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Plant Varieties Studying and Protection
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ISSN (Online) 2518-1017
Published by Ukrainian Institute for Plant Variety Examination Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Characteristics of different varieties of the pea (Pisum sativum L.) in
           the zone of the Southern Forest-Steppe of Ukraine

    • Authors: С. М. Холод
      Pages: 109 - 117
      Abstract: Purpose. Evaluate the introduced samples of the pea (Pisum sativum L.) of various ecological and geographical origins in the conditions of the southern part of the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine according to a set of productivity and adaptability indicators. Methods. During 2016–2018 under the conditions of the Ustymivka Experimental Station of Plant Production of Plant Production Institute nd. a. V. Ya. Yuriev, NAAS of Ukraine 30 new pea samples from Belarus, Russia, Canada, the Czech Republic, Germany, the Netherlands and France were investigated. In field and laboratory conditions yields, productivity, 1000 beans weight, early-ripening, plant height and height of attachment of the lower pods above the soil level, number of nodes to the first pod and their total number per plant, number of pods and seeds per plant, number of seeds per pod, pod parameters were studied. Results. The study of the introduced material made it possible to distinguish the varieties of the pea by the complex of valuable features. In particular, varieties ‘Zhniven’skiy’, ‘Igumenskaya uluchshennaya’, ‘Armeec’, ‘Tesey’, ‘Zaranka’ (Belarus), ‘Boldor’ are characterized by high yields, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, length of a pod and productivity of a plant. Varieties ‘Chervenskiy’ (Belarus), ‘Patrick’, ‘Pluto’ (Canada), ‘Salamanca’ (Germany) have a big pod length and large number of seeds in a pod. ‘Boldor’ (France), ‘Armeets’ (Belarus) and ‘Kadet’ (Russia) combine a large number of pods per plant and plant productivity. ‘Slovan’ (Czech Republic) and ‘Ul’yanovets’ (Russia) have a big length of pod. Conclusions. The introduced varieties of the pea, identified by a set of valuable traits, can be recommended as starting material in breeding for increa­sing productive and adaptive potential in the conditions of the Southern Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine.
      PubDate: 2019-07-15
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Inheritance of a sign of apricot color of ray flowers of sunflower
           (Helianthus annuus L.)

    • Authors: К. В. Ведмедєва
      Pages: 118 - 123
      Abstract: Purpose. To reveal the nature of the inheritance of apricot color of the ray flowers of the sunflower and the type of interaction of genes causing different colors. Methods. Field experiment, genetic analysis. The statistical validity of the results was evaluated using Pearson’s criterion. Results. We conducted crosses of the ‘KG13’ line as the source of the sign of apricot color with sunflower lines that had yellow, orange and lemon colors of the ray flowers. In the first generation, from crossing the ‘KG13’ line with five lines, which had a yellow color, only a yellow color of ray flowers was observed. In the second generation, a 3 : 1 split was observed: three-quarters with yellow flowers and one with apricot flowers. Line ‘KG13’ was crossed with three lines (‘HA298’, ‘SL2966’, ‘LD72/3’), which had an orange color of flowers. In the first generation, orange flowers were observed; in the second gene­ration, splitting was recorded: three-quarters of offsprings with orange-colored flowers and one-quarter with apricot flowers. The line ‘KG13’ was crossed with ‘KG107’ and ‘ZL678’, which had lemon-colored flowers. The resulting plants of the first generation had a yellow coloration of ray flowers. In the second generation, five classes of plants by coloration of ray flowers were obtained: yellow, orange, apricot, lemon, lemon-apricot in the ratio 6 : 4 : 3 : 2 : 1. According to these data, the genes of lemon and apricot color have a complementary effect, the homozygous state of orange allele is epistatic to the recessive homozygote of the lemon-colored gene. The ‘KG108’ line with a combination of genes responsible for apricot and light yellow color has its own light apricot color and in crossings with a yellow colored line in the second generation gives splitting in the ratio 9 : 3 : 3 : 1. Conclusions. It was revealed that the apricot color of the ray flowers of the sunflower line ‘KG13’ is due to the homozygous state of the allele of the same gene whose second allele causes an orange color in the lines ‘NA298’, ‘SL2966’ and ‘LD72/3’. The complementary action of alleles responsible for apricot and lemon, as well as apricot and light yellow coloration of ray flowers was determined. A case of epistasis of homozygotes along the allele controlling the orange color over the recessive homozygote of the gene, which is controlled by the lemon color in the crossing combination ‘ZL678’ / ‘KG13’, was revealed.
      PubDate: 2019-07-15
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Callus formation, organogenesis and microclonal reproduction in different
           species of the genus Linum L. in vitro

    • Authors: С. В. Міщенко, Л. М. Кривошеєва
      Pages: 124 - 134
      Abstract: Purpose. To reveal the frequency and intensity of callus formation and organogenesis, the effectiveness of microclonal reproduction of various species of the genus Linum L. (Linaceae) in vitro. Methods. For in vitro induction of callus formation and organogenesis, hypocotyl segments of species Linum usitatissimum L. convar. elongatum and convar. usitatissimum, L. tenue Desf., L. bienne Mill., L. corymbulosum Pchb., L. nervosum Waldst. & Kit., L. flavum L., L. campanulatum L., L. perenne L., L. austriacum L., L. grandiflorum Desf., L. strictum L. were cultivated on Murashige and Skoog medium supplementedwith 0.05 mg/l 1-naphthylacetic acid and 1.0 mg/l 6-benzyl aminopurine at 22–24 °C, relative humidity of 60–80%,with 16 hours photoperiod (2500 flux). For microclonal reproduction Murashige and Skoog, White, Gamborg and Eveleigh media and their modifications were used. The measurement results were interpreted by the arithmetic mean, standard error for the sample mean, the leastsignificantdifference and ranked. Results. Different species of the genus Linum to a large extend are capable of forming callus and regenerating shoots under the specified cultivation conditions. The frequency of callus formation for the studied samples on the 35th day of cultivation varied within 81.25–100%, the mass of callus from one explant – 0.21–1.64 g, the frequency of organogenesis – 12.50–100%, the number of shoots – 1.8–7.6 pcs. and the height of the shoots was 0.82–2.12 cm. The following species: L. usitatissimum convar. elongatum, L. tenue, L. bienne and L. strictum were distinguished by a high intensity of callus formation. Intensive organogenesis was pecular to L. tenue, L. bienne, L. flavum, L. austriacum and L. grandiflorum. The efficiency of somaclone obtaining was quite low in L. nervosum and L. campanulatum. In total, for the microclonal reproduction of species of the genus Linum Murashige and Skoog, Gamborg and Eveleighmedia supplementedwith 12.5 g/l glucose were optimal. At the final stages of microclonal propagation, before transferring microclones in vivo,...
      PubDate: 2019-07-15
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Yield and quality of soft winter wheat grain under diffe­rent types of
           crops treating with fungicides

    • Authors: О. А. Заїма, О. Л. Дергачов
      Pages: 135 - 142
      Abstract: Purpose. Determine the best options for effective fungicidal protection of soft winter wheat varieties against disea­ses that will ensure a high yield and grain quality. Methods. Four winter wheat varieties with different disease resistance were sown in the field: ‘Berehynia myronivska’, ‘Hospodynia myronivska’, ‘Horlytsia myronivska’ and ‘Podolianka’ (originator – The V. M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat NAAS of Ukraine). In the shooting phase, the crops were treated with fungicides Acanto Plus 28, Talius 20, Falcon 460 EC, and in the heading phase – Amistar Trio 255 EC, Tilt Turbo 575 EC, Vareon 520. Results. During the period of milky stage, the technical effectiveness of the use of fungicides against powdery mildew was at the level of 72–100%, septoria leaf spot – 58–76, brown rust – 100%. The most effective option for fungicidal protection is the application of Acanto Plus 28 in the shooting phase + Amistar Trio 255 EC in the heading phase. Under such conditions, ‘Podolianka’ variety formed the maximum grain yield – 5.56 t/ha, the preserved yield was 0.75 t/ha. Greater yield increase (0.82–0.86 t/ha) was provided by ‘Horlytsia myronivska’ variety. The use of Acanto Plus 28 and Amistar Trio 255 EC fungicides also contributed to the formation of the best grain quality of the studied winter wheat varieties. Conclusions. The varieties ‘Berehynia myronivska’ and ‘Podolianka’ formed the highest grain yield during the processing of crops with the fungicide Acanto Plus 28 in the shooting phase and Amistar Trio 255 EC in the heading phase, ‘Hospodynia myronivska’ – Falcon 460 EC + Vareon 520, variety ‘Horlytsia myronivska’ Talius 20 + Tilt Turbo 575 EC, respectively. The variety ‘Berehynia myronivska’ provides the best indicators of grain quality when using the fungicide Falcon 460 EC in the shooting phase and Vareon 520 in the heading phase, other varieties – Acanto Plus 28 + Amistar Trio 255 EC, respectively.
      PubDate: 2019-07-15
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Biometric indices of soybean varieties depending on the application of
           fertilizer, growth regulators and moisture-retaining agent

    • Authors: С. В. Григоренко
      Pages: 143 - 154
      Abstract: Purpose. To reveal the peculiarities of growth and deve­lopment of soybean varieties depending on the application of organic fertilizers, plant growth regulators and moisture-retaining agent in the conditions of the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine and determine their biometric indices. Methods. Soybean varie­ties ‘Ustia’, ‘Kano’ and ‘Hieba’ were included in the study. A month before soybean sowing, moisture-retaining agent (hydrogel Aquasorb) was introduced in the zone of the future row as 10-cm strips at a dose of 300 kg/ha. Organic fertilizer Parostok (grade 20) was applied twice: at the 3–5 leaf stage and at the 9–11 leaf stage. Growth regulators Vermystym D and Agrostymulin were introduced at the budding stage. Results. The positive effect of the use of growth regulators on the overall increase in the height of soybean plants was revealed. In particular, when using Vermystym D in ‘Ustia’ variety, their height increased by 0.7–3.0 cm, Agrostymulin – by 0.2–3.7 cm. At the same time, the use of growth regulators contributed to some increase in the number of flowers per plant: the variety ‘Ustia’ – by 0.1–1.0 pcs.,‘Kano’ – by 0.0–1.0 pcs., ‘Hieba’ – 0.0–0.8 pcs. When using growth regulator Vermystym D, the number of beans on plants of ‘Ustia’ variety grew by 0.4–1.0 pcs., with the introduction of Agrostymulin – by 0.3–2.2 pcs., in ‘Kano’ – by 0,0–1.1 and 0.3–1.4 pcs., for the variety ‘Hieba’ – by 0.3–1.1 and 0.6–1.9 pcs. respectively. In combination with other factors, the use of growth regulators was effective. Conclusions. On average, over the years of research, the maximum number of grains in ‘Ustia’ variety was formed under the condition of plant nutrition with Parostok fertilizer and the use of growth regulators Vermystym D (36.2 pcs.) and Agrostymulin (35,5 pcs.). The application of Parostok fertilizer contributed to an increase in the height of attachment of the lower bean in ‘Ustia’ variety by 0.6–2.4 cm, in ‘Kano’ and ‘Hieba’ – by 1.0–2.4 and 0.4–1.7 cm respectively. In the case of growth regulators use, no significant changes in this indicator were recorded. The maximum mass parameters of 1000 seeds for the varieties ‘Ustia’ and ‘Kano’ were obtained in the combined use of hydrogel Aquasorb, organic fertilizer Parostok and Agrostymulin growth regulator – 160.3 and 166.8 g, respectively, for ‘Hieba’ variety with using the growth regulator Vermystym D – 193.7 g.
      PubDate: 2019-07-15
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Comparative cha­racteristics of growth and development scales of the
           pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    • Authors: С. М. Каленська, О. І. Присяжнюк, Л. В. Король, О. Ю. Половинчук
      Pages: 155 - 162
      Abstract: Purpose. Compare growth and plant development scales: the unified extended BBCH scale and Kuperman scale for peas. Results. Pea cultivation technologies are based on the accurate application of agrotechnical operations for crop care: protection from weeds, pests, diseases, and foliar nutrition. Actually, in Ukraine the adaptation of elements of cultivation technology is based on Kuperman scale, which makes it difficult to harmonize with international experience in the field of pea cultivation. Comparison of the unified extended BBCH scale and Kuperman scale for pea planting does not exist, which forces researchers or agronomists to use one of these scales in their work, in fact, ignoring the developments of the cultivation techno­logy based on another scale. Based on the generalization of the well-known pea growth and development scales – ВВСН and Kuperman – comparative tables and correspondences between the physical and biological time of plant development were worked out. The obtained information is important when developing efficient pea production maps, since the correct application of theoretical knowledge in practice enables the appropriate agrotechnical methods to be applied in a timely and effective manner. In scales, standar­dized numerical designations are used for a phase or stage of growth and development that have the same meaning, regardless of year, region, or pea variety. Digital signs have advantages over descriptive when information is entered into a computer. Conclusions. In the domestic practice it is customary to use a scale developed by F. M. Kuperman, while the unified expanded scale of ВВСН is widespread not only in Europe but also throughout the world. However, the definition of organogenesis stages is too complicated in practice and, besides the corresponding skills, requires the use of scientific equipment. But the unified extended ВВСН scale, despite some complexity from the producer’s point of view, is best suited for the creation of pea cultivation digital technology. The data of the comparison of growth and development scales: the unified expanded BBCH scale and Kuperman scale allow using recommendations on pea cultivation technology in agronomic practice, regardless of the scale they were worked out.
      PubDate: 2019-07-15
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Biomorphological characteristic of breeding samples of representatives of
           the genus Miscanthus, obtained in vitro

    • Authors: С. О. Лашук
      Pages: 163 - 170
      Abstract: Purpose. Estimate phenological and morphological characteristics of Miscanthus giganteus J. M. Greef & Deuter ex Hodkinson & Renvoize, M. sacchariflorus (Maxim) Benth. and M. sinensis Anderss., obtained in vitro, and M. giganteus, propagated by rhizomimes (ex vitro) to attract them to the breeding process and create new forms of miscanthus for use in bioenergy. Methods. Seeds of M. sinensis, as well as M. sacchariflorus (2n), M. sacchariflorus (4n), introduced into culture and propagated in vitro according to commonly used methods (M. D. Melnychuk, A. Plazek et al.) were used in the studies. Phenological observations were carried out according to the methods of V. V. Zinchenko, M. V. Roik, D. B. Rakh­metov, and others. Statistical processing of the obtained data was carried out according to M. A. Shelamov and ot­hers. Results. M. sacchariflorus (2n) in the conditions of the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine does not enter into the flowering phase, whereas in M. sacchariflorus (4n) the flowering phase begins a month earlier than M. sinensis, which is an obstacle for transpollination of these species in the natural environment. M. giganteus, reproduced by rhizomes, in overwhelming majority of indicators (stem height and diameter, number of interstices and leaves, leaf area, length and width of cluster) dominate all species of mescanthus obtained in vitro. But the number of stems in the bush of M. sinensis is the highest (63 pcs.) and is almost 2–4 times higher than those of M. giganteus, obtained from risomes and in vitro. It has been revealed that the most promising forms for bioenergy use are M. sinensis, whose productivity is about 7 kg/m2 of green mass and M. giganteus, propagated by rhizomimes (ex vitro), where the mass of the aerial part is almost 9 kg/m2. But M. sacchariflorus (2n) and M. sacchariflorus (4n) should not be considered as promising species for use in bioenergy purposes, because their performance is very low compared to other species and is only 0.25 and 2.05 kg above ground mass from 1 m2. Conclusions. On the basis of the obtained data, the most promising forms of Miscanthus were established to attract them into the breeding process and to obtain new varieties with high biomass productivity for the needs of bioenergy.
      PubDate: 2019-07-15
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Features of formation of productivity of sweet sorghum hybrids depending
           on the influence of agrotechnical factors: width of row spacing, crop
           density and processing by growth regulator

    • Authors: Л. І. Сторожик, О. В. Музика
      Pages: 171 - 181
      Abstract: Purpose. Identify the peculiarities of the growth and development of plants, formation of productivity of sweet sorghum hybrids for different widths of row spacing, crops density and the use of the growth stimulant Vympel 2 in the zone of the Forest-Steppe Ukraine. Methods. The study used hybrids ‘Dovista’ and ‘Huliver’. The width of the row spacing was 45 and 70 cm for the density of the crops: 150 thousand pcs/ha, 200 thousand pcs/ha, 250 thousand pcs/ha. Sorghum seed treatment was carried out using Vympel 2 (0.5 l/t) growth stimulant and its additional foliar application in the tillering stage of the crop (0.5 l/ha). Results. Studies have revealed that the ‘Dovista’ hybrid has a significant potential for productivity due to a longer growing season. At different widths of row spacing and density of plants standing, the hybrid ‘Dovista’ yield exceeded the average by 3.6 t/ha of‘Huliver’ hybrid. The yield increase at the level of 7.3–13.0 t/ha was obtained in the variant of application of growth stimulant Vympel 2 at 45 cm of row spacing and changes in sowing rates from 150 to 250 thousand pcs/ha. Similar variants of experiment at 70 cm of width of row spacing ensured collection of vegetative mass of sweet sorghum at 6.7–12.6 t/ha more than in cont­rol variants. The growth stimulant Vympel 2 increased the accumulation of dry matter in ‘Dovista’ hybrid with a row spacing of 45 cm and various seeding rates by 1.3–4.3 t/ha, whereas with a row spacing of 70 cm – by 1.2–3.5 t/ha. In the ‘Huliver’ hybrid in similar experiments, an increase in dry matter was obtained at the level of 1.7–3.9 t/ha, and the application of the growth regulator ensured the collection of dry matter of sweet sorghum by 1.3–3.0 t/ha above the control variants. Total sugar content in the variants of the experiment was biased. Application of seed treatment with growth stimulant Vympel 2 (0.5 l/t) followed by foliar application in the tillering stage (0.5 l/ha) increased the content of total sugars by 0.15, but this slight deviation was within the experimental margin. Conclusions. The highest yield of green mass at a density of 250 thousand plants per hectare and seed treatment with growth stimulant Vympel 2 (0.5 l/t) + foliar application in the tillering stage (0.5 l/ha) provided the ‘Dovista’ hybrid – 98.8 t/ha, which is 5.3 t/ha more than in the ‘Huliver’ hybrid for the width of the row spacing of 45 cm. In the phase of physiological maturity of the grain, the content of total sugars in sweet sorghum was, on average, at the level of 15.0%, in the ‘Dovista’ hybrid – 15.4%, in the ‘Huliver’ hybrid – 14.7%.
      PubDate: 2019-07-15
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Formation of crop struc­ture of corn hybrids at different seeding
           dates

    • Authors: В. В. Багатченко, М. М. Таганцова, Н. В. Симоненко
      Pages: 182 - 187
      Abstract: Purpose. To determine the features of the formation of biometric indicators of the corn hybrids yield at diffe­rent sowing dates in the conditions of the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Methods. Field experiments were laid on a plot of the experimental field of the research and production bree­ding enterprise LLC “Rasava” (Pustovarivka village, Skvyrskyi district, Kyiv region), located in the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Economically valuable and morpho-biological parameters of corn hybrids were studied according to a unified method for determining the indices of suitability for distribution in Ukraine. Results. The morphometric indices of the plant productivity formation and the yield of corn hybrids (plant height, length of the ear, number of grain rows, number of grains per row, grain yield from the ear) at the different dates of sowing (April 25, 10 and 25) were the most stable at the early term (April 25). The early-ripe hybrid ‘Richka SV’ provided the highest yield at sowing on April 25 – 11.6 t/ha, which is 1.5 t/ha more than at the traditionally accepted date of sowing – the first decade of May (May 10). The medium early hybrid ‘Richka S’, also at an early sowing date (April 25), produced yields of 11.3 t/ha, which is 0.6 t/ha more than during sowing on May 10. Conclusions. The morphometric indices of the formation of plant productivity and the timing of seeding affect the yield of corn hybrids in the conditions of the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine.
      PubDate: 2019-07-15
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Expression of aquaporin PIP2;1 as an indicator of Zea mays L. cultivar
           tolerance to reduced soil moisture

    • Authors: Г. В. Шевченко, І. І. Овруцька, Ю. В. Овчаренко
      Pages: 188 - 199
      Abstract: Purpose. To investigate expression of aquaporin PIP2;1 in maize cultivars ‘Pereiaslavskyi’ and ‘Dostatok’, (moderately drought-resistant) and ‘Yachta’ and ‘Flahman’ (drought-resistant), which grew for 10 days in low humidity substrate (30%). To evaluate possible influence of lipids and fatty acids on the functional activity of PIP2;1 under above humidity conditions. Methods. Biochemical: study of lipids and fatty acids in cytoplasmic membrane fraction from the roots (liquid chromatography); molecular: detection of the relative expression of aquaporin PIP2;1 in the roots (polymerase chain reaction, PCR); morphometric measurements and statistical methods for result processing. Results. Studies showed that in moderately drought-tolerant maize cultivars ‘Pereiaslavskyi’ and ‘Yachta’, PIP2;1 expression decreased, while in drought-tolerant ‘Dostatok’ and ‘Flahman’, on the contrary, it increased. In ‘Dostatok’ and ‘Flahman’ smaller root water deficit compared with ‘Pereiaslavskyi’ and ‘Yachta’ in conditions of low humidity of the substrate was recorded. In addition, the quantity of sterols and phospholipids increased in the plasma membrane of all hybrids. Conclusions. Reduced expression of PIP2;1 observed in ‘Pereiaslavskyi’ and ‘Yachta’, is a characteristic feature of not drought tolerant plants and indicates reaction to a decrease in substrate moisture and counteraction to dehydration, since a smaller amount of aquaporins ensures water retention in the cells. Contrary, at a substrate moisture content of 30%, PIP2;1 expression in drought-resistant hybrids ‘Dostatok’ and ‘Flahman’ increased which was accompanied by lesser root water deficiency (comparing to that of ‘Pereiaslavskyi’ and ‘Yachta’). It is quite probable that the enhanced expression of the PIP2;1 isoform in cultivars ‘Dostatok’ and ‘Flahman’ is a specific indicator of hybrids drought resistance. The obtained data are important for improving the selection of drought resistant maize hybrids.
      PubDate: 2019-07-15
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Biochemical features of the introduced population of Serratula coronata L.
           (Asteraceae) in Central Polissia of Ukraine

    • Authors: І. В. Іващенко, Д. Б. Рахметов, О. М. Вергун
      Pages: 200 - 205
      Abstract: Purpose. To establish the biochemical composition of the above ground part of Serratula coronata L. (Crowned saw-wort) for introduction in Central Polissia of Ukraine. Methods. The object of research was the plants of S. coronata from the collection of the Botanical garden of Zhytomyr National Agroecological University. Plant raw material was evaluated in the flowering phase in the biochemical laboratory of the Department of Cultural Flora of the M. M. Hryshko National Botanic Gardens of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine according to the relevant methods during 2014–2016. Results. The results of the study of phytochemical features of S. coronata under conditions of introduction in the Central Polissia of Ukraine in the flowering phase are given. Quantitative content of raw material in dry matter, total sugars, carotene, ascorbic acid, tannins, fats, free acids, macroelements of phosphorus, calcium and trace elements of iron, copper, zinc, manganese was revealed. Conclusions. The biochemical composition of the above ground part of S. coronata was determined for the first time in the conditions of introduction in Central Polissia of Ukraine. The peculiarities of the dependence of the content of biochemical compounds and macroelements on age characteristics of plants were determined. Plants of S. coronata of the third year of life were distinguished by the highest content of ascorbic acid, carotene and dry matter; two-year – organic acids, phosphorus, ash, common sugars; the fourth year of life – the content of oil and calcium. Significant amounts of vitamin C and iron were found in the raw material. The obtained results testify to the prospect of further study of the pharmacological properties of S. coronata in order to obtain new food products, bio-additives and phytopreparations enriched with biologically active substances and essential for human life.
      PubDate: 2019-07-15
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Features of the formation of the market of the common grape vine (Vitis
           vinifera L.) national varietal resources

    • Authors: С. І. Мельник, Н. С. Орленко, В. М. Матус, К. М. Мажуга, А. Н. Керімов
      Pages: 206 - 211
      Abstract: Purpose. Reveal the peculiarities of the formation of national varietal resources of grapes, considering current state of the market, needs of consumers, problems and prospects of the viticulture industry in Ukraine. Results. The monitoring of the national varietal resources of the common grape vine in the chronology of the formation of a well-known varie­ties collection used both for food purposes and in the further breeding process. As of the beginning of 2019, 51 grape varieties of the common grape vine are included in the State Regis­ter of Plant Varieties suitable for dissemination in Ukraine. In recent years, there has been a tendency to a decrease in the number of new varieties, reduction in the total area of vineyards and young plantings. Technical varie­ties of the crop dominate in the Register of plant varieties of Ukraine; the assortment of the table grapes and universal groups needs to be expanded. The largest share among the common varieties in Ukraine is occupied by ones of domestic breeding. The results of monitoring of renewal dynamics of the common grape vine varieties in the State Register of Plant Varieties of Ukraine over the past five years indicate a negative trend: 2013 – 11 varieties, 2015 – two, 2018 – one variety. Therefore, the issues of the formation of national varietal resources of grapes are relevant and require a scientific approach to the breeding process, the state scientific and technical examination of the application for a variety of plants and their commercial circulation. New varieties of the common grape vine are included in the State Register of Plant Varieties of Ukraine based on the results of the state scientific and technical expertise on the plant variety; it provides for the establishment of criteria for distinctness, uniformity and stability using the morphological description of the identification signs of vegetative and generative organs of grapes and the determination of economically valuable indicators of new varieties. Conclusions. The total number of the common grape vine varieties in Ukraine for the period 2015–2018 decreased, due to the low level of applications for new varieties of both domestic and foreign breeding. The search for modern methods and directions of breeding, the use of new methods for crop varieties and clones identification remains a reserve for expanding the common grape vine assortment
      PubDate: 2019-07-15
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2019)
       
 
 
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