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Media Peternakan
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0126-0472 - ISSN (Online) 2087-4634
Published by Bogor Agricultural University Homepage  [26 journals]
  • Front-matter

    • Authors: K. G. Wiryawan
      DOI : 10.5398/
      PubDate: 2017-12-28
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2017)
  • Back-matter

    • Authors: K. G. Wiryawan
      DOI : 10.5398/
      PubDate: 2017-12-28
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2017)
  • Expression and Association of SCD Gene Polymorphisms and Fatty Acid
           Compositions in Chicken Cross

    • Authors: A. Furqon, A. Gunawan, N. Ulupi, T. Suryati, C. Sumantri
      Pages: 151 - 157
      Abstract: Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is an integral membrane protein of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that catalyzes the rate limiting step in the monounsaturated fatty acids from saturated fatty acids. Selection for fatty acids traits based on molecular marker assisted selection is needed to increase a value of chicken meat. This study was designed to analyze expression and associations of SCD gene polymorphisms with fatty acid traits in F2 kampung-broiler chicken cross. A total of 62 F2 kampung-broiler chicken cross (29 males and 33 females) were used in this study. Fatty acid traits were measured at 26 weeks of age. Samples were divided into two groups based on fatty acid traits (the highest and the lowest). Primers in exon 2 region were designed from the genomic chicken sequence. The SNP g.37284A>G was detected and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was then used to genotype. The expression of SCD gene was analyzed using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). The result showed that there were three genotypes (AA, AG, and GG) found in this study. The SCD AciI polymorphism was significantly associated with palmitoleic acid (C16:1), fatty acids total and saturated fatty acid in 26 weeks old of F2 kampung-broiler chicken cross (P<0.05). The SCD gene was expressed for polyunsaturated fatty acids in liver tissue in two groups of chickens. In conclusion, the SCD gene could be a candidate gene that affects fatty acids traits in F2 kampung-broiler chicken cross.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28
      DOI: 10.5398/medpet.2017.40.3.151
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2017)
  • The Administration of Garlic Extract on Eimeria stiedai Oocysts and the
           Hematological Profile of the Coccidia Infected Rabbits

    • Authors: D. Indrasanti, M. Indradji, S. Hastuti, E. Aprilliyani, Fatikha Fatikha, K. A. Rosyadi
      Pages: 158 - 164
      Abstract: This research aimed to examine the potential of garlic as the coccidiosis control in rabbits either in vitro or in vivo. During in vitro, observed variables were rabbits oocysts that were sporulated, unsporulated, and abnormal in incubation for 3 days with the addition of garlic extract. The treatments were doses of garlic extract administration (0%, 1%, 2%, 4%, and 8%) and sulfaquinoxalline as a standard anticoccidiosis. Meanwhile during in vivo, the variables observed were the hematological profile of the experimental rabbits naturally infected with coccidia. The doses of garlic extract was administered orally to the experimental rabbits infected with coccidia were 0 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg, and 80 mg/rabbit.  As a standard coccidiosis drugs, the combination of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim was used.  The treatments were given for 6 days. The variables observed were the hematological profile of the coccidiosis rabbits, including the erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrits, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and thrombocytes. The research employed a completely randomized design, with 5 repetitions. The data were further analyzed using the honestly significant difference test. The results showed that garlic extract administration significantly decreased (P<0.01) both the number of the sporulated and unsporulated oocysts (P<0.05), yet did not significantly influence the abnormal oocysts, but there was no significant difference within the entire hematological variables except in thrombocytes (P<0.05). Garlic extract administration decreased the excretion number of oocysts in the feces either in vitro or in vivo and influenced some hematological variables which provided a new propect for controlling coccidiosis naturally in rabbits.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28
      DOI: 10.5398/medpet.2017.40.3.158
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2017)
  • Nutritional Qualities of Cocoa Pod Husk Treated with Bioconversion and or
           Provision of Nitrogen Sources in the Rumen

    • Authors: Syahrir Syahrir, Hartutik Hartutik, Kusmartono Kusmartono, Damry Damry
      Pages: 165 - 170
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of bioconversion using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pleurotus ostreatus and or inclusion of Moringa oleifera leaves and urea in the rumen on cocoa pod husk digestibility and fermentation in the rumen. There were 4 treatments tested: (1) 100% untreated cocoa pod husk (UCPH), (2) 55% UCPH + 43.7% M. oleifera + 1.30% urea (UCPHMU), (3) 100% bioconverted cocoa pod husk (BCPH), and (4) 55% BCPH + 44.5 M. oleifera + 0.5% urea (BCPHMU). Each of the treatments was replicated three times. Variables observed were dry matter and organic matter digestibilities and degradabilities, rumen VFA and ammonia concentrations, gas production, and calculated microbial biomass yields. Results indicated that the treatment increased dry matter (P<0.001) and organic matter (P<0.01) digestibility, with the highest for the BCPHMU and the lowest for the UCPH. The treatments also increased dry matter and organic matter degradability in the rumen (P<0.001), with the highest for the BCPHMU, followed by the UCPHMU, and then by the BCPH and the lowest was UCPH. The treatment affected rumen ammonia concentration (P=0.01), the highest value was found for the BCPHMU followed with UCPHMU and BCPH. Microbial biomass synthesis was affected (P<0.001) by the treatment and it was always higher when nitrogen was provided (UCPHMU and BCPHMU). Total VFA concentration or total gas production was higher for BCPHMU compared to other treatments. It can be concluded that nutritional quality of cocoa pod husk can be improved by either bioconversion with P. chrysosporium and P. ostreatus or inclusion of M. oleifera and urea in the rumen, but the best improvement can be obtained by the combination of bioconversion and provision of the nitrogen sources in the rumen.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28
      DOI: 10.5398/medpet.2017.40.3.165
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2017)
  • In Vitro Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Fatty Acid Profiles Added
           with Calcium Soap of Canola/Flaxseed Oil

    • Authors: S. Suharti, A. R. Nasution, K. G. Wiryawan
      Pages: 171 - 177
      Abstract: This research aimed to assess the effect of adding canola oil and flaxseed oil which were protected with calcium soap (Ca-soap) on the fermentation characteristics, rumen microbial population, and the profile of fatty acids in the rumen during 4 and 8 hours in the in vitro fermentation. The research design used in this study was a completely randomized block design with 3 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments consisted of control ration (Napier grass and concentrate at the ratio of 60 : 40), control + 6% of Ca-soap of canola oil, and control + 6% of Ca-soap of flaxseed oil. Variables observed were pH value, NH3 concentration, volatile fatty acid (VFA), dry matter and organic matter digestibility, and fatty acid profile.  The results showed that the addition of Ca-soap of canola or flaxseed oil did not affect the pH value, NH3 concentration, dry matter digestibility, organic matter digestibility, total population of bacteria and protozoa in the rumen. However, the total production of ruminal VFA was increased (P<0.05) with the addition of Ca soap of canola oil/flaxseed oil. The use of Ca-soap of flaxseed oil increased (P<0.05) the content of unsaturated fatty acids in the rumen at 4 h incubation. The addition of Ca-soap of flaxseed oil resulted the lowest (P<0.05) level of unsaturated fatty acids biohydrogenation compared to the other treatments at 4 h incubation. In conclusion, the addition of Ca soap of canola/flaxseed oil could improve VFA total production. Vegetable oils protected using calcium soap could inhibit unsaturated fatty acid biohidrogenation by rumen microbes. Ca-soap of flaxseed oil could survive from rumen biohydrogenation in the rumen better than Ca-soap of canola oil.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28
      DOI: 10.5398/medpet.2017.40.3.171
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2017)
  • Isolation and Characterisation of Sulphur Oxidizing Bacteria Isolated from
           Hot Spring in Malaysia for Biological Deodorisation of Hydrogen Sulphide
           in Chicken Manure

    • Authors: M. Y. Hidayat, H. M. Saud, A. A. Samsudin
      Pages: 178 - 187
      Abstract: In this study, the isolation of sulphur oxidising bacteria (SOB) from hot spring in Malaysia was carried out in an enrichment culture using sodium thiosulphate as a sole energy and CO2 as a sole carbon source. A total number of 80 SOB isolates were obtained from the agar plate and considered as positive SOB due to their abilities using thiosulphate for growth. All the isolates were initially screened for their fast growths in liquid medium and 13 isolates were selected for another screening process. Three SOB isolates namely isolate AH18, AH25, and AH28 were selected based on their abilities to grow faster, produce the highest sulphate ion and reducing the pH in the growth medium. The cells were Gram-negative and short rod-shaped. The effects of various variables including temperature (25-45 °C), pH (4-9), sodium thiosulphate concentrations (4-100 mM) and metabolic characteristic were evaluated on bacterial growth and their sulphur oxidation activities. The optimum pH of all the potential isolates occurred at pH 8.0. Meanwhile, the optimum temperature for isolate AH18, AH25 and AH28 occurred at 45 °C, 30 °C, and 30-45 °C, respectively. The three isolates were classified as facultative chemolithotroph with the capability of growth in thiosulphate concentration as high as 100 mM. Therefore, given the ability in the oxidation of thiosulphate, temperature and pH adaptabilities, with the metabolic flexibilities of isolates AH18, AH25, and AH28 could be a good H2S biological deodorizing candidate.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28
      DOI: 10.5398/medpet.2017.40.3.178
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2017)
  • Changes in in Vitro Methane Production and Fatty Acid Profiles in Response
           to Cakalang Fish Oil Supplementation

    • Authors: E. H. B. Sondakh, M. R. Waani, J. A. D. Kalele
      Pages: 188 - 193
      Abstract: This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of cakalang fish oil addition in ruminant feed on in vitro methane production and fatty acid profiles. This experiment consisted of four treatments which were R0 : feed composing of forage and concentrate at a ratio of 60% : 40% without cakalang fish oil (CFO) addition as control feed; R1: R0 added with CFO at 2.5%; R2: R0 added with CFO at 5%, and R3: R0 added with CFO at 7.5%. Fermentation with rumen fluid was done using the Hohenheim Gas Test (HGT); feeds were incubated at 39 oC for 72 hours. At the end of fermentation, samples were obtained and methane production and fatty acid profiles were determined. The experiment was conducted in completely randomised design with four replications. Data were analysed using analysis of variance and differences among treatment means were analysed using Duncan multiple range test. Results showed that CFO supplementation affected (P<0.05) methane production, protozoa numbers and NH3 concentration; whereas the other parameters, i.e. VFA concentration, pH, and microbial protein were not affected. Some fatty acid profiles were influenced by treatments, such as palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic (P<0.05), while others, i.e. lauric and miristic were not affected. It is concluded that the best level of CFO supplementation is 5% as this level reduces methane production and increases unsaturated fatty acids without any negative effects on other variables measured.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28
      DOI: 10.5398/medpet.2017.40.3.188
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2017)
  • The Sensory Properties, Color, Microbial, Lipid Oxidation, and Residual
           Nitrite of Se’i Marinated with Lime and Roselle Calyces Extracts

    • Authors: G. E. M. Malelak, H. J. D. Lalel, P. R. Kale, I. G. N. Jelantik
      Pages: 194 - 201
      Abstract: Meat deterioration can occur because of lipid oxidation and bacteria that could affect meat quality. It has been recognized that fruits of lime (Citrus aurantifolia) and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) calyces contain bioactive compounds that have a capability to prevent oxidation and bacterial growth. The objective of this research was to  investigate the effect of lime and roselle calyces extracts on se’i (Rotenese smoked beef) quality. Completely randomized design (CRD) with 2x4 factorial pattern was used in this study. The first factor (E) was source of extracts i.e., lime extract (E1) and roselle extract (E2). The second factor (L) was level of the extract consisted of 4 levels i.e., control (without extract/ L0); L1= 1%; L2= 2%; and L3= 3% (v/v). Each treatment consisted of 3 replications. Sensory properties measured were aroma, taste, and tenderness. Other variables measured were color, total plate count (TPC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and residual nitrite.  The taste and tenderness of se’i were affected (P<0.05) by combination of the extract and the level of the extract.  Results showed that there were significant interactions (P<0.05) between the kind of extracts and the level of extract on L (lightness), a (redness), and b (yellowness) values, TPC, TBARS, and residual nitrite values. The level of 3% of  lime extract as well as 3% of roselle calyces extract improved score of taste and tenderness, reduced a values, decreased TPC, TBARS, and residual nitrite values. Marinating in 3% of roselle calyces extract decreased the b value but marinating in 3% of lime increased the b value of se’i. It is concluded that marinating 3% of roselle or 3% of lime gives the best effect on taste, tenderness, TPC, and TBARS values of se’i.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28
      DOI: 10.5398/medpet.2017.40.3.194
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2017)
  • Characteristics of Sie Reuboh Supplemented with Different Combinations of
           Palm Vinegar (Arenga pinnata) and Kaffir Lime Leaves (Citrus hystrix)

    • Authors: Masyitah Masyitah, I. I. Arief, T. Suryati
      Pages: 202 - 209
      Abstract: This research was aimed to analyze the characteristics of sie reuboh processed with the addition of palm vinegar and kaffir lime leaves with different concentrations to produce sie reuboh with a good quality and to maintain the stability of its quality during storage at room temperature. The research consisted of 2 stages. In the first stage, 4000 g of sie reuboh was treated with different doses of palm vinegar and kaffir lime leaves (0 mL and 0 g, 100 mL and 10 g, 120 mL and 20 g, and 140 mL and 30 g) for microbiological analysis.  Sie reuboh with the best result of microbiological analysis was later used in Stage 2 to be stored at room temperature and was analyzed for its physical antioxidant activity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and microbiological analysis. The result showed that different levels of palm vinegar and kaffir lime leaves did not significantly affect the aw, pH, yield, and microbiological characteristics of the sie reuboh. Different ratios of palm vinegar and kaffir lime leaves significantly affected (P<0.05) the tenderness of sie reuboh.  Sie reuboh without addition of palm vinegar and kaffir lime leaves showed a better tenderness than sie reuboh added with palm vinegar and kaffir lime leaves. The best treatment based on microbiological analysis was shown by treatment of sie reuboh with 120 mL of palm vinegar and 20 g of kaffir lime leaves and this sie reuboh was later used to test the stability of the sie reuboh when it was stored at room temperature. The results showed that sie reuboh produced by addition of 120 mL of palm vinegar and 20 g of kaffir lime leaves demonstrated antioxidant activity for inhibition of free radicals as was indicated by the stability of TBARS value during 9 days of storage at room temperature. This combination of treatment could also effectively stabilize the quality of sie reuboh, as indicated by a proper storability at maximum limit of total plate count and mold growth until 3 days of storage at room temperature.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28
      DOI: 10.5398/medpet.2017.40.3.202
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2017)
  • The Role of Cooperative in The Milk Value Chain in West Bandung Regency,
           West Java Province

    • Authors: Y. Resti, R. Baars, M. Verschuur, G. Duteurtre
      Pages: 210 - 217
      Abstract: The objective of the study was to evaluate the capacity of Northern Bandung Dairy Farmer Cooperative (KPSBU) to support farmers in producing good quality milk within the milk value chain in West Bandung Regency, West Java. The study used qualitative research strategies including desk study, case study, and focus group discussions. The study compared the involvement of three milk collecting actors that were classified into large cooperative (KPSBU), small cooperative (KUD Puspa Mekar), and private company (Bina Kitri Bersama). A total of 18 dairy farmers, 3 milk collecting actors, 2 milk processors, and one livestock officer were interviewed. Three focus group discussions were conducted. The large cooperative performed better in services, milk collection, and milk quality assessment compared to other milk collecting actors. Members’ commitment, inconsistent milk quality, and shortage of good quality fodder were the hindering factors that influenced the collection of good quality milk in the large cooperative. In conclusion, the large cooperative had better performance in service provision, it also had better infrastructures in milk collection and milk quality assessment compared to other milk collecting actors. Increasing the milk quality standard by milk processing companies affected the milk price since 2000. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-28
      DOI: 10.5398/medpet.2017.40.3.210
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2017)
  • Risk Based Milk Pricing Model at Dairy Farmers Level

    • Authors: W. Septiani, Marimin Marimin, Y. Herdiyeni, L. Haditjaroko
      Pages: 218 - 227
      Abstract: The milk price from a cooperative institution to farmer does not fully cover the production cost. Though, dairy farmers encounter various risks and uncertainties in conducting their business. The highest risk in milk supply lies in the activities at the farm. This study was designed to formulate a model for calculating milk price at farmer’s level based on risk. Risks that occur on farms include the risk of cow breeding, sanitation, health care, cattle feed management, milking and milk sales. This research used the location of the farm in West Java region. There were five main stages in the preparation of this model, (1) identification and analysis of influential factors, (2) development of a conceptual model, (3) structural analysis and the amount of production costs, (4) model calculation of production cost with risk factors, and (5) risk based milk pricing model. This research built a relationship between risks on smallholder dairy farms with the production costs to be incurred by the farmers. It was also obtained the formulation of risk adjustment factor calculation for the variable costs of production in dairy cattle farm. The difference in production costs with risk and the total production cost without risk was about 8% to 10%. It could be concluded that the basic price of milk proposed based on the research was around IDR 4,250-IDR 4,350/L for 3 to 4 cows ownership. Increasing farmer income was expected to be obtained by entering the value of this risk in the calculation of production costs. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-28
      DOI: 10.5398/medpet.2017.40.3.218
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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