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School Leadership Review
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1559-4998
Published by Texas Council of Professors of Educational Administration Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Full Issue Winter 2019 Volume 14 Issue 1

    • PubDate: Wed, 10 Apr 2019 16:39:47 PDT
  • An Examination of Adult Bullying in the K-12 Workplace: Implications for
           School Leaders

    • Authors: Cynthia J. Kleinheksel et al.
      Abstract: The issue of bullying in K-12 schools usually brings images of students to mind, but a recent quantitative study of a sample from K-12 school personnel in Michigan showed that 27.8% of adults in the K-12 workplace consider themselves the target of an adult bully. This study calls for school leadership to recognize and proactively address the issue of workplace bullying in K-12 schools through policy, procedures, training, prevention, enforcement, and positive resolution to provide a safe, non-threatening environment in which to work and learn.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Apr 2019 09:52:19 PDT
  • Influence of Parental Involvement on Students’ Success in Title I
           Charter School in Texas as Perceived by Middle School Principals

    • Authors: Salih Aykac et al.
      Abstract: Ten middle school principals of Title I charter schools were interviewed in this qualitative, phenomenological narrative study to explore the influence of parental involvement on students’ success in Title I charter schools in Texas as perceived by middle school principals. Each interview was analyzed before combining them to develop a complete picture of the phenomenon. Coding and pseudonyms were used for each participant to maintain anonymity and confidentiality of data and records in the study. The findings suggest that most of the principals considered parental involvement as a combination of different expectations set for both parents and school. Thus, school and the parents must work together and take joint responsibility for the students’ education in school. Other findings from this study suggest that charter school principals are experiencing less parental involvement as students move from elementary to middle school. Finally, the findings from this study affirm that all principals strongly believe that parental involvement has a strong influence on students’ success.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Apr 2019 09:52:06 PDT
  • An Examination of Student Disengagement and Reengagement from an
           Alternative High School

    • Authors: Marina Escamilla Flores et al.
      Abstract: Each year, 20% of U.S. students drop out of high school (Balfanz, Bridgeland, Bruce, & Fox, 2013). There is an abundance of research on student behaviors from researchers who explored the process of student disengagement from school (Bowers, Sprott, & Taff, 2013; Lessard, Butler-Kisber, Fortin, Marcotte, Potvin, & Royer, 2008), however there is a lack of understanding of why students disengage in the first place. This study was conducted to examine students’ perceptions of the effect of an alternative high school on their decision to either graduate or drop out.Face-to-face interviews were conducted with ten former students and three staff members from an alternative high school. Half of the former student participants who reengaged by attending the alternative high school graduated and half of them did not. The former students perceived that relationships between staff members and students led to the success of the alternative high school. They believed that push-out factors at the traditional high school caused their disengagement, and that they exercised autonomy in their choices of whether pull-out factors would impact their decision to graduate or drop out. The former students shared that personalized instruction and peer-to-peer learning encouraged them to feel ownership for their learning and taught them to respect fellow students and teachers. Data from the teacher and administrator interviews provided additional information about the workings of the alternative high school.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Apr 2019 09:51:54 PDT
  • An Explanation of the Supervisory Model used by Elementary Principal
           Supervisors in the State of Missouri

    • Authors: David J. Hvidston et al.
      Abstract: The goal for this paper was to discuss the efforts a school district has taken to utilize elementary principal supervisors to build and develop principals’ leadership capacities. The question considered was: (1) How are principals supervised and evaluated in one district' Attempting to answer this question is an important step in operationalizing guiding principles that can be shared with principal supervisors. The discussion included the importance of standards, the modeling of instructional supervision by principal supervisors, the reliance of guiding questions and potential data sources. Additional critical factors included coaching with two-way communication based on a trusting, reflective relationship. As the role of principals’ leadership is elevated to increase the performance of teachers and thus the academic performance of students, principal supervisors should be able to provide principals ownership in their supervision and evaluation, evaluate performance based on standards and indicators, deliver feedback, develop trusting relationships, all by making frequent visits to principals’ schools to further the application of principals’ instructional leadership.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Apr 2019 09:51:40 PDT
  • Community Context: Influence and Implications for School Leadership

    • Authors: Tamara Lipke et al.
      Abstract: Effective K-12 leaders remain a central concern for schools and communities of all types. The purpose of this research is to examine critically the literature on issues facing leaders in rural and urban settings and present a synthesis of cross-cutting themes. The authors reviewed the theoretical and empirical literature on K-12 leadership issues in rural settings and in urban settings published between 2013-2018 in ten journals. An examination of the similarities and differences facing leaders in these settings in the United States and a discussion of the implications for leadership preparation programs is provided. Future research directions to guide the study of K-12 leadership are also discussed.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Apr 2019 09:51:20 PDT
  • Organizational Citizenship and Teacher Evaluation: Using the T-TESS to
           Promote OCB and Improve Student Outcomes

    • Authors: Elisabeth M. Krimbill et al.
      Abstract: Within the reach of institutional climate, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) has received much attention in the business and psychological literature as a constructive mechanism designed to enhance group efficiency (Bateman & Organ, 1983; Organ, 1988; Podsakoff, Ahearn, & McKenzie, 1997). The essential definition indicates that organizational citizenship behavior refers to going beyond the requirements of one’s job with the understanding that taking such actions benefits the greater good (i.e., the company or school), with no expectation of reward or recognition for the action(s). Subsequent studies investigated OCB and its possible application in educational environs as a tool for improving school efficiency, climate, and student outcomes. The literature revealed that in schools where collectively high levels of faculty and administrator OCB existed, there have been improvements to school climate, school effectiveness, and student outcomes.In this paper, the researchers argue that the newly implemented teacher evaluation system used in the Texas public school system, the Texas Teacher Evaluation and Support System (T-TESS), may be leveraged as an effective planning and professional development tool to strategically and positively impact levels of OCB among the faculty, and by extension, to improve pedagogical practice, school climate, and increase student achievement.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Apr 2019 09:51:08 PDT
  • The Perceptions of Teacher Evaluation by Teachers and Campus
           Administrators in a Suburban Texas District

    • Authors: George P. Willey
      Abstract: The purpose of this research is to examine the perceptions of campus administrators and teachers of the new Texas Teacher Evaluation and Support System (T-TESS) in a suburban Texas school district. Historically, teacher evaluation systems have failed to reach the intended outcome of serving as a tool to improve teaching practices. When campus administrators and teachers perceive teacher evaluation as primarily a tool to document poor performers, the growth aspect of the evaluation process is not maximized. This research seeks to identify the perceptions of both campus administrators and teachers on the evaluation system. District leaders will be able to determine if the perceptions of one or both groups is aligned with the intended outcomes of the evaluation process.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Apr 2019 09:50:57 PDT
  • A Struggle to Bridge the Gap: Promoting African American Males in Teacher

    • Authors: Vance Vaughn
      Abstract: After serving 22 years in public education as a classroom teacher, assistant principal, principal, and superintendent, I am in awe over the small number of African American males as public school teachers. My classroom teacher experience was ephemeral as I was promoted to educational administration after five and one-half years. As the only African American male teacher in a high school with over 3,600 students, hundreds of whom were African American male, I was an anomaly in that environment. African American male role models were drastically needed and sought after mainly because campus data reported African American males ranked first in number of discipline referrals, number of suspensions, expulsions and academic failures. Few African American males are classroom teachers in this country. One can find those who are teaching in urban school districts (Lynn, 2002). Sports and entertainment fans inspect the performance of many of the “brothers” on the college and professional levels. But, in the context of classroom teaching, “brothers” are difficult to locate. Unfortunately, some African American men, although they are certified, are choosing not to teach in public schools.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Nov 2018 08:13:38 PST
  • Strengthening the Campus Leadership Team through Effective Principal and
           Counselor Relationships: Implications for Training

    • Authors: Jane H. MacDonald et al.
      Abstract: Campuses with successful leadership teams have a better opportunity to meet the ever-increasing and complex needs of the students they serve (Crowther, Kaagan, Ferguson, & Hann, 2002). These successful campuses are strengthened when they include strong principals and counseling teams with shared mutual trust and understanding that permeates the school climate (DeVoss & Andrews, 2006). A review of the literature revealed a paucity of studies examining the nature of successful principal-counselor relations and the impact of this relationship on student success, effective campus leadership teams, and an effective school climate that promotes learning. Meaningful dialogue and discussion of this critical professional relationship also were found lacking in the major counseling and educational leadership professional journals.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Nov 2018 08:13:31 PST
  • Caring Culture and Leadership Revealed: Narrative Non-Fiction Story Method
           and the Crystallization Process

    • Authors: Anita L. Johnston
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Nov 2018 08:13:24 PST
  • Ecological Systems, Complexity, and Student Achievement: Towards an
           Alternative Model of Accountability in Education

    • Authors: Eileen S. Johnson
      Abstract: Within the field of education, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of context in understanding various aspects of education (Phillips & Burbules, 2000), and systems approaches to understanding change have become increasingly common. Yet, the simple linear algorithm implicit in current policy such as the Adequate Yearly Progress provision of No Child Left Behind (U.S. Department of Education, 2002) fails to take into account the complex and dynamic nature of education and represents an inappropriate oversimplification of educational outcomes and their measurement. This article postulates that the ecological systems model of Urie Bronfenbrenner represents a useful theoretical framework for understanding the processes and interactions involved in student achievement, and that the dynamic, non-linear changes within these systems can be effectively understood by applying the mathematical models of complexity theory.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Nov 2018 12:46:26 PST
  • Expectations of Mentoring: Novice Teachers’ Voices

    • Authors: Rubén Garza et al.
      Abstract: Mentoring, as an avenue to support and retain new teachers, has received a renewed interest. As Trubowitz suggests, “School systems are finding that beginning teachers who have access to intensive mentoring are less likely to leave teaching” (2004, p. 59). While several factors may cause teachers to leave, alienation has been identified as one of the major forces. According to previous research, teachers experience “a combination of feelings of isolation, normlessness, powerlessness, and meaninglessness” (Benham & O’Brien, 2002, p. 20). Such feelings of isolation are compounded by the current accountability demands and the professional pressure teachers’ experience. Thus, it is imperative to consider alternative strategies aimed at providing the kind of support congruent with beginning teacher’s needs in order to be successful (Breaux & Wong, 2003, p. iii). A goal of such strategies should be the effective socialization of teachers, and providing on-going support for growth, through different approaches including mentoring (Darling-Hammond, 2003; Brennan, Thames, & Roberts, 1999). Although mentoring can be an effective means to enhance teacher efficacy and help beginning teachers (Breaux & Wong, 2003; Delgado, 1999; Yost, 2002), limited research focuses on teachers’ perspectives associated with their own expectations of mentoring, particularly in diverse school settings (Wang & Odell, 2002). Further, researchers suggest, “There has been limited evidence that points to the expectations of new teachers relative to mentoring” (Tillman, 2005, p. 616). Thus, it is essential that teachers’ voices be illuminated to better understand their needs so that school leaders may “consider the benefits of consulting with novice teachers about their expectations in the mentoring arrangement” (Tillman, 2005, p. 626). Much of the current literature on teacher mentoring is based on experiences of mentors (Ganser, 1996; Trubowitz, 2004), and mentoring internship program descriptions (Brennan, Thames, & Roberts, 1999) however, novice teachers’ voices tend to be absent from the discourse. While few studies have focused on teachers’ perceptions (Rowley, 1999; Olebe, Jackson, & Danielson, 1999), additional research is needed so that beginning teachers’ voices contribute to a better understanding of mentoring as a vehicle to reduce isolation, successfully socialize new teachers into the demands of the profession, provide culturally responsive support to novice teachers, and reduce teacher turnover. Such inquiry could also be useful to avoid the common pitfalls that might have a detrimental effect on teachers and students. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to present the results of a study conducted to examine teachers’ expectations of mentoring.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Nov 2018 12:46:16 PST
  • Preparation Issues in Educational Leadership

    • Authors: Wesley D. Hickey et al.
      Abstract: Educational leaders have chosen to belong to one of the most important and influential professions. Not only do educators have an important impact on others, but there is a need to have a practical understanding of instruction, curriculum, and psychology. Leaders in all disciplines often relate to previous educational relationships in discussions about important moments in their lives. These relationships matter, and they provide foundational experiences for each of us.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Nov 2018 08:01:00 PST
  • Writing with Discipline: A Call for Avoiding APA Style Guide Errors in
           Manuscript Preparation

    • Authors: Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie et al.
      Abstract: The education community in the United States—as in many countries—is extremely large and diverse. Indeed, as documented by Mosteller, Nave, and Miech (2004),The United States has more than 3.6 million teachers in elementary and secondary education, more than 100,000 principals, and about 15,000 school districts, each with its own set of district administrators, school board members, and concerned citizens. The parents and family members of the 60 million students in elementary and secondary education represent another constituency, as do the policymakers and legislators in the 50 states (along with the District of Columbia) and at the federal level. Postsecondary education represents another 1 million faculty members, along with an enrollment of 15 million undergraduates and 1.8 million graduate students. (p. 29)Indeed, with the number of individuals involved in the educational system, educational research has the potential to play a pivotal role in improving the quality of education—from Kindergarten through primary, through secondary, through tertiary education. Yet, for educational research to play such a role, its findings must be disseminated to individuals (e.g., educators, administrators, stakeholders, policymakers) and groups (e.g., teacher associations) who can most effectively use them (Mosteller et al., 2004; Onwuegbuzie, Leech, & Whitmore, 2008). Unfortunately, research findings do not disseminate themselves, regardless of how statistically, practically, clinically, or economically significant they are for the field of education. Rather, it is educational researchers in general and practitioner-researchers in particular who must convey these findings.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Nov 2018 07:37:36 PST
  • Building Capacity for Quality Leadership with English Language Learners

    • Authors: John Leonard et al.
      Abstract: Waxman, Téllez, and Walberg (2004) advocated that school leaders must assist staff developers in providing English language learner (ELLs)-related professional development that includes “demonstration of theories of language, sustained coaching, and evaluation programs measuring teacher implementation and impact” (p 2-3). These professional development goals are central to the leader’s purposeful expansion of teachers’ knowledge, skills, and dispositions concerning the unique needs of ELLs and communicating the importance of the effective curricular integration of well-planned and embedded strategies designed to meet the needs of the often marginalized ELL population. School leaders must be willing to provide a systematic program of professional development that concentrates on teachers’ attitudes toward change; an understanding of the campus’s vision for the success of all students and its focus on student learning; the nurturing of an environment of trust, collaboration, and the critical importance of the campus as a learning as a professional community.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Nov 2018 07:37:26 PST
  • The Changing Face of the Elementary School Principal

    • Authors: Julie P. Combs et al.
      Abstract: Principals in today’s schools have more experience, have more education, and are of a more advanced age than ever before (National Association of Elementary School Principals [NAESP], 2006). Women elementary principals in the nation have increased from 41% to 56%. Likewise, the age of principals at all levels has increased, as did the percentage of principals who had more than 20 years of experience before entering the position (NAESP, 2006). In addition, the number of elementary principals has increased by 7,000 over the past 10 years (NAESP, 2004, 2005); this number grew to 61,000 in 2003-2004 from 54,000 in 1993-1994. Of these 61,000 principals, approximately 14,000 served schools in rural areas, 17,000 served schools in urban areas, and 31,000 served schools in suburban areas. Thus, more than half of the elementary principals in this country currently serve schools that are classified as suburban. In addition, the number of principals of all levels increased during the same 10-year span from 104,600 to 115,000 and more than half of all principals in the United States work at elementary schools (NAESP, 2005). Therefore, an understanding of the largest group of principals and their characteristics is important for many reasons.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Nov 2018 07:37:16 PST
  • None of Us Are as Smart as All of Us: Site Based Decision Making

    • Authors: Peggy B. Gill et al.
      Abstract: The old Japanese Proverb states,” None of us are as smart as all of us.” In recent years, the educational system in the United States has been evolving from a largely centralized decision-making structure to a more decentralized one. This shift to school-based management requires fundamental changes to the organizational structure of the district as well as the roles within the organization. From administrators to parents, school based management demands a change in the "status quo" (Cotton, 1991). It involves shifting decision making from the central office administrators to that of local schools (Henkin, Cistone and Dee, 1999).
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Nov 2018 07:37:07 PST
  • A Scholar–Practitioner Stance: Practices of Social Justice and

    • Authors: Patrick M. Jenlink
      Abstract: Crossing the threshold into a new millennium has been hallmarked by a series of defining events, which have shaped, irrevocably, society and its educational system. These events include the standards and accountability movement, the federal mandate of No Child Left Behind of 2001, the fifty-year anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education and the realization of how far we are from obtaining its promise, and the demographic shifts in population density and racial makeup nationally and particularly in urban centers, to mention a select few of the more profound historical events. Issues of diversity, both inter and intragroup, further illuminate the complex and problematic nature of education, reflecting a deeply embedded, historical concern for equity and equality. Increasingly, the attention drawn to standards and accountability in the American educational system illuminates the problems inherent in a system animated by technical standards and focused on codification of knowledge; a system that works to standardize teaching and learning, discrediting difference in the process. The implications for education, of these defining events and social issues, draws attention to the very meaning of democracy, freedom, and social justice.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Nov 2018 07:36:57 PST
  • Teacher Perceptions of the Instructional Leadership Practices of

    • Authors: Don Leech et al.
      Abstract: In today’s world school leadership, particularly instructional leadership, has taken on a new look. The era of high- stakes accountability has changed almost everything. The instructional leader of the 80’s was presented as an efficient top-down, task oriented manager who was focused on curriculum and instruction rather than buildings and budgets (Lashway, 2002). Gone are the days when principals spent most of their time with bus schedules, fire drills, and general curriculum, says the National Association of Elementary Principals (Henry, 2001). Leaders must keep abreast of state and federal goals, the latest technologies and teaching practices, as well as learn to use data to identify learning gaps among all students.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Nov 2018 15:10:20 PST
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