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International Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1606-7754 - ISSN (Online) 2073-5944
Published by Karger Homepage  [120 journals]
  • Analysis of Cardiovascular Fitness, Sleep Quality, Depression, Fatigue,
           and Quality of Life among Individuals with Respect to the Glycated
           Hemoglobin Level in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: Background: Diabetes as a metabolic disorder can affect the various systems of the body, resulting in a decrease in cardiovascular fitness, sleep quality, and life quality that can lead to depression and fatigue. Aim: We analyzed cardiovascular fitness, sleep quality, depression, fatigue, and quality of life among individuals with a glycated hemoglobin (HBA1C) level #x3e;6.5% and ≤6.5%, as well as the relationship among glycated hemoglobin, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), obesity, sleep quality, depression, and duration of diabetes. Method: HBA1C (mean: 5.90 ± 0.93%) was studied in a total of 70 subjects (mean age: 62.37 ± 7.5 years). The 2 study groups were as follows: group A, HBA1C #x3e;6.5%, and group B, HBA1C ≤6.5%. BMI, VO2max, quality of sleep and life, depression, and fatigue were assessed in both groups. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the groups at a significance level of p #x3c; 0.001. Group A had a lower cardiovascular fitness, a poor sleep quality, and increased depression compared to group B. A statistically significant negative linear correlation was found between VO2max and glycated hemoglobin, and a significant positive linear correlation was found between glycated hemoglobin and duration of diabetes, poor quality of sleep, and depression for all subjects, which was insignificant in the groups. Conclusions: A long duration of diabetes and an increased glycemic status may influence cardiovascular fitness, sleep quality, and life quality, leading to depression and fatigue.
      Int J Diabetes Metab
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Oct 2019 11:55:27 +020
  • Pharmacist’s Intervention on Pill Burden Effects on the Health-Related
           Quality of Life of Elderly Diabetic Patients in a Tertiary Hospital in
           Southwestern Nigeria

    • Abstract: Background: Diabetes and its associated complications take a toll on the elderly. It is known that medication burden could reduce patients’ adherence, which in turn impacts negatively on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of those suffering from chronic diseases. Studies have been conducted on HRQOL and its associated factors among diabetic patients but none has studied pill burden effects on HRQOL. This research evaluated pharmacist’s intervention on pill burden effects on the HRQOL of elderly diabetic patients. Methods: This 8-month randomized controlled study involved 170 elderly type 2 diabetic patients. Socio-demographics, the impact of the number and dosage frequency of drugs on adherence, and the influence of the pill burden on HRQOL scores were evaluated at baseline and at 4 and 8 months. Patients in the intervention group were educated about diabetes and its management and counselled on treatment adherence. Brisk walking was specially demonstrated to them at least 4 times during the study period. The control group received only the usual call reminders for appointment days. Results: At baseline, 58.8 and 64.7%, respectively, in the control and intervention groups responded “yes” (indicating a negative effect on their adherence) to #x3e;5 pills per prescription, while the figures were 55.3 and 15.3%, respectively, at 8 months (p = 0.711 and p = 0.000, respectively). Patients on 1–5 pills per prescription in the control group had the following physical functioning scores: baseline (44.2 ± 14.2) versus 4 months (47.2 ± 19.1) and 8 months (47.7 ± 16.1); p = 0.277 and p = 0.160. The physical functioning scores in the intervention group were: baseline (41.7 ± 16.1) versus 4 months (67.6 ± 23.1) and 8 months (92.5 ± 3.5); p ≤ 0.001. The same pattern of results was found for those on #x3e;5 pills per prescription. Conclusion: This study demonstrates pharmacists’ ability to improve the HRQOL of patients through continuous counselling, supply of relevant information, and monitoring of drug, exercise, and diet adherence. Intervention such as this could be beneficial to diabetic patients and others with chronic diseases.
      Int J Diabetes Metab
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Sep 2019 10:17:03 +020
  • Factors Associated with Insulin Nonadherence in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
           Patients in Mexico

    • Abstract: Background: Lack of adherence to insulin therapy is common among patients with type 1 diabetes. Factors associated with insulin omission in adult persons with type 1 diabetes in Latin America have not been studied in detail. Objectives: To investigate factors associated with insulin nonadherence including the presence of psychological disorders (disordered eating behaviors and depression) in adult patients with type 1 diabetes. Methods: Cross-sectional study including 104 consecutive adults (≥18 years old) attending a tertiary care center in Mexico City. Adherence to insulin therapy was measured with a specific item in a questionnaire. Sociodemographic data and factors related to insulin omission, including validated questionnaires to evaluate disordered eating behavior and depression, were collected and compared between the nonadherent and adherent groups with parametric or nonparametric statistical tests, as appropriate. Results: We classified 51 (49.1%) patients as nonadherent and 53 (50.9%) as adherent. Adherent subjects reported that they planned their activities around insulin application more often than the nonadherent subjects did (43.4 vs. 23.5%, p = 0.032). In a logistic regression model, fear of hypoglycemia (OR = 11.39) and economic reasons (OR = 6.02) were independently associated with insulin adherence. Presence of disordered eating behavior was identified in 14.4% of subjects, the majority belonging to the nonadherent group. Conclusions: Only 50% of the patients with type 1 diabetes were adherent. The principal factors associated with nonadherence were economic reasons and fear of hypoglycemia.
      Int J Diabetes Metab
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Sep 2019 09:58:51 +020
  • The Impact of Adiponectin Gene Polymorphisms on the Insulin Resistance
           Index in Patients with Diabetes and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes

    • Abstract: Background: Some adipokine hormones can affect both human and animal models of insulin resistance. Aims: This study was conducted to assess the association between rs17300539 and rs266729 of the adiponectin gene and insulin resistance and anthropometric and metabolic characteristics in impaired fasting glucose (IFG)/type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nondiabetic participants. Methods: DNA was extracted from 80 participants with fasting blood sugar (FBS) #x3c;100 mg/dL in nondiabetics and 80 participants with FBS ≥100 mg/dL in the IFG/T2DM group. Genotyping was performed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 20. Insulin and adiponectin hormone were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and other biochemical variables were determined using the standard methods. Results: The levels of homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) between the IFG/T2DM and the nondiabetic group were significantly different (IFG/T2DM = 3.27, nondiabetic = 1.71; p #x3c; 0.001). The frequency of the GA genotype of rs17300539 was higher in the insulin-resistant (HOMA-IR ≥2.6, 29.7%) than in the insulin-sensitive group (HOMA-IR #x3c;2.6, 18.4%) and the GG genotype were more frequent in the insulin-sensitive group (81.6%); however, it had a marginal association (p = 0.07). This association was not statistically significant for rs266729. HOMA-IR had a positive correlation with triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) and was negatively correlated with adiponectin level. Conclusion: IFG/T2DM patients have a higher level of HOMA-IR in comparison with nondiabetics. The genotype of GA in rs17300539 increases the risk of HOMA-IR. HOMA-IR has a positive correlation with TC and TG. Moreover, HOMA-IR increases the risk of T2DM.
      Int J Diabetes Metab
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Sep 2019 10:28:14 +020
  • An Appraisal of a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized
           Clinical Trials on the Efficacy and Safety of Sodium-Glucose
           Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors as an Adjunct to Insulin Therapy in Type 1
           Diabetes Patients

    • Abstract:
      Int J Diabetes Metab
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Aug 2019 10:57:22 +020
  • The Effect of Depression on Poor Glycemic Control in Adults with Type 2
           Diabetes: The Mediating Roles of Self-Efficacy and Self-Management

    • Abstract: Background: High levels of depression and poor self-efficacy and self-management are associated with worse glycemic control, but the linkage and pathway between these variables are poorly understood. We conducted this study to investigate the hypothesis that self-efficacy and self-management mediate the influence of depression on poor glycemic control. Methods: We studied a purposive sample of 142 adults with type 2 diabetes attending a public clinic in Ilam, Iran. Hierarchical linear regression analysis and structural equation modeling were used to explore the relationships among the variables of interest. Result: Depression directly and negatively affects self-efficacy and indirectly affects self-management behaviors, which in turn have direct effects on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Self-efficacy mediates the relationship between depression and self-management behaviors. Self-efficacy and self-management behaviors partially mediate the effect of depression on HbA1c. These results confirmed that the data fit the hypothesized model very well. Conclusion: Careful monitoring of glycemic control might be important in those individuals who exhibit clinical signs of depression. Effective treatment programs should probably pay close attention to not only screening and treatment of depression but also skills training to enhance patient self-efficacy and self-management of diabetes to improve HbA1c.
      Int J Diabetes Metab
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Aug 2019 13:52:41 +020
  • Preventing Diabetes Mellitus in Nigeria: Effect of Physical Exercise,
           Appropriate Diet, and Lifestyle Modification

    • Abstract: In this systematic review, we explored the effects of physical activity, diet, and lifestyle on the prevention of diabetes mellitus in Nigeria. Diabetes is an autoimmune disease which occurs when the body does not produce or respond properly to insulin, a hormone essential for daily life. Diabetes is an incurable disease, which has no racial, social, or sex barrier. The risk factors include a poor diet, lack of physical activity, obesity, and an unhealthy lifestyle. About 100 million people in the United States have diabetes mellitus, and the total economic costs of diabetes exceed USD 132 billion a year. Diabetes accounts for 1 of every 10th USD spent on health care in the United States, and an estimated 48 million Americans may develop diabetes by 2050. However, it is estimated that in 90% of the patients with type 2 diabetes the disease could be prevented if people adopted a healthy lifestyle, including regular physical activity, a moderate-good diet, and modest weight. Because of the deleterious health consequences which include blindness; kidney damage; cardiovascular disease; and reduced life span, as well as high treatment costs, prevention of the disease in Nigeria, where you are confronted with a poor health care system, poverty, and ignorance, but also have ample opportunities for physical activity and rich local nutrients to supply an ideal diet, is a viable option. Consequent upon this, the paper recommends, among others, that available local resources be used for this purpose.
      Int J Diabetes Metab
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jul 2019 15:53:05 +020
  • Association between Lipid Profiles and Renal Functions among Adults with
           Type 2 Diabetes

    • Abstract: Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects renal functions and lipid profiles of patients. Objectives: In this study, 100 patients (65 females, 35 males) with T2DM were evaluated to determine whether renal function characteristics and lipid profiles are associated with T2DM. Methods: Blood samples were collected from all patients with T2DM, and the levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood urea, serum creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride (TGR), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) were analyzed. Results: A direct correlation of blood sugar and HbA1c was observed with blood urea, serum creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum TGR, HDL, LDL, and VLDL. The results revealed elevated TGR levels in patients administered medications for hyperglycemia. Furthermore, serum TGR levels were significantly correlated with blood sugar levels (p = 0.035). Blood urea levels were significantly correlated with glycated hemoglobin (p = 0.008). Blood urea, serum creatinine, and serum cholesterol levels were highly significantly correlated with HbA1c (p = 0.008, 0.017, and 0.005, respectively), while HDL, LDL, and VLDL were not significantly correlated with HbA1c. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of serum TGR and serum creatinine measurement for guiding the treatment of T2DM.
      Int J Diabetes Metab
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Jul 2019 12:55:40 +020
  • Hypoglycemic Agents and Changes in Oxidative Stress Indices, Electrolytes,
           and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes

    • Abstract: Background: Metabolic complications of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), including dyslipidemia, electrolyte imbalance, and oxidative stress, have been shown to be modulated by hypoglycemic agents. Objective: The lipid profile, electrolytes, and oxidative stress indices were evaluated in T2DM. Methods: Fifty T2DM patients on metformin (n = 23), insulin (n = 17), and insulin/metformin (n = 10) and 40 controls were studied. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total plasma peroxide (TPP), and total calcium (Ca) values were determined colorimetrically, sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) levels were determined by flame photometry, chloride (Cl–) and bicarbonate (HCO3–) levels were determined by titration, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), and the oxidative stress index (OSI) were determined by calculation. Data were analyzed using t test, analysis of variance, and Pearson’s correlation at p #x3c; 0.05. Results: T2DM patients had higher lipid peroxidation (TPP and OSI), atherogenic lipids (higher LDL-C and AIP and lower HDL-C), and lower antioxidants compared to controls (p #x3c; 0.05). T2DM patients with poor glycemic control had higher lipid peroxidation (higher TPP) and atherogenic lipids (TG and AIP) compared to those with good control (p #x3c; 0.05). Patients with T2DM for #x3e;5 years had higher protein glycosylation (higher HBA1c) and TC compared to those with T2DM for #x3c;5 years (p #x3c; 0.05). The class of hypoglycemic agent has no effect on the levels of all of the biochemical indices studied (p #x3e; 0.05). HDL-C correlated negatively with TG (r = –0.347, p = 0.013), LDL-C (r = –0.322, p = 0.018), and AIP (r = –0.714, p = 0.000) in T2DM. Conclusion: Chronic T2DM and poor glycemic control are associated with reduced antioxidants, lipid peroxidation, and atherogenic dyslipidemia. Different hypoglycemic agents exert no differential effects on the metabolic indices of T2DM studied.
      Int J Diabetes Metab
      PubDate: Tue, 28 May 2019 13:47:55 +020
  • Prediabetes Risk Assessment among Nurses Recruited in a Dubai Local
           Government Hospital: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background: Nurses constitute half of the health workforce; their health could be at risk for chronic diseases, such as prediabetes and diabetes, as well as other occupational hazards, such as nurses’ stress. Health promotion, possibly workplace based, presents opportunities to safeguard the health of nurses. Using a prediabetes risk assessment tool for screening the nurses is important to ensure that they remain physically and mentally fit to perform their work and to comply with various health and safety regulations. Objective: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of prediabetes and its risk among nurses in Dubai Hospital and to study risk factors associated with prediabetes status. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Dubai Hospital-Dubai Health Authority. A convenience sample was selected including 674 nurses estimated using OpenEpi software. Data was collected using a standardized diabetes risk assessment tool (The Finnish Diabetes Risk Score [FINDRISC]). Inclusion criteria were staff nurses working in Dubai Hospital in the age group from 25 to 64 years and nondiabetic staff in Dubai Hospital; an operational definition of prediabetes was used. The data were coded, and data entry and data analysis were made using SPSS 20 software version. The data were tested at a level of significance of 95%. Results: The study revealed that 42.7% of the participants had a low prediabetes risk, 38.4% had a slightly elevated prediabetes risk, 10.8% had a moderate prediabetes risk, 7.6% had a high prediabetes risk, and 0.5% had a very high prediabetes risk. Age, body mass index, waist circumference, history of antihypertensive drug treatment, history of high blood glucose, family history of diabetes, daily consumption of fruits, berries, or vegetables, and daily physical activity had a significant relationship with the prediabetes test (p #x3c; 0.01). Conclusions: Frequent testing is recommended to follow the risk score. Since we cannot control unmodifiable factors, such as age and family history, we can control modifiable factors, such as having a healthy lifestyle with healthy food and exercise to decrease the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Health promotion and education can decrease the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
      Int J Diabetes Metab 2019;25:39–44
      PubDate: Tue, 28 May 2019 12:49:51 +020
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Heriot-Watt University
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