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Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2515-1355 - ISSN (Online) 2515-1363
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1079 journals]
  • Therapeutic vaccination immunomodulation: forming the basis of all cancer
           immunotherapy

    • Authors: Brendon J. Coventry
      Abstract: Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2019.
      Recent immunotherapy advances have convincingly demonstrated complete tumour removal with long-term survival. These impressive clinical responses have rekindled enthusiasm towards immunotherapy and tumour antigen vaccination providing ‘cures’ for melanoma and other cancers. However, many patients still do not benefit; sometimes harmed by severe autoimmune toxicity. Checkpoint inhibitors (anti-CTLA4; anti-PD-1) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) are ‘pure immune drivers’ of pre-existing immune responses and can induce either desirable effector-stimulatory or undesirable inhibitory-regulatory responses. Why some patients respond well, while others do not, is presently unknown, but might be related to the cellular populations being ‘driven’ at the time of dosing, dictating the resulting immune response. Vaccination is in-vivo immunotherapy requiring an active host response. Vaccination for cancer treatment has been skeptically viewed, arising partially from difficulty demonstrating clear, consistent clinical responses. However, this article puts forward accumulating evidence that ‘vaccination’ immunomodulation constitutes the fundamental, central, intrinsic property associated with antigen exposure not only from exogenous antigen (allogeneic or autologous) administration, but also from endogenous release of tumour antigen (autologous) from in-vivo tumour-cell damage and lysis. Many ‘standard’ cancer therapies (chemotherapy, radiotherapy etc.) create waves of tumour-cell damage, lysis and antigen release, thus constituting ‘in-vivo vaccination’ events. In essence, whenever tumour cells are killed, antigen release can provide in-vivo repeated vaccination events. Effective anti-tumour immune responses require antigen release/supply; immune recognition, and immune responsiveness. With better appreciation of endogenous vaccination and immunomodulation, more refined approaches can be engineered with prospect of higher success rates from cancer therapy, including complete responses and better survival rates.
      Citation: Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T09:22:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2515135519862234
       
  • A review of H5Nx avian influenza viruses

    • Authors: Ivette A. Nuñez, Ted M. Ross
      Abstract: Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2019.
      Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs), originating from the A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996 H5 subtype, naturally circulate in wild-bird populations, particularly waterfowl, and often spill over to infect domestic poultry. Occasionally, humans are infected with HPAVI H5N1 resulting in high mortality, but no sustained human-to-human transmission. In this review, the replication cycle, pathogenicity, evolution, spread, and transmission of HPAIVs of H5Nx subtypes, along with the host immune responses to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (HPAIV) infection and potential vaccination, are discussed. In addition, the potential mechanisms for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (HPAIV) H5 Reassorted Viruses H5N1, H5N2, H5N6, H5N8 (H5Nx) viruses to transmit, infect, and adapt to the human host are reviewed.
      Citation: Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy
      PubDate: 2019-02-22T12:10:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2515135518821625
       
  • Burden, effectiveness and safety of influenza vaccines in elderly,
           paediatric and pregnant populations

    • Authors: Sheena G. Sullivan, Olivia H. Price, Annette K. Regan
      Abstract: Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2019.
      Vaccination is the most practical means available for preventing influenza. Influenza vaccines require frequent updates to keep pace with antigenic drift of the virus, and the effectiveness, and sometimes the safety, of the vaccine can therefore vary from season to season. Three key populations that the World Health Organization recommends should be prioritized for influenza vaccination are pregnant women, children younger than 5 years of age and the elderly. This review discusses the burden of influenza and the safety and effectiveness profile of influenza vaccines recommended for these groups.
      Citation: Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy
      PubDate: 2019-02-07T11:30:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2515135519826481
       
  • Cancer stem cell mobilization and therapeutic targeting of the 5T4
           oncofetal antigen

    • Authors: Richard Harrop, Eric O’Neill, Peter L. Stern
      Abstract: Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2019.
      Cancer stem cells (CSCs) can act as the cellular drivers of tumors harnessing stem cell properties that contribute to tumorigenesis either as founder elements or by the gain of stem cell traits by the malignant cells. Thus, CSCs can self-renew and generate the cellular heterogeneity of tumors including a hierarchical organization similar to the normal tissue. While the principle tumor growth contribution is often from the non-CSC components, it is the ability of small numbers of CSCs to avoid the effects of therapeutic strategies that can contribute to recurrence after treatment. However, identifying and characterizing CSCs for therapeutic targeting is made more challenging by their cellular potency being influenced by a particular tissue niche or by the capacity of more committed cells to regain stem cell functions. This review discusses the properties of CSCs including the limitations of the available cell surface markers, the assays that document tumor initiation and clonogenicity, the roles of epithelial mesenchymal transition and molecular pathways such as Notch, Wnt, Hippo and Hedgehog. The ability to target and eliminate CSCs is thought to be critical in the search for curative cancer treatments. The oncofetal tumor-associated antigen 5T4 (TBGP) has been linked with CSC properties in several different malignancies. 5T4 has functional attributes that are relevant to the spread of tumors including through EMT, CXCR4/CXCL12, Wnt, and Hippo pathways which may all contribute through the mobilization of CSCs. There are several different immunotherapies targeting 5T4 in development including antibody–drug conjugates, antibody-targeted bacterial super-antigens, a Modified Vaccinia Ankara-basedvaccine and 5T4-directed chimeric antigen receptor T-cells. These immune therapies would have the advantage of targeting both the bulk tumor as well as mobilized CSC populations.
      Citation: Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy
      PubDate: 2019-01-25T10:08:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2515135518821623
       
 
 
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