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Diversity of Research in Health Journal
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2561-1666
Published by Laurentian University Homepage  [2 journals]
  • [French] The Impact of the Bilingual Exhibition on Vocabulary Acquisition
           in a Minority Francophone Context

    • Authors: Katie Lynn Gervais, Chantal Mayer-Crittenden
      Pages: 1 - 29
      Abstract: The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between the amount of exposure to two languages and vocabulary acquisition in those languages among bilingual children in a French linguistic minority situation. The data used in this study was obtained from a longitudinal study conducted by Author (in progress). Sixty typically developing children aged five to six years old participated in the study. These participants were divided into two groups: French-dominant children (FD) and English-dominant children (ED). All the participants completed tests measuring receptive and expressive vocabulary, both in French and in English. The scores obtained were compared to the regional monolingual norms obtained from children with the same linguistic status (Auteur, 2014), or to the published monolingual norms. Test results showed that the FD children scored lower than the monolingual Franco-Ontarian norm on the receptive vocabulary measure in French. For the expressive vocabulary in French, the FD children also scored below the published monolingual norm. There was no significant difference between the ED children and the monolingual English norms on the receptive and expressive vocabulary measures in English. It appears that when the child’s dominant language is a minority language, the vocabulary acquisition becomes more difficult in that language. On the contrary, when the child’s dominant language is a majority language, it seems easier to acquire the vocabulary in that dominant language.    
      PubDate: 2018-08-08
      DOI: 10.28984/drhj.v2i0.222
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2018)
  • Self-perceived Mental Health of Older Adults in Canada

    • Authors: Phyllis Montgomery, Parveen Nangia, Sharolyn Mossey, Sarah Rancourt
      Pages: 30 - 49
      Abstract: Background: In the past decade, statistics indicate that over 80% of the six million Canadians aged 65 or older resided in non-institutional settings. To sustain their health in the community, there is national evidence about the interplay among alterations in physical, emotional, cognitive, social, cultural, and geographical factors. Although much is known about mental health challenges of this population, less is known about determinants of self-perceived mental health. Aim: The primary aim of this study was to determine personal and external variables that are associated with self-perceived mental health in two groups of community dwelling Canadians aged 65 to 79 and those aged 80 and older. Methods: The study design was a secondary analysis of Canadian Community Health Survey (2014) public use micro-data file. A sub-set of health, determinants of health, and health system utilization variables were extracted for 19,502 community-dwelling older adults residing in ten provinces and three territories. Results: Self-perceived mental health was significantly associated with several personal and external variables relative to age group. For both age groups, a positive perception of mental health was predicated on self-perceived physical health, emotional functioning, general life satisfaction, sense of belonging and income. Conclusion: Findings support the potential for innovative interdisciplinary models to optimize older adults' mental health for living independently.
      PubDate: 2018-08-09
      DOI: 10.28984/drhj.v2i0.159
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2018)
  • Nursing Processes Related to Unexpected ICU Admissions

    • Authors: Jennifer Martin, Roberta Heale, Nancy Lightfoot, Laura Hill
      Pages: 50 - 65
      Abstract: Nurses have the knowledge and skills to recognize and intervene when the condition of patients on medical or surgical units deteriorates. Despite this, deterioration is sometimes missed resulting in unexpected ICU admissions. This study explored the nursing process factors associated with unexpected ICU admissions. A chart audit was undertaken in a large urban hospital and data were collected measuring nursing assessment (vital signs), communication and documentation. Results showed that the most common reason for an unexpected ICU admission was respiratory distress. At the same time, respiratory rate was the least documented vital sign. Communication, documentation and recognition of patient deterioration play a key role in intervening and preventing unexpected ICU admissions. Attention to adequate staffing levels as well as implementation of clinical tools may assist nurses to more readily address patient deterioration and prevent unexpected ICU admissions.  
      PubDate: 2018-08-09
      DOI: 10.28984/drhj.v2i0.126
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2018)
  • The Relationship Between Motor Skills, Psychosocial Adjustment and Peer
           Victimization in School-Aged Children

    • Authors: Moriah Thorpe, Line Tremblay, Brahim Chebbi, Brahim Chebbi, Céline Larivière
      Pages: 66 - 87
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between childrens’ motor competence, psychosocial adjustment, peer victimization, physical activity participation and obesity.  Using the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as the framework, we hypothesized that multiple stressors influence children with poor motor competence and that the pathway from motor competence to psychosocial maladjustment is more complex than initially thought.  A sample of child-parent dyads (n = 51; children ages 7 to 10 years), were recruited from two educational institutions in Sudbury, Ontario. Child participants completed self-report measures on peer victimization, depression symptoms, loneliness and anxiety symptoms across five dimensions (social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, separation anxiety, panic disorder and generalized anxiety). Child participants also completed the Test of Gross Motor Development-3.  Parent participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and a questionnaire on their child’s levels of participation in physical activity. For boys, Pearson product-moment correlations revealed that lower motor competence was significantly related to depressive symptoms, social phobia, separation anxiety symptoms, loneliness and peer victimization. For girls, lower motor competence was significantly related to separation anxiety symptoms and loneliness. No correlations were found between motor competence, weight status and physical activity participation.  Findings are consistent with previous literature. These findings suggest that (1) boys are more psychosocially affected and victimized than girls when measured against motor competence and, (2) children are experiencing these issues as early as age 7, which is a time when children are starting to build social relationships. More research is required strengthen these findings.
      PubDate: 2018-08-07
      DOI: 10.28984/drhj.v2i0.240
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2018)
  • A Faith Community Nursing Initiative

    • Authors: Emily Donato, Lindsay Green, Ivy Serwah, Reilly Sousa
      Pages: 88 - 101
      Abstract: Faith community nursing is introduced to students in third year of the BScN curriculum as one of the roles that nurses may have in community health. The plan to develop a faith community nursing placement was initiated when a local parish contacted the nursing professor to have student nurses assist with blood pressure screening and the organization of a health fair. This request created a unique opportunity to have three students placed with a nursing professor to address the health needs of the parish members. Partnerships with educational institutions have been found to enhance faith community health care, and provide learners such as nursing students with an opportunity to practice in a faith-based learning environment (Maitlen, Bockstahler, & Belcher, 2012; Otterness, Gehrke, & Sener, 2007). The main objectives of this initiative were to review the literature on faith community nursing, identify a model to guide the assessment and work that would occur within the setting, and to complete a needs assessment of the faith community.  The assessment of the faith community was guided by the socio-ecological model (Campbell et al., 2007) which further informed the planning and delivery of the most appropriate health promotion activities within this setting.  
      PubDate: 2018-08-08
      DOI: 10.28984/drhj.v2i0.218
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2018)
  • The Role of the Nurse: A Comparison of the Canadian and Ghanaian Health
           Care Systems as Experienced by Undergraduate Nursing Students

    • Authors: Krista Shalton, Shea-Lee Godin, Katrina Genereux, Emily Donato
      Pages: 102 - 118
      Abstract: Undergraduate nursing students were placed for three weeks in three small communities in Ghana as part of an international cross-cultural nursing elective.  The main objectives of the placement were to learn about the country’s culture and health care system, and to participate in community nursing placements in both community clinic and school settings.  As nursing students participating in this cross-cultural experience, we had the opportunity to work in Ghana’s health care system, where we were able to learn about the nursing role. It became evident that the nursing values, scope of practice, roles and responsibilities had some similarities, but also demonstrated several differences compared to nursing in Canada. A literature review was performed to contrast the cultural differences compared to nursing practice in Canada. Literature was also applied to our personal experiences to facilitate our understanding of the importance of providing culturally sensitive care. Overall, this valuable cross-cultural experience influenced our personal growth, allowing us to thoughtfully integrate our experience through further reflection and review of literature after the course was completed.
      PubDate: 2018-08-09
      DOI: 10.28984/drhj.v2i0.138
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2018)
  • [French] Le développement d'une langue seconde chez des enfants qui
           ont un trouble déficitaire d'attention avec hyperactivité (TDAH)

    • Authors: Stephanie Frenette, Chantal Mayer-Crittenden
      Pages: 119 - 138
      Abstract: In different conversational contexts, pragmatics, which is the social use of language, allows us to manage the way other aspects of language are used (Prutting & Kirchner, 1987; Searle, 1969). However, some children who have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or who have a developmental language disorder (DLD) have difficulty with this aspect, making it difficult for them to communicate well in different situations. ADHD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders found in children (Cantwell, 1996). Since ADHD reduces a child's ability to pay attention, these children often have learning difficulties. Often, there are more academic difficulties found in children who have ADHD and DLD (Özerk, Handorff, & Özerk, 2011; Zylowska, Ackerman, Yang, Futrell, Horton, Hale, & al., 2007). DLD is a disorder characterized by problems in understanding and/or expressing language without being caused by another disorder or syndrome. Speechlanguage pathologists are often called upon to evaluate and document the coexistence of DLD in children with ADHD (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 1997). However, assessing the language of children who have ADHD is not an easy task. As many children with ADHD experience difficulties with attention and learning their first language (L1), some researchers suggests that ADHD may also affect learning of a second language (L2). However, since few, if any, studies have explored this topic, the aim of this study would be to explore the impact of ADHD on L2 learning. This exploratory study will examine the language skills of three different groups of children: children without ADHD, children with ADHD and children with ADHD and DLD.
      PubDate: 2018-08-29
      DOI: 10.28984/drhj.v2i0.168
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2018)
  • [French] La maladie d’Alzheimer et ses conséquences sur les dimensions
           de la santé de la personne

    • Authors: Mathieu Rheault-Henry, Alannah Hawes, Emily Léger, Georges Kpazaï
      Pages: 139 - 149
      Abstract: Today, it is estimated worldwide that nearly 50 million people suffer from Alzheimer's disease . This number will nearly double every 20 years, reaching 75 million in 2030 and 131.5 million in 2050. This disease affects all dimensions of the human person. This study, which stems from a "literature review" type of research, discusses the four intrinsic dimensions of health considered most important for Alzheimer's disease: the social, mental, physical and emotional dimensions. The current state of the impact of Alzheimer's disease on these dimensions, as well as the prospects of intervention strategies for individuals suffering from this disease, are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-09-04
      DOI: 10.28984/drhj.v2i0.174
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2018)
  • Executive Function and Attention in Children Born Prematurely

    • Authors: Celeste Beaudoin, Roxanne Bélanger
      Pages: 150 - 156
      Abstract: Aim - The aim of this study is to measure the abilities of premature school-aged children in tasks of attention, working memory and executive functioning in order to determine if premature newborns are more at risk to develop delays compared to children born at term. Method - The sampling will be based on a previous study where five school-age premature children from Northern Ontario will be assessed using standardized tests. Each parent will be given a standardized questionnaire designed to measure the executive functioning of his or her child. The results will be then compared to those of a control group born at term without any neonatal complications. Participants will be matched according to gender, age, language status and socio-economic status. Preliminary analysis has shown that premature infants have reduced performance in tasks such as attention and executive functioning (inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility). The influence of gestational age, birth weight and socio-economic status will be explained. Importance of the Study - Premature children are more vulnerable to developmental and behavioural delays (Taheri, Goudarzi, Shariat, Nariman, & Martin, 2017). Several studies have shown that delays in executive functions are associated with lower academic achievement (Hüning et al., 2017). This study will help us determine the nature of the impact on non-language skills in premature infants. Preliminary results will allow us to better understand the impact of prematurity on the development of attention and executive functioning (inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility), as it relates to language.
      PubDate: 2018-08-08
      DOI: 10.28984/drhj.v2i0.237
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2018)
  • The Health Needs and Experiences of Trans Residents in Small and Rural

    • Authors: Tanya Shute
      Pages: 157 - 164
      Abstract: This brief paper summarizes the findings from a community-based research project examining the health needs and experiences of trans-identified people in small and rural communities as presented at the 9th annual Laurentian University Faculty of Health conference. This study involved residents who identify as transgender living in North Simcoe/Muskoka, an area comprised of small, rural, suburban and remote communities. It employed a mixed method design, with quantitative findings derived from a comprehensive online survey and qualitative findings from a series of community focus groups. A sample of findings related to health care experiences grounded in the voices of participants was presented. These findings included several common themes that characterize the health service encounter of residents who are transgender. The health care experience of trading off competent trans-specific health care provision for respect and willingness on behalf of the health care practitioner was common, and provides evidence for the lack of trans-specific health care available in these areas. Experiences of service denial or rejection as a result of their trans identities or gender expression were also common. Residents who are transgendered in areas where there is a lack of service infrastructure are also forced to become their own health care experts, a necessary and distressing reality of accessing health care as a transgender individual in small and rural areas.  
      PubDate: 2018-08-09
      DOI: 10.28984/drhj.v2i0.132
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2018)
  • Abandonment

    • Authors: Amy Rene Lovelace, Liam Ellis Phelan, Rosanna Langer, Moira Ferguson, Lissa L Gagnon
      Pages: 165 - 174
      Abstract: Purpose: Emergency departments (ED’s) often serve as the access point to health services for individuals living with mental health challenges, with mental health crisis (MHC) accounting for 15% of all presentations to ED’s in Canada. Consumers’ experiences of emergency mental health services have widely been reported as negative. This research aims to explore the experiences of individuals accessing the ED for MHC. Method: A supra-analysis was conducted using data from four semi-structured interviews collected from a larger study exploring stigma, discrimination and resilience in people experiencing mental health challenges. Supra-analysis aims to explore an aspect of the data from a different theoretical perspective. Transcripts were selected based on a participant history of voluntarily accessing emergency services for MHC. Data analysis was completed using the process of thematic analysis which involved immersion in the data, the development and refinement of codes leading to themes. Findings: A major theme of abandonment was identified in participant interviews with subthemes of; geographic, socioemotional and therapeutic abandonment. Participants reported that the locations of care, lack of social/emotional engagement and lack of health care providers’ (HCP) knowledge led to negative experiences attending ED’s. Participants also reported a lack of desire to access emergency services in the future. Conclusion: Future research is vital to enhance the delivery of emergency services, to reduce the feelings of abandonment experienced by individuals accessing the ED for MHC. Training and education must be provided to HCP’s staffing ED’s that focuses on providing high quality, appropriate emergency services to this vulnerable population.
      PubDate: 2018-09-24
      DOI: 10.28984/drhj.v2i0.252
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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