analyses contained thermomechanical quasi-static analyses with 12 loadcases and thermomechanical shock analyses with 9 loadcases, which simulate various mechanical and temperature conditions. Findings Results of the performed analyses were compared with safety margins determined by following requirements to spacecraft vehicles. The obtained results confirm the design feasibility, which allow considering the proposed design during manufacturing of a prototype in further studies. Practical implications Moreover, the presented results can be considered as a design methodology guideline, which can be helpful for engineers working in the aerospace industry. Originality/value The originality of the paper lies in the proposed design and verification procedure of composite elements subjected to operational loading during a spacecraft mission.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-06-28T10:06:40Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-11-2016-0226
  • Performance monitoring and analysis of various parameters for a small UAV
           turbojet engine
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to discuss engine health monitoring for unmanned aerial vehicles. It is intended to make consistent predictions about the future status of the engine performance parameters by using their current states. Design/methodology/approach The aim is to minimize risks before they turn into problems. In accordance with these objectives, temporal and financial savings are planned to be achieved by contributing processes such as extending the engine life, preventing early disassembly-reassembly and mechanical wears and reducing the maintenance costs. Based on this point of view, a data-based software is developed in MATLAB (Matrix Laboratory) program for the so-called process. Findings The software is operated for the performance parameters of the turbojet engine that is used in a small unmanned aerial vehicle of Tusas Engine Industry. The obtained results are compared with the real data of the engine. As a result of this comparison, a fault that may occur in the engine can be detected before being determined. Originality/value It is clearly demonstrated that the engine operation in adverse conditions can be prevented. This situation means that the software developed operates successfully.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T12:25:50Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-02-2016-0024
  • Spacecraft localization by indirect linear measurements from a single
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a two-stage approach for estimation of spacecraft’s position and velocity by indirect linear measurements from a single antenna. Design/methodology/approach In the first stage, direct nonlinear antenna measurements are transformed to linear x-y-z coordinate measurements of spacecraft’s position, and statistical characteristics of orbit determination errors are analyzed. Variances of orbit parameters’ errors are chosen as the accuracy criteria. In the second stage, the outputs of the first stage are improved by the designed Extended Kalman Filter for estimation of the spacecraft’s position and velocity on indirect linear x-y-z measurements. Findings The complex content of the measurement matrix in the conventional method causes periodic singularities in simulation results. In addition, the convergence of the filter using direct measurements is highly dependent on the initialization parameters’ values due to the nonlinear partial derivatives in the Jacobian measurement matrix. The comparison of the accuracy of both methods shows that the estimation by using indirect measurements reduces the absolute estimation errors. The simulation results show that the proposed two-stage procedure performs both with better estimation accuracy and better convergence characteristics. The method based on indirect measurements provides an unnoticeably short transient duration. Practical implications The proposed method can be recommended for satellite orbit estimation regarding its presented superiorities. Originality/value Inputting the single antenna measurements to the filter indirectly results in a quite simpler measurement matrix. As a result, the convergence of the filter is faster and estimation errors are lower.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T12:23:10Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-12-2015-0245
  • A method to analyze and optimize hybrid electric architectures applied to
           unmanned aerial vehicles
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper addressed some critical issues in the development of hybrid electric powertrains for aircraft and propose a design methodology based on multi-objective optimization algorithms and mission-based simulations. Design/methodology/approach Scalable models were used for the main components of the powertrain, namely, the (two stroke diesel) engine, the (lithium) batteries and the (permanent magnet) motor. The optimization was performed with the NSGA-II genetic algorithm coupled with an in-house MATLAB tool. The input parameters were the size of engine, the hybridization degree and the specification of the battery (typology, nominal capacity, bus voltage, etc.). The outputs were electric endurance, additional volume, performance parameters and fuel consumption over a specified mission. Findings Electric endurance was below 30 min in the two test cases (unmanned aerial vehicles [UAVs]) but, thanks to the recharging of the batteries on-board, the total electric time was higher. Fuel consumption was very high for the largest UAV, while an improvement of 11 per cent with respect to a conventional configuration was obtained for the smallest one. Research limitations/implications The research used a simplified approach for flight mechanics. Some components were not sized in the proposed test cases. Practical implications The results of the test cases stressed the importance of improving energy density and power density of the electric path. Social implications The proposed methodology is aimed at minimizing the environmental impact of aircraft. Originality/value The proposed methodology was obtained from the automotive field with several original contributions to account for the aircraft application.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T12:21:22Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-11-2016-0202
  • Aircraft piston engines on-condition exploitation
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Currently, in many countries, aviation safety regulations allow piston engines exploitation above Time Between Overhaul (TBO) recommended by manufacturers. Upon fulfillment of certain requirements, which are already included in the manufacturers’ documentation, TBO extension is granted. National Aviation Authority has approved exploitation of piston engines to something like quasi on-condition maintenance, which has no technical proof behind. This leads to the conclusion that the current, simple way of the engine’s life extension is not the best solution for maintaining flight safety. Aircraft piston engines TBO extension requires changes in the current exploitation system. Design/methodology/approach The paper provides methodology for aircraft piston engines on-condition exploitation based on engine flight parameters (from cruise and takeoff) and engine oil particles analysis. The paper describes a method of diagnostic limits for certain engine parameters and elements in the oil assignation assuming that they come under rules of normal distribution. Findings It has been found that piston engines installed on maximum takeoff mass
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-06-13T08:09:03Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-01-2017-0042
  • Properties of direct-quenched aircraft forged component made of
           ultrahigh-strength steel 300M
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to investigate the possibilities and determination of hot and warm forging of ultrahigh-strength steel 300M and subsequent quenching with accelerated air. Analysis of microstructure and mechanical properties of forged steel 300M focused on investigation of the effect of processing conditions on final properties, such as strength, impact strength and hardness, taking into consideration temperature gradients and within-part strain nonuniformity occurring in forging and direct cooling of aircraft landing gear. Design/methodology/approach The research involved semi-industrial physical modeling of hot deformation and direct cooling, aided with numerical analysis of both deformation and kinetics of phase transformations on cooling, with process conditions determined on the basis of numerical simulation of industrial process. Examination of forged and quench-tempered samples involved testing mechanical properties (tensile properties, hardness and impact strength) and microstructure. Findings Three major findings were arrived at: first, assessment of the effects of energy-saving method of cooling conducted directly after forging. Second, tensile properties, hardness and impact strength, were analyzed on the background of microstructure evolution during hot-forging and direct cooling; hence, applied temperature and cooling rates refer to actual condition of the material including varied deformation history. Third, the accelerated air cooling tests were carried out directly after forging with accurately measured and described cooling efficiency, which enabled the acquisition of data for heat treatment simulation with use of untypical cooling media. Research limitations/implications The conclusions formulated on the strenght of studies carried out in semi-industrial conditions with the use of model samples, despite strain and strain rate similarity, wait for full-scale verification in industrial conditions. The direct cooling tests carried out in semi-industrial conveyor Quenchtube are of cognitive value. Industrial realization of the process for the analyzed part calls for special construction of the cooling line and provision of higher cooling rate for heavy sections. Practical implications The results present microstructure properties’ relations for good-hardenability grade of steel, which is representative of several similar grades used in aircraft industry, which can support design of heat treatment (HT) cycles for similar parts, regardless of whether direct or conventional quenching is used. As they illustrate as-forged and direct-cooled microstructure and resultant mechanical properties, the studies concerning processing the steel of areas of lower temperature are transferable to warm forging processes of medium-carbon alloy steels. The geometry of the part analyzed in the case study is typical of landing gear of many aircrafts; hence, there is the high utility of the results and conclusions. Social implications The direct heat treatment technologies based on utilization of the heat attained in the part after forging allow significant energy savings, which besides cost-effectiveness go along with ecological considerations, especially in the light of CO2 emission reduction, improving economical balance and competitiveness. The presented results may encourage forgers to use direct cooling, making use of the heat attained in metal after hot forging, for applications to promote environmentally friendly heat treatment-related technologies. Originality/value Direct heat treatment typically seems to be reserved for micro alloyed steel grades and sections small enough for sufficient cooling rates. In this light, taking advantage of the heat attained in forged part for energy-saving method of cooling based on direct quenching as an alternative to traditional Q&T treatment used with application to relatively heavy sections is not common. Moreover, in case the warm-work range is reached in any portion of the forged part, effect of direct cooling on warm-forged material is addressed, which is a unique issue to be found in the related studies, whereas in addition to warm forging processes, the results can be transferable to coining, sizing or shot peening operations, where gradient of properties is expected.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-06-13T08:07:15Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-12-2015-0253
  • Single engine turboprop aeroplane class in small air transport
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to present the analysis of introduction of single engine turbo-prop aeroplane class in terms of certification specifications and flight crew licensing regulations. Design/methodology/approach Following the results of flight testing and additional performance and sizing calculations, the proposed class was placed among the existing aeroplane taxonomy in terms of performance, flight loads, mass penalty, fuel economy and several other factors. Concerning small air transport initiative, the new class was tried to be placed as a starting point in commercial pilot career. Findings The paper points the potential market for single engine turbopropeller aeroplanes and lists today obstacles in wider introduction. Therefore, remarks about required change of regulations and requirements for design process, as well as for crew licensing, are underlined. Practical implications The results of the study would be helpful in preliminary design of a new low-power turboprop aeroplane, as well as during tailoring the certification specifications. Originality/value The approach presented in this paper is a detailed extension of an original idea presented by author for the first time during Clean Sky/small air transport workshop.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-06-12T07:50:44Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-01-2017-0009
  • Fatigue life prediction of ceramic-matrix composites
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to predict fatigue life and fatigue limit of fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) with different fiber preforms, i.e. unidirectional, cross-ply, 2D-, 2.5D- and 3D-woven, at room and elevated temperatures. Design/methodology/approach Under cyclic loading, matrix multicracking and interface debonding occur upon first loading to fatigue peak stress, and the interface wear appears with increasing cycle number, leading to degradation of the interface shear stress and fibers strength. The relationships between fibers fracture, cycle number, fatigue peak stress and interface wear damage mechanism have been established based on the global load sharing (GLS) criterion. The evolution of fibers broken fraction versus cycle number curves of fiber-reinforced CMCs at room and elevated temperatures have been obtained. Findings The predicted fatigue life S–N curve can be divided into two regions, i.e. the Region I controlled by the degradation of interface shear stress and fibers strength and the Region II controlled by the degradation of fibers strength. Practical/implications The proposed approach can be used to predict the fatigue life and fatigue limit of unidirectional, cross-ply, 2D-, 2.5D- and 3D-woven CMCs under cyclic loading. Originality/value The fatigue damage mechanisms and fibers failure model were combined together to predict the fatigue life and fatigue limit of fiber-reinforced CMCs with different fiber preforms.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T10:19:49Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-01-2016-0014
  • Trajectory optimization of a multi-tethered space robot on large spinning
           net structures
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the time optimal trajectory of the multi-tethered robot (MTR) on a large spinning net structures in microgravity environment. Design/methodology/approach The MTR is a small space robot that uses several tethers attached to the corner-fixed satellites of a spinning net platform. The transition of the MTR from a start point to any arbitrary designated points on the platform surface can be achieved by controlling the tethers’ length and tension simultaneously. Numerical analysis of trajectory optimization problem for the MTR is implemented using the pseudospectral (PS) method. Findings The globally time optimal trajectory for MTR on a free-end spinning net platform can be obtained through the PS method. Research limitations/implications The analysis in this paper is limited to a planar trajectory and the effects caused by attitude of the MTR will be neglected. To make the problem simple and to see the feasibility in the general case, in this paper, it is assumed there are no any limitations of mechanical hardware constraints such as the velocity limitation of the robot and tether length changing constraint, while only geometrical constraints are considered. Practical implications The optimal solution derived from numerical analysis can be used for a path planning, guidance and navigation control. This method can be used for more efficient on-orbit autonomous self-assembly system or extravehicular activities supports which using a tether-controlled robot. Originality/value This approach for a locomotion mechanism has the capability to solve problems of conventional crawling type robots on a loose net in microgravity.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T08:37:58Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-05-2015-0141
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