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Vegetos : An International Journal of Plant Research and Biotechnology
Number of Followers: 0  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 2229-4473
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2562 journals]
  • Growth promotion and biocontrol activity of Nocardiopsis dassonvillei
           strain YM12: anĀ isolate from coastal agricultural land of Khambhat
    • Abstract: Ecological niche of coastal agricultural land of Khambhat, Gujarat (India) has an impact of marine and terrestrial process. Present study explored soil microbial biomass from a unique niche, which can contribute to the sustainable agricultural approach. Total 68 isolates with percent ratio of 42:58 of Actinobacteria:bacteria were isolated from the alkaline soil with pH 8.1. Twenty-eight isolates were identified as cultivable Actinobacteria associated with the order Streptomycetales, Streptosporengiales, micrococcales, Pseudonocardials and it belonged to 14 different genera. All the strains were screened primarily for Plant growth promoting traits like IAA production, ammonia production, phosphate as well as potassium solubilisation, glucanase and chitinase production. Strain YM12 having maximum traits positive for promoting growth and biocontrol activity was further used and characterized. Strain YM12 was identified as Nocardiopsis dassonvillei which showed 262.4 µg ml−1 IAA production, 7.2 µmol ml−1 Ammonia production along with mineral solubilisation capacity (Phosphate—288 ppm, Potassium—48.82 ppm). Apart from having plant growth promoting activity, strain showed inhibition of Fusarium growth which might be due to production of 0.004 μM ml−1 Chitinase and 0.0093 µM ml−1 Glucanase enzyme. Further it was tested for growth promotion of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and showed 20–30% increased growth as compared to control plants.
      PubDate: 2019-10-14
  • Identification of molecular marker associated with mungbean yellow mosaic
           virus resistance in mungbean [ Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]
    • Abstract: Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] is an important legume which can be grown in varying environmental conditions, during all three crop seasons viz., kharif, rabi and spring/summer in India, as sole or inter crop for grain and green manure. It is an excellent source of easily digestible proteins with low flatulence, which complements the staple rice diet in Asia. Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Disease (MYMD) caused by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) transmitted mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus (MYMV) is an important constraint of mungbean. To fulfill future demands, there is a need to use molecular marker technology and other biotechnological interventions. Hence, Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA) with a Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker technique was used to analyze the F2:3 individuals of Pusa Ratna (susceptible) × Meha (resistant) to identify the molecular marker linked to MYMV resistance in mungbean. Field screening of thirty-five mungbean genotypes against MYMV was carried out, prior to crossing program to identify the resistant and susceptible genotypes. The RAPD primer, OPP 07 showed the specific band of 895 bp in resistant parent and their bulks, but not in the susceptible parent and their bulks. Co-segregation analysis was performed in resistant and susceptible F2:3 individuals; it confirmed that OPP 07895 marker was associated with MYMV resistance in mungbean. The linked RAPD molecular marker OPP 07895, can be used for the identification of (Quantitative Trait Locus) QTL for MYMV resistance and marker assisted selection program in mungbean.
      PubDate: 2019-10-07
  • Chromosomal and PCR-based molecular characterization of Hedychium spp. of
           Tripura, North-East India
    • Abstract: Hedychium is an important genus of Zingiberaceae because of its medicinal and horticultural importance. Investigations on chromosomal and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based molecular characterization of the genus Hedychium at inter-specific and intra-specific levels have been undertaken for the detailed study of the karyotypes as well as for assessing the genetic diversity. We have analysed chromosomal and molecular marker based characters of three Hedychium spp., viz., H. coccineum, H. coronarium and H. thyrsiforme from the state of Tripura but because of their restricted distributions in this biodiversity hotspot we included only two populations of each species in intra-species analysis. Numerical data of karyotypes reveal that Pop-I and Pop-II of all the three species have the same chromosome count 2n = 34 with a basic number X = 17. In-spite of the close resemblances of their karyotypes, chromosomal data based clustering pattern and their sub-grouping at intra-species level validates the taxonomic status of the species. The inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) dendrogram obtained by unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analysis depicts a local position effect based clustering pattern with intra-specific diversity. Our results also indicate that SSR marker is more reliable in assessing the genetic relationship between and within the species of Hedychium. As Gower’s similarity coefficient is an indicator of cryptic changes in chromosome structure, we propose that dissimilarity in mean centromeric asymmetry (MCA) value at inter-specific level can be related with molecular markers based genetic diversity having high degree of polymorphism.
      PubDate: 2019-09-26
  • Photosynthetic efficiency in Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R.Br. genotypes
    • Abstract: Leaves of Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R.Br. ex SCHULT plants are used to cure the most prevalent and important life style disease, the diabetes mellitus. Gymnema is a slow growing plant genotype with the requirement of higher photosynthetic rate. Presently, there is no report available on gaseous exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in gymnema. Total 44 genotypes were evaluated for their physiological efficiencies during post rainy season in sub-tropical region of Gujarat.The light curve studies indicated the light requirement of the plants to be between 1000 and 1250 µ mol (photons) m−2 s−1. Genotypes were categorized into low, medium and high groups considering over all mean values of different parameters ± standard deviation. Seven genotypes showed higher photosynthetic rate (PN), nine genotypes showed higher stomatal conductance (gs), six genotype exhibited higher transpiration rate (E), five genotypes revealed higher intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEint), eight genotypes manifested maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), seven genotypes reached maximum actual efficiency of PSII ( \({\text{F}}_{\text{v}}^{{\prime }}\) / \({\text{F}}_{\text{m}}^{{\prime }}\) ), six genotype showed maximum quantum yield of PSII (ɸPSII) and electron transport rate (ETR) and seven genotypes exhibited higher open PS II centers (qP). The correlation matrix revealed that the PN was strongly positively correlated with gs, \({\text{F}}_{\text{v}}^{{\prime }}\) / \({\text{F}}_{\text{m}}^{{\prime }}\) , ΦPSII and ETR. DGS-2 and DGS-18 were physiologically most efficient genotypes having high values in seven common parameters. These parameters were PN, gs, Fv/Fm, \({\text{F}}_{\text{v}}^{{\prime }}\) / \({\text{F}}_{\text{m}}^{{\prime }}\) , ΦPSII, qP and ETR will be very useful in crop improvement program focused on biomass maximization in Gymnema sylvestre.
      PubDate: 2019-09-24
  • Microalgal biomass generation by phycoremediation of sewage water: an
           integrated approach for production of antioxidant and value added products
    • Abstract: Sewage water from an urban township in India has been used as a growth media for cultivation of a green alga Chlorella ellipsoidea in relation to phycoremediation and integrated approach for production of antioxidant and value added products. The concentration level of nitrate, phosphate, ammonia and total dissolved solid got significantly reduced in the sewage water media at post-stationary phase. An increased level of dissolved oxygen was observed on 30th day of incubation. The alga was efficient in the uptake of nutrients from sewage water. Most notably, complete removal of total dissolved solid was observed. Phaeopigment and physiological stress indices were virtually unaltered in most cases indicating facile adaptability. The stationary phase of the algal species was stable for 40 days as against only 22 days in BG11(N+) medium. Dry cell weight of the sewage water grown alga has been found to be about five times higher than that grown in BG11(N+) medium. The biomass accrued from sewage water as growth medium showed around 25% carbohydrate, 35% lipid and 56% protein and relatively higher amount of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants.
      PubDate: 2019-09-17
  • De novo transcriptome sequencing of Monodopsis subterranea CCALA 830 and
           identification of genes involved in the biosynthesis of eicosapentanoic
           acid and triacylglycerol
    • Abstract: Monodopsis subterranea, a unicellular yellow-green freshwater microalga, is widely known for its ability to produce high amount of therapeutically beneficial ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentanoic acid (EPA; C20:5Δ5,8,11,14,17). Currently, no genomic information is available on M. subterranea despite its nutraceutical and commercial applications. Analysis on fatty acid methyl esters from M. subterranea strain CCALA 830 demonstrated accumulation of 28% EPA. In order to obtain better understanding of EPA biosynthesis and to identify genes involved in the process of lipid metabolism and accumulation in this alga, de novo transcriptome sequencing and assembly was performed using Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing. A total of 35,954 transcripts were obtained through final transcriptome assembly with an average transcript length of 769.36 bp. BLAST similarity searches for assembled transcripts were performed followed by annotation using Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes orthology identifiers. Transcripts involved in lipid biosynthesis including various fatty acid desaturases and elongases involved in PUFAs biosynthesis were identified during the study. In addition, sequences for several transcription factors and a number of simple sequence repeats were also ascertained which can be used as powerful genetic markers for further genetic analysis. This study would provide a useful resource for future research on M. subterranea genome.
      PubDate: 2019-09-16
  • Mitigation of drought stress in wheat crop by drought tolerant endophytic
           bacterial isolates
    • Abstract: Bacteria with potential to alleviate abiotic stresses in combination with plant growth promotion are extremely useful in sustainable agriculture. The present study involves the isolation and evaluation of 14 bacterial isolates obtained from four upland rice roots in varying concentrations of PEG-6000. Three potential isolates MKA2, MKA3 and MKA4 were selected for further experiments. A pot experiment was conducted with four treatments under well watered and drought conditions. Water deficit treatment was imposed by reducing the amount of water added to 25% of the field capacity. Twenty days post stress results showed that drought stress affected the physiological and biochemical parameters of uninoculated wheat seedlings. Inoculation with the three bacterial isolates diluted the adverse effects of drought on relative water content and membrane stability index, and thus improved the water use efficiency over the uninoculated control. Inoculation also improved the shoot and root biomass of wheat plants in comparison to uninoculated control treatment under drought stress. Increased levels of super oxide dismutase and catalase activities were observed in treated plants as compared to control plants thus protecting the plants from oxidative damage. Thus, these potent bacterial isolates could be used effectively to ameliorate plant water intake efficiency and improve sustainability in wheat crop under drought conditions.
      PubDate: 2019-09-11
  • Identification of elite Indian sugarcane varieties through DNA
           fingerprinting using genic microsatellite markers
    • Abstract: Sugarcane is one of the important crops for sustainable economy and global energy security with high phenotypic polymorphism. Precise identification and characterization of plant genetic resources is one of the most essential aspects for breeding programs. Sugarcane popular hybrid varieties and genetic stocks routinely being used as a parent in hybridization program were included in the study. Molecular cataloguing was accomplished using a set of 70 primer pairs, of which ~ 39% were found to be robust polymorphic and unique in all the genotypes used. The number of DNA bands amplified by expressed sequenced tags derived simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) primers ranged from 1 to 10 with an average of 5 bands per primer pair and their fragment size ranged between 50 and 1690 bp. Polymorphism information content (PIC) values were ranged from 0.17 to 1.00 with an average of 0.58. Unique DNA fingerprints of thirteen elite sugarcane varieties were generated with 27 polymorphic sugarcane specific EST-SSR markers. Analyses of DNA profiles produced by microsatellite markers showed the unique bands specific for individual variety. Generated DNA profiles would facilitate accurate variety identification in the perspective of protection of the breeder’s intellectual property rights, farmer’s rights and their purity testing. In addition, developed reliable DNA fingerprinting system will be able to track a potent parent genotype for breeding programs. The identified genotype specific and unique EST-SSR markers will be valuable for conservation and management of sugarcane genetic resources.
      PubDate: 2019-09-05
  • Induction of morphological mutations and mutant phenotyping in black gram
           [ Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] using gamma rays and EMS
    • Abstract: Global demand for grain legumes including black gram had increased tremendously in the recent past due to their high nutritional value especially in countries with soaring population growth. This necessitates the induction of genetic variation for continued supply of better yielding and improved varieties to the producers keeping in view the rapidly changing agroclimatic condition. In this study, the induced mutant populations of widely recommended T-9 and Pant U-30 varieties of urdbean were generated using single and combination treatments of gamma rays and ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). Investigation on induced phenotypic variations in individual plants of M2 population of different treatments resulted in identification and isolation of sixteen morphological mutant types affecting plant height, growth habit, leaf morphology, growth period, pod and seed. Frequency of morphological mutants was the highest in combined treatments of gamma rays and EMS followed by individual treatments of EMS and gamma rays. The spectrum of such mutant types was relatively wide in var. Pant U-30 as compared to the var. T-9. Mutants with altered plant height and pod numbers were of maximum occurrence in both the varieties. The mutants with increased pod number and size were found to be significantly correlated with the improved plant yield, thus selected directly for quantitative investigation in subsequent generations.
      PubDate: 2019-09-04
  • Correction to: Trichoderma asperellum increases crop yield and fruit
           weight of blackberry ( Rubus glaucus ) under subtropical Andean conditions
    • Abstract: Unfortunately, an error occurred in Tables 2, 3, and 6.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Relationship between drylands development and some soil properties
    • Abstract: Land degradation and changing rangeland to dryland has important effects on ecosystems and soil properties. This process decline soil structure and increases runoff and erosion. Because of increasing manipulation in Iran rangelands, this research was conducted to study the effects of land use change from rangeland to dryland and abandoned dryland, on the basis of some soil factors including clay, silt and sand percent and mean weight diameter (MWD) of soil aggregates in western Iran, Zagros rangelands. Soil samples were collected in August 2016 from two depths of 0–20 and 20–50 cm in three land uses. Findings showed that this land use change affected soil properties significantly as in dryland clay, silt percent and mean weight diameter of soil aggregates were reduced and sand percent was increased. In abandoned drylands soil properties will improve gradually. Finally according to our results land use changes affected soil characteristics and this can be used in ecosystem management.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Biochemical alterations in Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. leaves infected with
           Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
    • Abstract: This study aimed to determine the alterations in major biochemical contents of Aloe vera infested by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Effects of fungal pathogen C. gloeosporioides on chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophyll, total soluble sugar, total phenols, total anthraquinones, total flavonoids, carotenoids and vitamin E were analyzed in artificially infested leaves of A. vera. While significant decrease in the contents of chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids and total soluble sugar was observed, an increased concentration of total phenolics, total anthraquinones, total flavonoid and vitamin E contents was recorded in infested leaves as compared to control. Being a medicinal plant, A. vera suffers a huge loss in its yield due to the attack of number of fungal pathogens. Moreover, changes in the concentration of its main biochemical groups were directly associated with the adverse effect of pathogens during the progression of infection on plant leaves. Therefore, control of the fungal diseases by applying appropriate management strategies is the important thrust to protect the plant of an enormous commercial value.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Fungal endophytes from medicinal plants: growth promotion in Oryza sativa
           L. and Cicer arietinum L.
    • Abstract: In the present investigation, four endophytic fungi were isolated from two medicinal plants from two medicinal plants and identified using molecular technique and tested the efficacy of four isolates on the growth of Cicer arietinum and two varieties of rice (Sarath and Gomati). The molecular characterization using amplification of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of fungal ribosomal DNA (rDNA) reveals four fungi namely Diaporthe phaseolorum, Penicillium oxalicum, Fusarium sp. and Syncephalastrum monosporum. The efficacy of isolates on the growth of plants indicated that there was significant increase in shoot length, root length and shoot dry weight with inoculation of D. phaseolorum, P. oxalicum and Fusarium sp. on Sarath variety of rice. Significant increase in shoot length and root dry weight was observed in Gomati rice variety with the inoculation of D. phaseolorum, P. oxalicum and Fusarium sp. Again there was significant increase in root length, shoot dry weight and root dry weight with inoculation of D. phaseolorum, P. oxalicum and Fusarium sp. on the growth of C. arietinum. However, no significant difference was observed between S. monosporum and uninoculated treatment on the growth of rice variety Gomati and C. arietinum. The results indicated that out of four, P. oxalicum, Fusarium sp. and D. phaseolorum were better plant growth promoting endophytic fungi.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Altitudinal variation in gallic acid content in fruits of Phyllanthus
           emblica L. and its correlation with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity
    • Abstract: Gallic acid is one of the most important organic compounds in fruits of Phyllanthus emblica. Therefore, the objective of the present study is to find out the effect of altitude on gallic acid content in fruits of P. emblica and its correlation with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Phytochemicals such as phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosteroids, alkaloids and saponins were detected in fruit extracts of P. emblica collected from different regions of Himachal Pradesh. Fruits extract from Mandi (239.74 ± 39.28 mg/g gallic acid equivalents, GAE) district showed a higher amount of total phenolic content (TPC), whereas, total flavonoid content (TFC) was higher from Kangra (356 ± 27.63 mg/g rutin equivalents, RE) district. Methanolic extracts showed inhibition to the growth of both Gram-positive (B. subtilis, S. aureus), and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, K. pneumoniae). The methanolic extract of fruits of Bilaspur district showed the highest antibacterial activity against B. subtilis (19.5 ± 0.71 mm), S. aureus (21.0 ± 1.41 mm), E. coli (17.5 ± 0.71) and K. pneumoniae (21.5 ± 2.12) as compared to other regions and amoxyclav. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was used for the quantification of gallic acid in the extracts of fruits of P. emblica. HPTLC chromatogram showed the highest content of gallic acid in methanolic extracts of fruits from Kangra followed by Bilaspur, Mandi, and Una. However, antioxidant and antibacterial activity was higher in fruits extracts of high altitude (Bilaspur region). In summary, Bilaspur region of Himachal Pradesh could be used for mass cultivation of fruits of P. emblica because of their high antioxidant and antimicrobial potential under these geographical conditions.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Enzymatic treatment improves ACE-I inhibiton and antiproliferative
           potential of chickpea
    • Abstract: Chickpea seeds are the preferred source of proteins possessing health care functions in countries across the world. Study indicated the chickpea proteins as a promising center of bioactive peptides and open up new vista for food industry. Employing gastrointestinal enzyme alcalase, protein hydrolysates generated from 45 chickpea seed accessions were evaluated for angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE-I) inhibitory potential and antiproliferative influence. Alcalase at  1 h of optimum hydrolysis produced bioactive peptides inhibiting the ACE-I activity. The accession BDN-9-3 gave highest ACE-I inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 22.43 mg/ml. The protein hydrolysate of BDN-9-3 was further subjected to antiproliferative assessment against breast cancer cells MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. The IC50 of BDN-9-3 alcalase hydrolysate was 0.60 mg/ml and 0.63 mg/ml in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells respectively, compared to non hydrolyzed chickpea protein (IC50 of 0.85 and 0.82 mg/ml). Present study ascertain that chickpea seed hydrolysate can be perceived as a valuable nutraceutical resource.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Nutrient cycling and metabolic activity of soil microbes in pristine
           forests in comparison to a monoculture
    • Abstract: Soil health in terms of nutrient cycling, metabolic activities and microbial diversity is measured and compared among four different forests in Gangajalghati forest area of Bankura district, West Bengal, India. Three of these forests are of pristine nature and one is Eucalyptus monoculture. The microbial diversity in terms of species richness is considerably higher in pristine forests as compared to the Eucalyptus monoculture. The P values determined using statistical tools like Wilcoxon rank sum test and Kolmogrov Smirnov test reveal significant difference in carbon and nitrogen contents and also in acid phosphatase activity between the pristine forests and the man-made monoculture forest. The elemental analysis through EDX also suggests a better nutrient cycling owing to greater microbial activity in the pristine forests than its monoculture counterpart. It also revealed a higher concentration of some heavy metals viz., Cd, Pb and Cr in the monoculture type forest. However, phosphorus content, basal respiration and dehydrogenase (DHA) activities remains to be the same in these characteristically two types of forests. Most of the parameters indicate a poor nutrient shuffling and microbial diversity in the man-made monoculture of Eucalyptus and a reforestation practice of this kind is not encouraging.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Changes in vegetation cover and soil intrinsic properties influence the
           soil bacterial community composition and diversity across different
           climatic regions of India
    • Abstract: Soil microbial community in forest ecosystems plays a significant role in carbon and nutrient cycling. Very little is known about the effect of vegetation cover on soil bacterial community composition and diversity across different climatic regions of India. Soil was sampled from the plant cover dominated by seasonal herbs and grasses (PAS), Pinus roxburghii Sarg (PIN), Abies pindrow L. (FIR), Quercus incana Roxb (OKF), Mitragyna parvifolia Roxb (MIK); Acacia nilotica L. and Salvadora spp. (MIA) in three different climatic regions (humid, moist sub-humid and semi-arid) of India. The soil physical, chemical and biological properties such as sand (SAN), silt (SIL), clay (CLY), bulk density (SBD), wilting point (SWP), field capacity (SFC), saturated hydraulic conductivity (SHC), pH (SpH), organic carbon (SOC), nitrogen (SN), C:N ratio, available phosphorous (SAP) and total microbial activity (SMA) were determined. Illumina sequencing of specific 16S rRNA gene was applied to identify bacterial community composition in the soils under different vegetation cover. Results showed that the soil properties varied under different vegetation cover across the different climatic regions. SOC, SN, SMA were highest in the moist sub-humid region sites (PAS, PIN) followed by humid region (OKF, FIR) and semi-arid region (MIK, MIA) sites. However, the Chao 1 (species richness), Shannon and Simpson index (diversity) were highest in OKF, followed by MIK, FIR, MIA, PIN and PAS. The predominant bacterial phyla and genera in the soils under different vegetation cover were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Thermotogae and Geobacter, Methylocapsa, Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, Erysipelotrichaceae_incertae_sedis, Sporotomaculum, Amorphus, Helicobacter, Paenibacillus, Bauldia, Skermanella, Methylosinus, Singulisphaera, Marinobacter and Lamprocystis. We also found the exclusive OTUs abundance of some bacterial phyla and genera in the soils, which were not correlated with any one of the studied soil variables. In our analysis, we found only the Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia and Bacteroidetes are linearly correlated (P < 0.05) with CLY, SWP and SpH. Likewise, bacterial genera Methylocapsa, Methylosinus and Amorphus were linearly correlated (P < 0.05) with SIL, SpH, C:N ratio and SAP. Our results suggested that the type of vegetation cover has a significant impact on changes in soil properties, controlling the soil bacterial community composition and diversity across different climatic regions of India. The soil bacterial community composition and diversity may serve as a potential ecological indicator with respect to land use and land cover change on biogeochemical cycling processes across different climatic regions of India.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Assessment of genetic fidelity, biochemical and physiological
           characteristics of in vitro grown date palm cv. Al-Fayda
    • Abstract: The effects of various culture conditions on adventitious bud multiplication and plantlet regeneration in date palm cv. Al-Fayda were investigated. Adventitious buds were cultured on semi-solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with three different plant growth regulator (PGR) combinations. The effects of various strengths and textures of the multiplication medium were evaluated and the adventitious buds were cultured on media supplemented with various types and concentrations of carbon sources. It was found that semi-solid 1/2MS medium supplemented with 2.4 µM NOA, 2.3 µM KIN and 40 g l−1 sucrose is the most effective for shoot bud multiplication with 30 shoot buds per explant. On the other hand, liquid media resulted in very high levels of hyperhydricity (up to 100%). Peroxidase activity ranged from 372 to 709 U g−1 FW and was higher in buds cultured on liquid media, while the total protein concentration ranged from 16.3 to 46.7 mg g−1 FW. Shoot elongation and rooting were successfully achieved on semi-solid 1/2MS medium supplemented with 2.4 µM NOA, 2.3 µM KIN and 40 g l−1 sucrose. Regarding the physiological characteristics of developed shoots, the chlorophyll content ranged from 6.50 to 14.40 CCI, the chlorophyll fluorescence from 0.682 to 0.750, the foliar surface from 6.85 to 9.88 cm2 and the stomatal conductance from 8.97 to 12.51 mmol m−2 s−1. The rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized in the glasshouse with a survival rate of 70%. The genetic conformity of regenerants was assessed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers, and a high similarity with the mother plant was observed.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Improved plant regeneration method of Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb. from
           immature seeds
    • Abstract: An efficient in vitro propagation method is developed for Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb. through direct shoot regeneration from cotyledonary node region of seedlings developed from immature seeds. The immature seeds were germinated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium having different concentrations of either 6-benzyl aminopurine (BA) or kinetin or Thidiazuron and subsequently, the cotyledonary node with primary shoot was transferred to MS medium without any growth regulator for shoot multiplication. Maximum (7.23 ± 0.46) shoots regenerated when immature seeds were cultured for 21 days on MS medium having 4.44 µM BA for germination. For rooting, shoots were pulse treated for 48 h with different concentrations of Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) followed by transfer on agar gelled MS basal medium. About 94.45% shoots rooted on pulse treatment with 5.0 µM IBA. Plantlets obtained after rooting were hardened and acclimatized into soil with 85–90% survival. The plantlets established into soil had similar vegetative morphology to the mother plant.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Biplot analysis of diallel crosses for yield and some of morphological
           traits in wheat
    • Abstract: A study of combining ability for improving bread wheat yield and yield components was carried out via genotype plus genotype × environment (GGE) biplot. Six bread wheat genotypes were used to obtain F1 in a diallel cross matings at the Gachsaran Field Station, Dryland Agricultural Research Institute during 2012–2013 cropping seasons. Analysis of variance indicated significant effects of genotypes, general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) for all of the studied traits. The highest values of plant height (108.15 cm), peduncle length (33.95 cm) and grain yield (265.5 g m−1) were obtained in g6 (DAMARA-6 ICW99-0427-8AP-0AP-0AP-3AP-0AP). GGE biplot analysis showed that g4 (Kouhdasht) and g6 (DAMARA-6 ICW99-0427-8AP-0AP-0AP-3AP-0AP) were as the best general combiners for days to maturity, plant height and grain yield, whereas g1 (Karim) had the highest GCA effects for spike length and thousand grain weight, and g3 (Aflak) showed the highest GCA effects in terms of peduncle length. Meanwhile, g6 showed large SCA effects for thousand grain weight and grain yield, while g4 had high SCA effects for spike length. g5 (PASTOR/2*SITTA//PBW343*2/KUKUNACMSS04Y00333S-099Y-099ZTM-099Y-099 M-3WGY-0B) had large SCA effects for peduncle length. Because of significant effects of mid-parent heterosis for grain yield, g4 × g6 was considered as the best possible cross for improvement of this trait. Based on the results of present study, GGE biplot indicated good potential for identifying suitable parents and heterotic crosses and the best hybrids according to diallel mating design.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
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