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Journal of Experimental Psychopathology
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2043-8087
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1085 journals]
  • Evidence for an attention bias toward disgust in contamination fear

    • Authors: Ragnar P. Ólafsson, Aldís E. Friðriksdóttir, Sigrún Þ. Sveinsdóttir, Árni Kristjánsson
      Abstract: Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, Volume 10, Issue 3, July-September 2019.
      Although attention biases are common in various anxiety disorders, there is no consensus yet regarding attentional bias in obsessive–compulsive disorder. We assessed attention bias toward images involving contamination and disgust using an emotional attentional blink paradigm in a sample of university students high (HCF) or low (LCF) in contamination fear. Neutral, general-threat-, contamination-, and disgust-related images (T1) were presented followed by a discrimination task (T2) 200, 500, or 800 ms later within a rapid serial visual presentation stream of 20 images. The HCF group was overall less accurate on the attentional blink task. Response accuracy differed by image type and lag in the two groups at the trend level and revealed a large drop in performance 200 ms following presentation of disgusting images in the HCF group. No such differences were observed at later lags in the task. There were increases in negative affect following the task for the HCF but not the LCF group, which were correlated with contamination fear scores. The results suggest that a disgust-related attention bias may be present at early stages of information processing in people with contamination fear.
      Citation: Journal of Experimental Psychopathology
      PubDate: 2019-08-22T07:07:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2043808719870043
  • Biased attention to threat and anxiety: On taking a developmental approach

    • Authors: Jessica L. Burris, Kristin Buss, Vanessa LoBue, Koraly Pérez-Edgar, Andy P. Field
      Abstract: Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, Volume 10, Issue 3, July-September 2019.
      Several researchers have proposed a causal relation between biased attention to threat and the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders in both children and adults. However, despite the widely documented correlation between attention bias to threat and anxiety, developmental research in this domain is limited. In this review, we highlight the importance of taking a developmental approach to studying attention biases to threat and anxiety. First, we discuss how recent developmental work on attention to threat fits into existing theoretical frameworks for the development of anxiety and how attention biases might interact with other risk factors across development. Then we review the developmental literature on attention bias to threat and anxiety and describe how classic methodologies can be modified to study attention biases in even the youngest infants. Finally, we discuss limitations and future directions in this domain, emphasizing the need for future longitudinal research beginning in early infancy that tracks concurrent developments in both biased attention and anxiety. Altogether, we hope that by highlighting the importance of development in the study of attention bias to threat and anxiety, we can provide a road map for how researchers might implement developmental approaches to studying a potential core mechanism in anxiety.
      Citation: Journal of Experimental Psychopathology
      PubDate: 2019-08-22T06:39:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2043808719860717
  • Prediction of disability in schizophrenia: Symptoms, cognition, and

    • Authors: Philip D. Harvey, Martin T. Strassnig, Juliet Silberstein
      Abstract: Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, Volume 10, Issue 3, July-September 2019.
      Schizophrenia is associated with wide-ranging disability across multiple functional domains. There are several determinants of disability that have been identified to date, including cognitive and social cognitive impairments, impairments in everyday functional skills and social skills, difficulties in self-assessment of abilities, and negative symptoms. These impairments are related to different elements of disability, and disability and its predictors are not a single global dimension. Further, although psychotic symptoms have limited cross-sectional correlations with everyday functioning, emerging evidence suggests that long-term clinical stability, often induced through treatment with long-acting antipsychotic medications, is also associated with improvements in everyday functioning. This review addresses the characteristics and origins of disability, with treatment implications noted in each disability domains.
      Citation: Journal of Experimental Psychopathology
      PubDate: 2019-08-02T10:45:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2043808719865693
  • Tinnitus perception mediates the relationship between physiological and
           psychological problems among patients

    • Authors: Jaffar Abbas, Muhammad Aqeel, A. Jaffar, Mohammad Nurunnabi, Shaher Bano
      Abstract: Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, Volume 10, Issue 3, July-September 2019.
      The current study is the first substantial investigation to determine whether tinnitus perception mediates the relationship between physiological and psychological problems (PP). Simple random sampling, with a cross-sectional design, was used to collect data from 100 adult patients (males = 60; females = 40) diagnosed with chronic tinnitus. Subjects were approached through various public and private hospitals, at their respective Audiology and Ear, Nose, and Throat departments in Rawalpindi and Lahore, Pakistan. Participants underwent complete physiological and psychological tinnitus evaluations, such as tinnitus matching and audiometry, as well as assessments using standardized tinnitus instruments. The mediation analyses revealed an indirect relationship with hearing loss (HL) and PP (e.g., anxiety, stress, depression, mood swings) in tinnitus patients. These findings suggest that physiological problems such as tinnitus and HL might contribute to the development of psychological symptoms.
      Citation: Journal of Experimental Psychopathology
      PubDate: 2019-07-22T11:51:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2043808719858559
  • Associations between self-reported impulsivity and a latent variable of
           impulsive action constructed from three laboratory tasks

    • Authors: Akira Hasegawa, Keita Somatori, Haruki Nishimura, Yosuke Hattori, Yoshihiko Kunisato
      Abstract: Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, Volume 10, Issue 3, July-September 2019.
      Previous research on relationships between self-reported impulsivity and behavioral impulsivity has been limited because behavioral impulsivity was assessed using individual tasks. To alleviate the task-impurity problem and the low reliability of laboratory tasks assessing impulsivity, the present study examined the correlations between a latent variable constructed from the performances of three laboratory tasks assessing impulsive action and each dimension of self-reported impulsivity. University students in Japan (N = 176) responded to the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale assessing five dimensions of self-reported impulsivity that included the following: negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, sensation seeking, and positive urgency. They also conducted laboratory tasks for assessing impulsive action: the go/no-go task, stop signal task, and Conners continuous performance test 3rd edition (CCPT). Results indicated weak correlations between each dimension of self-reported impulsivity and the latent variable named impulsive action constructed from the performances of three laboratory tasks (mean r = .10) and with the performances of individual laboratory tasks (mean r = .03). The latent variable of impulsive action and the commission error rate in the CCPT were significantly correlated with sensation seeking. However, this association disappeared after controlling for the influence of gender. These findings suggested that measures of self-reported and behavioral impulsivity might assess different constructs.
      Citation: Journal of Experimental Psychopathology
      PubDate: 2019-07-17T11:59:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2043808719861894
  • Does craving for cocaine mediate cocaine use' Analysis of a randomized
           controlled pilot trial of memory-focused cognitive therapy

    • Authors: Camille Goetz, Tim Meynen, Luke Mitcheson, Nick Grey, Brian Eastwood, John Strang, John Marsden
      Abstract: Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, Volume 10, Issue 3, July-September 2019.
      Cocaine use disorder (CUD) is a debilitating psychopathology, with no recommended medication therapy or specific psychological intervention. Memory-focused cognitive therapy (MFCT) is a novel psychotherapy for CUD, theorized to modify and reconsolidate cocaine craving-related memories for cognitive and behavioral control. A pilot randomized controlled trial indicated that this therapy is associated with reduced craving and cocaine use. With an 80% confidence interval (CI) set for null hypothesis testing, we conducted an exploratory causal mediation analysis with confounder adjustment to determine whether increased cocaine abstinence following MFCT is mediated by reduced craving experience and increased emotion regulation. Participant data on the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale did not meet screening evaluation as a potential mediator. Cocaine craving (assessed by the frequency version of the Craving Experiences Questionnaire) was associated with a total treatment effect of MFCT on cocaine abstinence at follow-up (1.499; 80% CI 1.114 to 1.970; p = .012). A significant natural indirect effect indicated that reductions in cocaine use were strongly mediated by reduced frequency of craving experience (1.753; 80% CI: 1.334 to 2.936; p < .0001). This study provides exploratory evidence in support of the theoretical action for MFCT and underscores the importance of craving as a therapeutic target.
      Citation: Journal of Experimental Psychopathology
      PubDate: 2019-07-05T06:20:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2043808719860714
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