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Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1745-0179
Published by Bentham Open Homepage  [69 journals]
  • How Do Depressive Mood or Antidepressants Acutely Increase Serum
           Catecholamines'

    •  
  • Tako Tsubo and Treatment of Comorbid Depression: A Reflection is Needed -
           Author's reply

    •  
  • The Aim was About the Association with Psychiatric Disorders not on the
           Pathogenesis of Takotsubo - Author's Reply

    •  
  • The Relevance of the Research on the Psychosocial Dimensions of Aging Is
           Really the Same in Europe and USA'

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  • Cost-effectiveness of US National Institute of Health and European Union
           FP7 Projects on Active Ageing and Elderly Quality of Life-Author's reply

    • Abstract: Background:The use of bibliometric analysis to assess scientific productivity and impact is particularly relevant for EU funding programs. The objective of the present study is to assess the impact on scientific literature by focusing specifically on the cost-effectiveness of FP7 and NHI projects in the fields of AA and QoL, respectively.Methods:Twenty projects were randomly selected from the CORDIS database in accordance with the following criteria: funded by the FP7; accepted from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2012; concluded by 31 August 2017;For each project selected, we determined: number of publications in Scopus and Google databases attributable to the project; number of papers published in Q1 quartile of the SCIMAGO rank; number of citations found in Scopus and Scholar Google; amount of funds allocated.Results:The study has confirmed the results of the previous one, namely that the number of publications and the number of citations per project on active ageing are similar in projects funded by the NHI in the United States and those funded by the FP7 in Europe. However, when it comes to cost-effectiveness, it results that European projects have a cost ten times higher than the Americans ones.Conclusion:Our study shows lower cost-effectiveness of FP7-European projects than the American-NIH on active aging. The results of this research, albeit with the limits already outlined, will have to be taken into consideration in the evaluative research of the future.
       
  • Virtual Reality-Based Exercise with Exergames as Medicine in Different
           Contexts: A Short Review

    • Abstract: There is enough evidence that, nowadays, the sedentary lifestyle is one of the major health problems worldwide, linked to many chronic diseases, including mental comorbidities, systemic hypertension, metabolic dysregulation, and cancer. Although health societies recommend engagement to physical activities, there is an overwhelming number of people remaining sedentary, even knowing the health benefits of regular exercises. One of the main factors that justifies this scenario is the lack of motivation, which is a barrier to people intended to start new habits for health. Considering this previous information, new alternatives for exercises may help people engage in a healthier lifestyle. Technology has contributed to this with devices that allow movements based on virtual reality approaches, including the exergames. These are games available even in commercial devices, as video-games, that allow people to work with different physical components. Furthermore, exergames add cognitive gain through its dual-task characteristic. Moreover, due to the combination of these benefits, they are feasible to acquire, and easy to use. Exergames are not only a potential strategy to reduce sedentary lifestyle but also a good method to improve health gains and rehabilitation in different populations and pathological conditions: older adults, stroke survivors, and Parkinson’s disease. In this review, we aim to demonstrate some conditions that literature supports the intervention with exergames due to its physical and cognitive benefits. Furthermore, at the end of this review, we also explore the neurobiological mechanisms behind virtual-reality based exercises.
       
  • Assessing Learning Needs and Career Attitudes of Italian Psychiatry
           Residents: Results from a National Survey Conducted by the Italian Society
           of Psychopathology Young Psychiatrists Section (SOPSI-GG)

    • Abstract: Objective:No data are available about learning needs and career attitudes of Italian Psychiatry Residents (IPRs).
      Authors aimed to assess such needs through a survey to generate insight for implementing educational programs close to IPRs’ perceived learning needs.Methods:A 54-item questionnaire was developed in order to investigate career information, educational preference and learning needs of IPRs. A sample of 298 IPRs participated to the survey and was divided into four subgroups according to their location (North, Centre, South and Islands). The subgroups were compared through ANOVA for age and chi-square tests for qualitative variables (including gender and all sub-items of the survey), with Bonferroni post-hoc analysis.Results:IPRs were found to pursue, along with traditional and theoretical training, a quite practical approach, characterized by working groups, discussions on clinical cases and practical interactive sessions. The topics of major interest included: clinical psychiatry, psychopharmacology, psychiatric emergencies, communication and relationship skills (97%, 98.0%, 98.3% and 95.7% of the total sample, respectively). Indeed, a strong need for interaction with healthcare professionals emerged (97% of the total sample). North and Centre IPRs were more involved in Day Hospital activities than residents from South Italy and Islands (p
       
  • The Prevalence of Specific Phobia by Age in an Italian Nationwide Survey:
           How Much Does it Affect the Quality of Life'

    • Abstract: Introduction:The study aimed to see if a community survey conducted by clinical interviewers with semi-structured psychiatric interviews shows lifetime prevalence rates of Specific Phobia (SP) similar to those found by surveys carried out by lay interviewers and if the high level of impairment found in SP may be confirmed.Methods:This is a community survey on an Italian nationwide sample randomly selected from registers of municipalities. Tools: semi-structured ANTAS psychiatric interview derived from the SCID-DSM-IV, carried out by clinicians (psychologists or physicians); Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) as a measure of Quality of Life (QoL). Analyses: means of the test odds ratios were adopted to test several associations regarding SP prevalence. One-way ANOVA was used to compare different groups on attributable burden due to SP and/or other disorders in worsening QoL.Results:The lifetime prevalence of SP was 2.3%. No difference was found by age class. Females showed more than twice the frequency of males (
       
  • Impairment of Quality of Life Associated With Lifetime Diagnosis of
           Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Women - A National Survey in Italy

    • Abstract: Introduction:The aim of the study was to measure the lifetime prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among women of an Italian community sample, the comorbidity of PTSD with mood and anxiety disorders and the burden attributable to PTSD in worsening the Quality of Life (QoL).Methods:Community survey on a sample of 1961 adult women randomly selected. Tools: psychiatric clinical interview ANTAS partially derived from the SCID-DSM-IV, administered by psychologists or medical doctors; Short Form Health Survey (SF-12); Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ).Results:Lifetime prevalence of PTSD in women was 1.3%, (1.4% in44 years aged; p=0.8). In order of risk of comorbidity, PTSD was associated with: Bipolar Spectrum Disorders (MDQ+), Panic Disorders (PD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). People with PTSD showed an SF-12 mean score lower than women of the same sample without PTSD (standardized by gender and age), with a mean difference (attributable burden) of 3.9±0.9 similarly to MDD and Eating Disorders and higher than PD. Among the analyzed nonpsychiatric diseases, Multiple Sclerosis and Carotid Atherosclerosis showed a higher burden in impairing QoL than PTSD; Wilson’s Disease showed a similar burden and Celiac Disease was found less impairing on QoL than PTSD.Conclusion:The attributable burden in worsening women’ perceived QoL due to a lifetime diagnosis of PTSD was found comparable to those caused by MDD, Eating Disorders or by neurological condition such as Wilson’s Disease. The comorbidity of PTSD with Bipolar Spectrum Disorders was remarkable, even further studies are needed to clarify the direction of causality.
       
  • Child and Adolescent Behavior Inventory (CABI): A New Instrument for
           Epidemiological Studies and Pre-Clinical Evaluation

    •  
  • Could an Innovative Training Program Including Contact Sports and
           Counseling Help Young People With Traits of Psychopathy and A History of
           School Dropout'

    • Abstract: Background:The aim was to assess the effects of a training program inclusive of contact sports and counseling on school dropout, quality of life (QoL) and psychopathologic symptoms in the youth with a history of school dropout and psychopathic personality traits.Methods:The Experimental Group (EG) consisted of 32 subjects (male 90.6%; age 19.6±4.3 years); the Control Group (CG) consisted of an equal number matched for gender and age with the same psychological features. At the beginning of the experimental Training Program (T0), both cohorts were assessed by a diagnostic psychiatric interview (SCID ANTAS), the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) to evaluate QoL, the Psychopathy Checklist - Revised (PCL-R) for the assessment of psychopathic traits, the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) to measure general psychopathology. At the end of the program (T1), the coorths were evaluated by SF-12 and SRQ.Results:Twenty-seven subjects in the EG (84.4%) completed the course and underwent the evaluation at T1. The SF-12 score significantly increased from T0 to T1 in both groups, albeit this was more evident in the EG than in the CG, owing to an interaction between time and group. SRQ score significantly decreased in the EG from T0 to T1, while in the CG it did not, although the interaction between time and group was not significant.Conclusion:The experimental training program was effective in improving QoL and countering school dropout in young citizens with psychopathic traits. Further studies are needed to clarify if such results are due to a relationship between the practical tasks approach including contact sports and an improvement in mentalization processes.
       
  • Sex-Related Differences in Plasma Oxytocin Levels in Humans

    • Abstract: Background:Increasing evidence supports a key role of Oxytocin (OT) as a modulator of social relationships in mammals.Objective:The aim of the present study was to investigate possible sex-related differences in plasma OT levels in human beings.Methods:Forty-five healthy men and 45 women (mean age: 34.9 ± 6.2 years), were included in the study. Plasma preparation, peptide extraction and OT radioimmunoassay were carried out according to standardized methods.Results:The results showed that OT plasma levels (pg ̸ ml, mean ± SD) were significantly higher in women than in men (4.53 ± 1.18 vs 1.53 ± 1.19, p ˂ 0.001).Conclusions:The present finding demonstrates sex-related differences in plasma OT levels in humans. It is tempting to hypothesize that such differences might be related to behaviours, attitudes, as well as susceptibility to stress response, resilience and social emotions specific of women and men.
       
  • Prevention Actions of Burnout Syndrome in Nurses: An Integrating
           Literature Review

    • Abstract: Aims:To identify the strategies for the prevention of burnout syndrome in nurses; and discuss the results for future interventions that can decrease burnout in these professionals.Design:An integrative review of the literature.Data Sources:PubMed, Lilacs, Medline, Scielo, and Science Direct, from April 2018 to July 2018.Methods:The sources were in all 553 references were found. The following guiding question was: Which interventions for the prevention of burnout in nurses have been applied and have obtained high effectiveness'Results:Based on the inclusion and exclusion factors, 30 studies were selected for analysis. The studies were categorized in individual, group and organizational, being the studies with actions in groups those of greater prevalence.Conclusion:The actions used to cope with burnout were, for the most part, effective, with some demonstrating greater success than others. From the 30 reviewed studies, the results did not obtain satisfactory improvement in burnout in only three interventions: 1) Systematic nursing supervision; 2) Basic nursing care; and 3) Psycho-oncological training program.
       
 
 
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