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Open Nutrition Journal
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1874-2882
Published by Bentham Open Homepage  [65 journals]
  • The Dilemma of Weight Cycling in Obesity: Is It Really a Health Risk

  • Management Strategy of Obesity in the Public Health System: Proposal of a
           New Model to Optimize Human Resources and Patient’s Motivation

    • Abstract: Introduction:Obesity, a disease characterized by an excess of adipose tissue, is a worldwide issue of growing interest in public health.Methods:The multifactorial etiology and pathogenesis of obesity strongly orient the scientific community in considering it as a chronic disease without an effective therapy that works for all patients affected by this clinical condition. This leads to a proliferation of non-scientific and dangerous treatment proposals and fake news. The Dietetic and Clinical Nutrition Unit at Bolzano Hospital in Italy has adopted a new strategy based on transparency to optimize time for the first visit and particularly to increase patients’ knowledge and motivation.Results:This new strategy provides a preliminary consultation between patients who ask for a nutritional examination and a clinical team composed of a clinician, a dietician and a psychologist. We discuss the preliminary results obtained during the period between February 2010 and March 2016.
  • Daily Oral Chondroitin Sulfate Oligosaccharides for Knee Joint Pain in
           Healthy Subjects: A Randomized, Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Study

    • Abstract: Background:The increased rate of population aging in Japan has led to an increase in the incidence of osteoarthritis (OA). Chondroitin sulfate has been reported to reduce the pain and swelling associated with OA and to improve knee function.Objective:We evaluated the safety and effects of oral chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides on knee function in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled parallel group comparison study of healthy Japanese subjects with knee joint pain.Methods:Subjects were randomly divided into test and placebo groups and given either active-test capsules containing 100 mg of chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides or placebo capsules daily for 8 weeks. The Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM), Visual Analog Scale (VAS), blood and physical examinations, and medical interviews were performed at weeks 0, 4, and 8, and the locomotive syndrome risk test was performed at weeks 0 and 8 during the test intake period.Results:The JKOM scores did not significantly differ between the test groups. However, among subjects with worse VAS scores, those in the active test group had significantly lower JKOM scores at 8 weeks, compared to those in the placebo group. Moreover, chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharide treatment tended to improve the subjects' scores on the stand-up test, which evaluates the risk of locomotive syndrome. Furthermore, no abnormal changes or severe adverse events were observed during physical or blood examinations or medical interviews.Conclusion:Our results suggest that chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides improve knee pain and are safe for 8-week intake.
  • Abdominal Obesity Index as an Alternative Central Obesity Measurement
           During a Physical Examination

    • Abstract: Background:Although BMI (body mass index) has been widely used to determine whether an individual is underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese, its clinical usefulness for obesity study has been called into question because it does not specifically describe body fat content and distribution and has limited relevance to central obesity, which is most relevant to health risks. Although imaging techniques are used to determine central obesity, they are expensive and are thus not used in a routine physical examination of patients in medical offices.Objective:Developing an easy-to-use ABOI (Abdominal Obesity index) to measure central obesity during a physical examination.Methods:ABOI is an index utilized to assess central obesity of patients. To determine ABOI, two measurements are taken from the torso; the outer circumference of the thoracic segment, C, at the xiphoid process and the outer circumference of the abdominal segment, C, at the point of largest girth. The volume of the abdominal segment is divided by the volume of the thoracic segment to derive ABOI (V/V = [C]/[C]). Thus, ABOI is the square of the ratio of the circumference of the abdominal segment to the circumference of the thoracic segment of the torso. Moreover, the ABOI does not concern total body weight, body height, or body shape ( “apple-shaped” or “pear-shaped” body types). Instead, ABOI specifically highlights central obesity. We randomly recruited 282 subjects, ages 20-90 years, at a community health service center in Beijing, China, and determined their ABOI and BMI values.Results:The mean (standard deviation) BMI for the female and male subjects is, respectively, 24.24 kg/m2 (3.35) and 24.86 kg/m2 (3.25). For ABOI, mean (standard deviation) is 1.17 (0.16) and 1.01 (0.13) for females and males, respectively. There is no strict relationship between ABOI and BMI in the context of obesity as defined by high BMI values, and ABOI appears to be a more specific measure of central obesity than BMI.Conclusion:ABOI is a useful and distinct independent measurement of central obesity, and ABOI (possibly in combination with the waist-to-height ratio) appears to be a more specific way to assess central obesity during a physical examination.
  • Characterization of Website use Associated with the WhyDairy'
           School-based Nutrition Education Intervention

    • Abstract: Background:Despite the known health benefits of dairy products, their daily consumption continues to decline, particularly in pre-adolescents and adolescents. It is therefore of interest to develop effective strategies to increase dairy intake and education in this population.Objective:The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the web-based component of a school-based dairy nutrition intervention called WhyDairy'. Through analysis of popular website content, traversal paths and timing of website access, we aimed to investigate how students used this website and to identify areas of improvement for future research.Method:Grade 7 students (n=115) in 10 Southwestern Ontario schools received the WhyDairy' intervention, which included three classroom visits and a website that could be voluntarily accessed. Website use data was collected using Google Analytics. The intervention delivered to control schools did not have a website component and is therefore not described in this report.Results:The website was voluntarily accessed by 33.6% of students participating in the intervention. Almost 70% of website visits occurred within two days following a classroom visit. Popular content included games and interactive pages. While there was moderate engagement with the website during the intervention period, there was poor engagement during the follow-up period.Conclusion:The utilization of the WhyDairy' website represents students’ interest in independently furthering their knowledge and student engagement with a web-based component of a dairy nutrition intervention. Future work should investigate students’ motivations for accessing the website and how to encourage prolonged website use.
  • Effect of Macronutrient on Plasma, Liver and Pancreatic Metabolomics and
           their Hierarchic Weights in the Metabolic Network

    • Abstract: Background/Aims:The aims of this study were to: 1) investigate the specific metabolomic effects of single macro nutrients in cold exposed rats; and 2) Using centrality analysis ascertain the correlations between these metabolomic parameter measurements.Methods:Fifty male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups and individually housed under cold climatic conditions. Rats were either cold exposed fasted (negative control) or fed with the following commercially available single macronutrients: casein, POLYCOSE® and safflower oil; the positive control diets included all macronutrients. Samples from the plasma, liver and pancreas were collected and 33 different parameters were determined.Results:The primary correlation found between pancreatic hormones and the variables as measured, showed significant positive connections between centrality network node members. Heatmap analysis showed that the macronutrients fed have very differing effects on the metabolomics measured, casein has a high Heatmap Index on plasma corticosterone while POLYCOSE® and fat had a minimal impact.Conclusion:The cold exposed fasted animal model, in which nutrient catabolism is near maximal, serves as a useful “in vivo” tool for studying the relationships among the nutrients, hormones and digestive enzymes under cold stress conditions; feed intake, liver glucose, and small intestinal amylase hold a high position in centrality mapping and are highly imbedded in the metabolomic networks. For example, this model shed light on the relations amoung hormone and enzyme contents of duodenal pancreas, gastric+splenic pancreas and enzyme activities in small intestinal contents. These findings can be applied to optimizing feeding of animals under cold stress.
  • Probiotics: A Promising Tool for Calcium Absorption

    • Abstract: As we know nutrients are necessary for the development and proper functioning of the human organism. Bioavailabilities of nutrients are the major concern rather than the supply of an adequate amount of nutrients in the diet. Many of the researches have been shown that the consumption of probiotics along with dairy foods buffers the acidity of the stomach and increases the bacterial survival rate into the intestine. A dairy product with probiotics also provides many of essential nutrients, including protein and calcium. From all the necessary nutrients the calcium having a major role in the human body including the development of bone and teeth are also regulating enzymes and many more. Calcium is the most essential nutrient, about 99% of calcium found in teeth and bone in the body and only 1% is found in serum. A numbers of researches have shown that adequate amount of calcium intake leads to reduce risk of fracture, Osteoporosis and Hypoglycaemia and diabetes in some population. Many of the researches suggested that the Probiotics having a significant role in improvement of calcium uptake and absorption, hence the present review gives information about the relationship of probiotics and calcium, ensuring higher bioavailability of calcium and promising a better bone health. Here, the review study showed a significant role of probiotics in calcium absorption and thus the bioavailabilities. Moreover, it is focused on glimpse of various studies and in-vitro models associated with the phenomena of calcium absorption and uptake.
  • Sarcopenic Obesity: Definition, Health Consequences and Clinical

    • Abstract: Over the last decade, a new condition, which occurs in the presence of both sarcopenia and obesity, has been termed “sarcopenic obesity”. The term describes the coexistence of obesity, defined as the increase in body fat mass deposition, and sarcopenia, defined as the reduction in lean mass and muscle strength. However, many uncertainties still surround the condition of sarcopenic obesity in terms of its definition, the adverse short- and long-term health effects (, medical disease, psychosocial functioning, quality of life and mortality) and its clinical management. The aim of this short communication is to emphasize some crucial aspects that future research should take into account in order to avoid bias and misinterpretations and to underline that the study of sarcopenic obesity should be considered a scientific and clinical priority, as reported by the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) and the European Association for the Study of Obesity (EASO).
  • Cardiomyopathy Secondary to Selenium Deficiency: A Review of Clinical

    • Abstract: Background:Selenium is an essential micronutrient for the human body because it is needed for the synthesis of selenoproteins, which have various biological functions. As a result, selenium deficiency associated with diets and/or environments manifests in different disease states such as epilepsy, multiminicore disease and cardiovascular injury which in some cases is a presage of cardiomyopathy.Objective:This objective was to review published cases and identify selenium-responsive cardiomyopathy due to selenium deficiency by various factors.Methods:Published case reports in English were identified and extracted from PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Science Direct Library.Results:28 case reports met inclusion criteria out of an initial 189 articles.Conclusion:Acquired selenium deficiency is a causative factor for the development of cardiomyopathy in patients under different conditions, and treatment of these patients with selenium is effective in normalizing cardiac function or reducing cardiac dysfunction. Thus, it is important to include selenium deficiency as a possible cause of cardiomyopathy for diagnosis and treatment purposes.
  • Almonds and Walnuts Consumption Modifies PUFAs Profiles and Improves
           Metabolic Inflammation Beyond the Impact on Anthropometric Measure

    • Abstract: Purpose:To evaluate changes in serum fatty acids, metabolic profile and inflammation markers after a dietary intervention of 15g of walnuts and 15g of almonds for 8 weeks in obese subjects,Patients and Methods:We studied a total of 48 sedentary obese grade I subjects (13 men and 35 women). Anthropometric measures, body composition, serum glucose, lipid profile, insulin, lipocalina-2, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), adiponectin, and fatty acids profile were analyzed at the baseline and after dietary intervention.Results:The adiponectin (30.4%, p = 0.007), and lipocalin-2 concentrations (17.9%, p = 0.014), and total Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) percentage (1.6% p = 0.040) significantly increased after the intervention; particularly the eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid percentages were increased marginally. A significant decrease in saturated fatty acids levels (3%, p = 0.001), in particular the C:14, C:16, in total cholesterol (6.7%, p = 0.01), LDL (11.4%, p = 0.002) levels, and in all adiposity measures (weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, BMI and fat mass, p < 0.0001) was found. The effect size was large for all adiposity measures, except for BMI as well as for adiponectin which was moderate.Conclusion:The intake of almonds and walnuts to short-time may improve significantly the metabolic profile and decrease adiposity.
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