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Isan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJPS)
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1905-0852
Published by Khon Kaen University Homepage  [11 journals]
  • Cover and Content-Vol 15(2)-2019 (April – June 2019)

    • Authors: Cover; Content
      Abstract: Cover and Content-Vol 15(2)-2019 (April – June 2019)
      PubDate: 2019-05-23
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2019)
  • Treatment Guidance of Functional Dyspepsia for Community Pharmacist

    • Authors: Thanompong Sathienluckana, Chalermsri Pummangura, Suwapab Techamahamaneerat
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: Functional dyspepsia is a common disorder in drug store and an important problem which affects to public health system. Functional dyspepsia is defined as discomfort of upper abdominal region, in the absence of any organic disease by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Functional dyspepsia is classified into two types by predominant symptoms, postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) such as postprandial fullness or early satiation and epigastric pain syndrome (EPS). Community pharmacists have responsibility to provide pharmaceutical care for patients with functional dyspepsia. The first step of pharmaceutical care should assess the medical history, symptom severity and investigate alarm symptoms to consider about treatment settings of patients between drug store or referral to hospital. Treatment of functional dyspepsia should provide both pharmacotherapy with lifestyle modification. Pharmacotherapy should be based on predominant symptoms as follows: 1) prokinetic drugs (e.g. itopride, domperidone, metoclopramide and mosapride) are used as first line therapy for PDS. Selection of prokinetic drugs should focus on efficacy and safety of each medication to rational use for individual patient. For example, domperidone should be avoided in patients with cardiovascular diseases; 2) antisecretory drugs (e.g. proton pump inhibitors and histamine-2 receptor antagonists) are used as first line therapy for EPS. Proton pump inhibitors are more effective than histamine-2 receptor antagonists. For other gastrointestinal drugs such as antacid, which neutralized acid, found ineffective for the treatment of functional dyspepsia.
      PubDate: 2019-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2019)
  • CYP4A : Roles, Expression, and Clinical Impacts

    • Authors: Nathaphon Kuncharoenwirat, Kanokwan Jarukamjorn
      Pages: 17 - 30
      Abstract: Cytochrome P450 4A enzyme (CYP4A) plays an important role in w/w-1 hydroxylation of fatty acids (FA). w-Hydroxylation of arachidonic acid via CYP4A results in 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), which is a potent vasoconstriction agent associated to cardiovascular disease. Hence, regulation of CYP4A expression is considered as a factor involved in the condition. Regarding the studies in rodents, regulatory expression of CYP4A is mediated by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor a (PPARa). After binding to a ligand, e.g. fibrates, plasticizers, and pesticides, the PPARa-ligand complex is formed and translocated to form a heterodimer with retinoid X receptor (RXR) in nucleus. The heterodimer bind with the specific base-sequences on peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) of CYP4A, followed by transcription of the gene. Nevertheless, this phenomenon does not occurred in human CYP4A, though human and rodents show very high percentage of base-sequences similarity. Regulatory mechanism of human CYP4A is presently unclear. Due to clinical reports, there is a relationship between polymorphism of human CYP4A and chronic diseases, e.g. diabetes retinopathy, abnormal lipid profile, and essential hypertension, etc. Therefore, this review focuses on significant role, expression, clinical impacts of CYP4A to be fundamental information for the study on regulation of human CYP4A expression and a guide to predict complications of chronic diseases associated CYP4A polymorphism.
      PubDate: 2019-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2019)
  • Clinical Significance of Cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) Polymorphism

    • Authors: Thongtham Suksawat, Waranya Chatuphonprasert, Kanokwan Jarukamjorn
      Pages: 31 - 43
      Abstract:           Cytochrome P450 (CYP) plays a major role in catalyzing metabolism of lipophilic endogenous and exogenous substrates, leading to detoxification of exogenous compounds and catabolism of endogenous compounds. Polymorphism of CYP450 is a phenomenon of variation of CYP450 that causes alteration in metabolic rate and pharmacological activity. CYP3A polymorphism has been clinically reported to be associated with failure of medication from a change of pharmacokinetics. CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A4*1G, and CYP3A5*3 alleles are mostly involved in reduction of CYP3A enzymes. For example, CYP3A5*3 carriers exhibited a tendency to be suffered from high dose of atorvastatin-induced muscle damage due to lower clearance of the drug. Considering CYP3A polymorphism on drug interactions, CYP3A5*3 patients who received clopidogrel concomitantly with CYP3A4 inhibitors, e.g. itraconazole, have increased the risk of atherothrombotic event after coronary angioplasty according to higher platelet aggregation activity. Concerning CYP3A polymorphism on disease complications, heavy smokers of both sexes with CYP3A4*1B allele were significantly found an increase in a risk of lung cancer than those of CYP3A4*1A with lower smoking. The present review article brings an overview of CYP3A polymorphism and its clinical significance on 3 pharmacotherapeutic aspects, including pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, and disease complications.
      PubDate: 2019-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2019)
  • Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Predict the Phenytoin Level in Blood by Using
           STELLATM Program

    • Authors: Kanthida Methaset, Korbtham Sathirakul, Songpol Limpisood, Thitianan Kulsirirat, Sucheera Leethochawalit, Noppakun Chulsom, Jayanant Iemsam-arng, Chutwadee Krisanapun, Pattarawit Rukthong
      Pages: 44 - 50
      Abstract: Phenytoin, has become the drug of choice for partial seizure and generalized tonic – clonic seizure.Due to its narrow therapeutic index, nonlinear pharmacokinetic and considerable therapeutic variation among patients, dose adjustment based on therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is required. However, TDM is not feasible for all patients due to its time and cost consuming. Presently, blood level prediction of phenytoin is based on calculation, which might lead to misinterpretations. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop a pharmacokinetic model using STELLATM software for phenytoin blood level prediction, and to evaluate the validity of the pharmacokinetic modelin comparison to the empirical phenytoin blood level of epileptic patients at Chonprathan Medical Center, Srinakharinwirot University. The retrospective study was conducted on epileptic patients treated with phenytoin sustained – release capsule. Their phenytoin blood level wasethically collected from medical records of Chonprathan Medical Center, Srinakharinwirot University between February 2015 to February 2016. The one compartment pharmacokinetic model of phenytoin was developed using STELLATM software for the prediction of patient’s maximum initial velocity value (Vmax), The validity of the pharmacokinetic model was evaluated by comparing the results from obit graph using simple linear regression analysis. The estimated phenytoin blood level at doses of 200 and 300 mg based on Vmax and body weight (mean ± SD) were used. Moreover, the effect of valproic acid on Km1 values in patients with co-administration of phenytoin and valproic acid was evaluated. Root mean square error (RMSE) between the result of phenytoin blood levels from TDM and orbit graph and between the result of phenytoin blood levels from TDM and the pharmacokinetic model were 7.65 and 7.77, respectively. The phenytoin blood level predicted by orbit graph was comparable to that from pharmacokinetic model. The ranges of phenytoin blood level at the doses of 200 and 300 mg were 1.53 – 4.947 and 3.00 – 19.450 µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, it is shown that valproic acid reduced binding affinity between phenytoin and CYP450enzymes as patients taking both phenytoin and valproic acid had greater Km value (7.17 ± 3.64 mg/L) than population pharmacokinetic (Km = 4).
      PubDate: 2019-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2019)
  • The Reduction of Patient's Waiting Time at an Outpatient Department
           using Simulation Modeling : A Community Hospital in Suphanburi Province

    • Authors: Parittra Manmor, Thananya Wasusri
      Pages: 51 - 62
      Abstract: An outpatient department of a community hospital in Suphanburi Province is having a large number of patients per day and leading to a long waiting time accounted for 77.92% of total time. Objective: To reduce waiting time of patients at the outpatient department. Methods: Data were collected and divided into 2 types: appointed patients and general patients. Waiting time, service time and resources used in each process are collected. A Simulation model of the current situation was developed with the Arena version 14.0 program.  Three improvement methods consist of : 1) allocation of appointed patients arrival time 2) adjusting staff working schedules 3) a combination of the first and second methods. Results: The results from the current situation, medical patients with having before lab test have the highest average waiting time at 144.49±4.35 minutes and accounted for 72.26% of its total time, medical patients with having lab test have the highest average waiting time at 187.20±7.31 minutes or 78.38% of its total time and the average waiting time of non-appointed general patients with a lab test is 282.49±5.37minutes or 82.09%of its total time. Conclusions: The best improvement method is the third alternative that are to allocate the arrival of appointed patients by equally spreading the number of appointed patients from 7:00 a.m. to 12: 00 p.m. and adjusting staff working schedules such as vital sign checks, doctors, cashiers, and pharmacists. The results show that it can reduce the average waiting time of appointed medical patients with having a lab test before meeting doctors from 144.49±4.35 to 90.66±3.03 minutes, appointed medical patients with having a lab test after meeting doctors from 187.20±7.31 to 98.85±3.11 minutes and non-appointed general patients with having a lab test after meeting doctors can be decreased from 282.49±5.37 to 194.66±4.54 minutes.      
      PubDate: 2019-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2019)
  • The Study of Hawking Health Products: A Case Study at The King Cobra
           Village in Khon Kaen Province

    • Authors: Suchada Vattisu, Viboon Wattananamkul
      Pages: 63 - 72
      Abstract: The purposes of this research were to examine the hawking behavior for health products at the King cobra village in Khon Kaen province. This research was conducted in the qualitative design; the data was collected by documentary review participant observation and in-depth interviews and analyzed by triangulation and content analysis. There were two fields for data collection in this study; the first one was the way or area of the hawking where the researcher involved in the activity and the second one was the village of the hawker. The data collection was managed for 12 months from 1st of October 2016 to 30th of September 2017. The findings revealed the hawking behavior that exotic animals especially the king cobras have usually been brought to draw the consumer attention before presenting their particular properties of a health product. In addition, hawkers persuade buyers to try on free their products: medicine food and cosmetics that they produced themselves and bought it for sale. The behaviors were divided into the 3 types as follows; 1) Hawking at the village. 2) Hawking at the flea market/product exhibition. 3) Hawking at the King cobra national association in Ban Khok Sa-nga . Hawking health products at the King cobra village was considered illegal according to Medicine Act B.E. 2510, Food Act B.E. 2522, Wild Animal Reservation and Protection Act B.E. 2535, and Cosmetic Product Act B.E. 2558. However, health products hawking is still popular and is inherited to next generation. Therefore, in order to purchasers to be safe, they should have a healthy product development process to pass the good manufacturing practice. Moreover, they are encouraged the development of legitimate marketing promotion.
      PubDate: 2019-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2019)
  • Treatment Outcomes of Patients with Hypertension at Buriram Hospital

    • Authors: ratchata unlamarn, Onanong Waleekhachonloet, Thananan Rattanachotphanit, Phakaon Unlamarn
      Pages: 73 - 80
      Abstract: Ministry of Public Health, Thailand implements the rational drug use policy and sets the process indicators of prescribing in targeted diseases including hypertension. This study aimed to examine treatment outcomes of patients with hypertension at Buriram hospital under the rational drug use policy. Methods: Secondary data analysis of patients who continually visited and received treatment at Buriram hospital was conducted using hospital database during 2012 and 2017.  Appropriate descriptive statistics were used for situation analysis and logistic regression analysis was used to analyze factors associated with hospitalization with hypertension in 2017. Results: Numbers of patients with hypertension increased every year during 2012 and 2017 (from 14,245to 20,306 patients). In 2017, an average age of patients with hypertension was 64 ± 13.37 years. One third of these patients (33.0%) were in age group 40 - 60 years and 63.1% of them were elderly group (age > 60 years). Proportion of female was more than male (1.2:1). Majority of patients (62.5%) were patients within the catchment area of Buriram hospital. Number of patients under the Universal Health Coverage Scheme was more than those in Social Security Benefit Scheme and Civil Servant Medical Benefit Scheme (12.4:1:5). Major comorbidities included diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, hemorrhagic stroke, heart failure, and myocardial infarction (29.0, 16.0, 8.5, 2.8, and 2.1%, respectively). The percent of uncontrolled hypertension was 25.8%. Percentages of hospitalization with principle diagnosis of hypertension among patients with controlled hypertension during 2012 and 2017 were 1.11, 1.79, 1.48, 1.62, 1.29 and 1.47%, respectively whereas those with uncontrolled hypertension were 4.27, 4.15, 3.73, 3.68, 3.92 and 3.41%, respectively. Controlled hypertension was factor associated with decreasing of hospitalization (Odds ratio (OR): 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38, 0.83; p = 0.004). Comorbidities that were significantly increased risk of hospitalization included chronic kidney disease (OR: 2.00; 95%CI: 1.33, 3.03; p = 0.001), hemorrhagic stroke (OR: 4.13; 95%CI: 2.58, 6.62; p < 0.001), heart failure (OR: 21.86; 95%CI: 14.01, 34.12; p < 0.001), and myocardial infarction (OR: 65.85; 95%CI: 37.75, 114.86; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Numbers of patients with hypertension are increasing. Patients with controlled hypertension had lower numbers of hospitalizations than those with uncontrolled hypertension. An increased risk of hospitalization was found in patients with comorbidities including chronic kidney disease, hemorrhagic stroke, heart failure, and myocardial infarction compared to those without these comorbidities.
      PubDate: 2019-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2019)
  • Management of the Rabies Post-exposure Prophylaxis Program according to
           the Thai Clinical Practice Guideline in Rabies: A study in Community
           Hospital and Tambon Health Promoting Hospital

    • Authors: Piyanut Nakdee, Pattamawan Kosuma
      Pages: 81 - 97
      Abstract: Currently, rabies is not curable. The treatment of rabies exposure had to follow the clinical practice guideline in rabies. Preventable vaccine applying the standard intramuscular regimen and tended to deliver the patients to Tambon Health Promoting Hospital where the patients was convenient to receive the vaccination after the evaluation the risk of infected disease by doctors and also injected the first vaccination. But found the treatment rabies still miss the medical practice and lacked of the connection and transferred the information between health care center and rabies exposure which did come to receive the vaccination as doctors appointed. So it should be developed the standard operating procedure for care of rabies exposure as the clinical practice guideline in rabies network of the service of Buengnarang Hospital, Phichit Province in order to rabies exposure to receive the standard treatment and come to vaccinate as the doctors appointed on time. Methods: This research was conducted using quality cycles technique in the Buengnarang District Health Service Network including Buengnarang Hospital and 6 Tambons Health Promoting Hospital: Banglai, Laemrang, Buengnarang, Phosaingam, Huaykaew and Banmai. The research approach also undertook brainstorming with multidisciplinary team. The flow chart depicts the process of the active current treatment service of rabies exposure. Research instrument passed the examination by three experts who consisted of doctors, pharmacists, and nurses who had many experiences in taking care of the rabies exposure. Results: The results of this research found the relevance of four quality cycles. The first cycle began with the current service procedure flow charts and the problem issues, included usage of the title of the questions to present and solve the problem. The problem was solved by linking clinical practicing guideline in rabies and patients care process. The process to take care of the patients aimed to mix the operational approach of network, assigned responsibilities, and also setting the criterion to evaluate which was stipulated at 80%. The second, third, and fourth cycles included: brainstorming to develop the treatment system of rabies exposure infected in the step that did not reach the assigned criterion which spent six months for the research. The standard in operational approach of treatment for rabies exposure concluded with the development from first for wound. When rabies exposure admitted to hospital which was the first place to treat wound instantaneously because most of them did not disinfect and used of antiseptics as well as advice about how to perform with patients and relatives. For that completeness, accuracy and agreement of medical record together reporting rabies exposure who was assigned that nurse screened the patients as well and filled information one by one with using the criteria of emergency room. Moreover, there was the development of the forwarding the information since developed referral letter of Tambon Health Promoting hospital for sending information of rabies exposure to Tambon Health Promoting hospital, then sending which was completely recorded to hospital in order to fill. Any advice for rabies exposure realized important of vaccinating. Increasing of the cooperation with doctors to confirm treatment, when there was the decision to treat that not correct as clinical practice guideline and also increased many duties of ambulatory pharmacist which was responsible for emergency room. Conclusion: The Management of the treatment for rabies exposure as the clinical practice guideline assigned the standard operating procedure by the multidisciplinary brainstorming makes the rabies exposure reaching of the treatment that is standardized and completely receives vaccination as increasingly assigned.
      PubDate: 2019-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2019)
  • Associations between Antibiotic Use and Resistance in Mahasarakham

    • Authors: Chutimaporn Chaiyasong, Piriya Tiyapak, Somphit Pinake, Surasak Chaiyasong
      Pages: 98 - 105
      Abstract: Introduction: Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide public health problem as it increases mortality rate and health care expenditures. A number of factors associated with antibiotic resistance including habits of healthcare personnel, referral system of infected patients and overuse of antibiotics. The objective of this study is to determine associations between antibiotic use and resistance in Mahasarakam hospital. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using electronic database and antibiogram between 2010 and 2017. Antibiotic use was measured as defined daily dose (DDD). Antibiotic resistance was percentage of reported antibiotic susceptibility as intermediate susceptible or resistance. Trends of antibiotic use, positive culture and antibiotic resistance were analyzed using linear regression. Pearson’s correlation was used to determine associations between antibiotic use and resistance. Results: Between 2010 and 2017, antibiotic use increased from 96.12 DDD/100 patient-days to 111.65 DDD/100 patient-days (p=0.019). Increased carbapenem resistance was found in E.coli and K.pneumoniae (from 1% to 8%, p=0.002 and from 1% to 16%, p=0.001, respectively) and cefoperzone/sulbactam resistance increased in A.baumannii (from 72% to 89%, p=0.004). Carbapenem use was correlated to carbapenem-resistant rate of E.coli (r=0.74, p=0.034) and K.pneumoniae (r=0.79, p=0.019), and correlated to MRSA detection (r=0.844, p=0.008). There was no association between cabapenem use and rate of carbapenem-resistant A.baumannii (r=0.56, p=0.149) and P.aeruginosa (r=-0.07, p=0.862). Piperacillin/tazobactam use was associated with ESBL positive detection (r=-0.74, p=0.037) but not associated with piperacillin/tazobactam-resistant P.aeruginosa rate (r=0.35, p=0.435). Vancomycin use was not associated with vancomycin-resistant E.faecium rate (r=0.10, p=0.904). Discussion and Conclusion: Increases in carbapenems use was associated with Enterobacteriaceae resistance and increase in piperacillin/tazobactam was associated with ESBL producing strain. The hospital should strengthen antibiotic stewardship program to reduce and control antimicrobial resistance.
      PubDate: 2019-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2019)
  • Effectiveness of Promote Rational Use of Antibiotics in sub-district
           health promoting hospitals case Nakornrajsima province

    • Authors: phisit khongsaktrakun, Hathaikarn Chowwanapoonpohn, Supanai Prasertsuk
      Pages: 106 - 117
      Abstract: Objective: To study the effectiveness of the policy for promoting rational use of medicines in sub-district health promoting hospitals (RDU Hospital) in 2014 and 2018 Comparison of antibiotic used orders in 2 groups of target Method: This study was Cross-sectional Study with retrospective data collection from electronic prescriptions database on outpatient services information of 346 sub-district health promoting hospitals. The study compared the used of antibiotics between Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE) and Upper Respiratory Infections (URI) before and after policy implementation i.e., 2014 and 2018. Results: Overall antibiotic used in AGE significantly decreased from 67.22% to 11.98% after policy implementation (p <0.001). Nonsoong district, showed the largest reduction in the rate of antibiotic use 73.13% followed by Soeng Sang, Chumphuang, Phimai and Mueang Yang respectively (72.45 percent, 69.93, 68.69 and 67.02 percent) For URI, the overall antibiotic use decreased significantly from 30.49% to 22.05% during the post intervention period (P <0.001). Non Daeng District. The antibiotic use rate in this disease group has decreased the most, which is 54.45%, followed by Kham Thale So, Chok Chai, Muang Yang and Khong, respectively (decreased by 34.47 percent, 32.90, 32.21 and 32.17) Conclusion: Finding indicated that the RDU Hospital project in Nakhonrajsima Province were effective to the AGE group and the URI group are 55.24 and 22.06, respectively.
      PubDate: 2019-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2019)
  • Effects of rifampicin on the expressions of drug transporter OATP1B1, drug
           metabolizing enzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, and nuclear receptors PXR and AhR
           in human HepG2 and BeWo cells

    • Authors: Thongtham Suksawat, Kanokwan Jarukamjorn, Waranya Chatuphonprasert
      Pages: 118 - 128
      Abstract: Introduction: Rifampicin, an anti-tuberculosis drug, has been extensively reported for drug interaction due to its ability to induce several metabolizing enzymes. Drug transporter OATP1B1, drug metabolizing enzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, and nuclear receptors PXR and AhR, are involved in metabolism of a clinical drug, especially in hepatocytes. However, the information of rifampicin on those genes in human placenta is still less. This study aimed to investigate the effects of rifampicin on the expressions of OATP1B1, CYP3A4 CYP3A5, PXR and AhR, in hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) and choriocarcinoma (BeWo) cells. Materials and method: HepG2 and BeWo cells (5x105 cells per well) were cultured in DMEM with 10% FBS and incubated with rifampicin at the final concentrations of 0.5, 5 and 10 mM for 24 hours. Total RNAs were extracted and the mRNA expression of each gene was determined by RT-qPCR. Results: Rifampicin induced the expression of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 mRNA in both HepG2 and BeWo cells for 4-6 fold. Likewise, the levels of OATP1B1 mRNA were significantly elevated by rifampicin, compared to control group, in both HepG2 (18-23 fold) and BeWo (2-4 fold). However, rifampicin did not modify the expression of PXR in HepG2 while it extensively suppressed the PXR mRNA in BeWo. On the other hand, the expression of AhR was significantly induced by rifampicin in HepG2 but not in BeWo, only rifampicin at the lowest concentration test (0.5 mM) down-regulated the AhR mRNA expression (p-value < 0.05). Conclusion: The regulatory mechanism of rifampicin was different between HepG2 and BeWo cells. Rifampicin up-regulated the expression of OATP1B1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in HepG2 cells, at least in part, via the AhR pathway. However, the expressions of OATP1B1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in BeWo cells might be regulated by other receptors, beside PXR and AhR.
      PubDate: 2019-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2019)
  • Allergic contact dermatitis testing of resin of Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb.
           ex G. Don on human skin in healthy volunteers

    • Authors: Jutalak Phinit, Leelawadee Techasathien, Supatra Porasuphatana
      Pages: 129 - 134
      Abstract: Resin of Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb.ex G. Don or Yang Na (RYN) is a natural extract that has potential to be used in many cosmetic products. However, its safety data is not yet sufficient. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether unprocessed RYN from Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb.ex G. Don can potentially cause allergic contact dermatitis on human skin. Material and Method: This clinical study was conducted by using Patch test in thirty healthy volunteers both males and females, aged 18 years and over. The tested compound was prepared in petrolatum at the concentrations of 5%, 10%, 20% and 40% and filled in Patch test chambers. Pure petrolatum and 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as a negative control and a positive control, respectively. The Patch test chambers were applied on the backs of the subjects and results were evaluated at 4 and 24 hours following the exposure. Results: Results showed that, at 4 hours after the application, no irritation was observed for RYN, negative and positive controls when determined by using International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG). At 24 hours after the application, 2% SDS, a positive control, caused mild irritation on all subjects’ backs with the ICDRG score at 1.6 ± 1.03. But all concentrations of RYN exhibited no irritation. Conclusion: Overall results from this study showed that RYN was considered safe for human skin at the concentration up to 40%. RYN can then be potentially used for development of RYN-containing cosmetic products.
      PubDate: 2019-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2019)
  • Safety of out-of-season longan consumption

    • Authors: Theerayut Baubhom, Kannikar Chatsantiprapa
      Pages: 135 - 141
      Abstract:  Introduction: Nowadays, out-of-season longan production in Thailand was generally stimulated by potassium chlorate. As the chemical is prohibited in food, this study was aimed to assess the health risk from consumption of these longan fruits. Materials and Methodology: Three different doses of potassium chlorate were applied on longan trees via root (each dose, n=5), and a control group (n=2). After 210 days of application, the longan fruits samples (ready-to-eat fruits) were collected. After extraction with water, the extracts reacted with indigo carmine and 6M HCl were analyzed for chlorate residues using UV-Spectrophotometer at 610 nm. Then, assessment of the health risk by Margin of Safety (MOS) was performed. Results: The highest concentration of chlorate residues in longan fruits was found in group 3 (960 g potassium chlorate/tree) at 0.2254±0.0004 µg/g and the lowest concentration was in control group at 0.0326±0.0001 µg/g. The risk assessment found that consumption of 10 fruits/day, 500 and 1,000 g/day of all treated fruits were safe as Margins of Safety were all higher than 1. Therefore, no adverse effects on health should be worried from consumption of out-of-season longan fruits in general population. 
      PubDate: 2019-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2019)
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