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Journal of Occupational Therapy Education
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2573-1378
Published by Eastern Kentucky University Homepage  [6 journals]
  • Design of an OSCE to Assess Clinical Competence of Occupational Therapy

    • Authors: Nancy E. Krusen et al.
      Abstract: Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) are a series of controlled, timed stations in which students demonstrate clinical skills. OSCEs are commonly used within health professions education to demonstrate competence, prepare for clinical education, and conduct program evaluation. The body of literature addressing the use of OSCEs in occupational therapy (OT) is growing; however, there are no available guidelines for developing an OSCE specific to the profession. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of an OSCE for OT students prior to fieldwork placement. Twelve OT practitioners participated in a modified-Delphi method to generate possible OSCE scenarios. The authors developed a blueprint, designed items, implemented an OSCE, and collected data. Quantitative analysis suggests OSCEs to be valid assessment of clinical skills. Qualitative analysis suggests students perceive OSCEs to be stressful but valuable learning experiences. The authors are conducting additional analysis of outcome data, exploring the utility of OSCEs as a strategy to assess clinical competence in OT. Stakeholders concurred with the need to investigate the experience of learning through doing. The authors believe OSCEs could address universal professional rather than program specific clinical competencies.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Jan 2019 17:06:51 PST
  • Part 2: Preparing Entry-Level Occupational and Physical Therapy Students
           to Promote Healthy Lifestyles Emphasizing Healthy Eating with Individuals
           with Disabilities

    • Authors: Brooks C. Wingo et al.
      Abstract: Rehabilitation professionals including occupational therapists (OT) and physical therapists (PT) are increasingly called upon to incorporate health promotion of lifestyle behaviors including physical activity and healthy eating into routine clinical care. While OTs and PTs may be comfortable promoting activity-related behaviors, many are less comfortable with nutrition behaviors. To address entry-level OT and PT students’ perceived discomfort with discussing diet-related behaviors, faculty developed a healthy eating module for students to use during a community-based service learning program. The purpose of this paper is to describe the formative evaluation process of developing the healthy eating module, and to discuss results of a pilot trial of this module. The formative assessment of the healthy eating module consisted of four steps: focus groups with students, key informant interviews with community partners, expert panel round table, and expert panel review of materials. Students (n=117) completed questionnaires at the end of the service learning program to assess how much they used the new resources, and how useful they found the resources. The final healthy eating module consisted of an on-line training session and a healthy eating toolkit, including resources for assessments, treatment activities and additional nutrition information. Mann-Whitney U tests indicated that students who reported high use of materials found the resources significantly more helpful than those students who reported low use (p
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Jan 2019 17:06:43 PST
  • Part 1: Preparing Entry-Level Occupational Therapy and Physical Therapy
           Students to Promote Health and Wellbeing with Individuals with

    • Authors: Brooks C. Wingo et al.
      Abstract: To address accreditation standards for health and wellbeing within entry-level occupational therapy (OT) and physical therapy (PT) programs, the OT, PT, and Human Studies Departments at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) collaborated with community partners to conduct an interdisciplinary service learning activity based on the I Can Do It, You Can Do It Program (ICDI). This program is a structured community health program where individuals without disabilities are partnered with individuals with disabilities to enhance physical activity, healthy eating, and community participation. The purpose of this paper is to describe a formative evaluation of ICDI at UAB, and to discuss revisions to the program made as a result of the evaluation. Faculty used a qualitative design to collect feedback on perceived benefits and challenges of the program. Focus groups were conducted with students who completed the program, and key informant interviews were conducted with site coordinators from each of the three partnering community sites. Two themes emerged from student focus groups: (1) Program benefits, with sub-themes of hands-on application and interaction, and (2) Challenges with suggestions for change, with sub-themes of preparation, communication, and expectations. Four themes emerged from key informant interviews: (1) Students, (2) Logistics, (3) Program benefits, and (4) Transference. Results of this evaluation led to a number of revisions for the 2016 cohort. Future evaluations will include objective measures of change in student knowledge over time, as well as health and behavioral outcomes of community members who participated in the ICDI program at UAB.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Jan 2019 17:06:34 PST
  • Student Perspectives of the Occupational Therapy Doctoral Experience in an
           Academic Setting

    • Authors: Stacy Smallfield et al.
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to gather student perspectives of the 16-week doctoral experiential component (DEC) of the entry-level doctor of occupational therapy educational curriculum from students who completed the DEC in an academic setting. A retrospective qualitative study of a focus group of five students who completed the DEC in an occupational therapy (OT) academic setting was conducted using semi-structured interview questions. Codes were grouped into themes and the findings were summarized. Four major themes emerged: 1) learning experiences; 2) purposeful ambiguity; 3) knowledge and skill development; and 4) newfound appreciation. Learning experiences included both the academic and other experiences during the DEC. Purposeful ambiguity encompassed opportunities the students had navigating experiences that do not have one solution. Knowledge and skill development included both the skills needed for the DEC and skills gained after the DEC. The final theme of newfound appreciation described how the DEC students expressed their new view of academia and their appreciation of having strong mentorship during this experience to help guide them into becoming a better academician. This study adds to the body of knowledge in OT education by providing a general framework of experiences that can be included in a doctoral experience in an academic setting and displays the benefits of the DEC as one method of preparing future OT educators.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Jan 2019 17:06:25 PST
  • Comparing Outcomes of Entry-Level Degrees from One Occupational Therapy

    • Authors: Stacy Smallfield et al.
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the professional outcomes of two entry-level occupational therapy degrees: the Master of Science (MSOT) and occupational therapy doctorate (OTD). This was a quantitative, exploratory study using a survey method. An online survey was sent to graduates from one occupational therapy program with known email addresses (N = 711). The survey included items relating to professional outcomes, such as job title, salary, and engagement with evidence-based practice, leadership, research, and interprofessional practice. Descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to describe and to compare groups. The survey yielded 208 responses eligible for analysis. The sample consisted of 146 MSOT graduates (70%) and 62 OTD graduates (30%). MSOT graduates were significantly more likely to be clinicians (z = -3.57, p < .05) and OTD graduates were significantly more likely to be educators (z = -4.24, p < .05). OTD graduates were significantly more likely to use evidence-based practice (z = -2.29, p < .05) and conduct research (z = -4.19, p < .05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in job titles, starting and current salaries, and perceived preparation for interprofessional coordination. These results contribute to understanding the impact of the two degrees for the profession, graduates, and future occupational therapy students.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Jan 2019 17:06:18 PST
  • Examination of Potential Factors to Predict Fieldwork Performance: A
           Program Evaluation Project

    • Authors: Sandra M. Whisner et al.
      Abstract: This program evaluation project evaluated the validity of a hypothesized model for predicting fieldwork performance using data of 121 occupational therapy students from a single university. The first aim was to evaluate the hypothesized relationships between observed measures (e.g., admission GPAs) and proposed latent factors (e.g., academic achievement) for predictor and outcome variables. Factor analysis of the outcome variable revealed a three-factor structure, measured by 13 items from the Fieldwork Performance Evaluation for the Occupational Therapy Student. However, factor analyses of the predictor variables did not support the proposed latent factors: Academic Achievement and Professional Potential. The second aim was to evaluate the hypothesized effects of predictor variables on level II fieldwork performance. Results of the structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis supported some of the hypothesized relationships. The model was a good fit to the data; however, the final SEM model only accounted for 16.4% of the variance. Results showed that four of the eight observed variables were predictive. Two academic measures (i.e., admission overall GPA and science GPA) and two non-academic measures (i.e., Myer’s Briggs Thinking type indicator and number of observation hours) demonstrated small predictive relationships with Evaluation Skills. Admission overall GPA and thinking type indicator had positive predictive relationships; whereas, admission science GPA and number of hours had inverse relationships. None of the observed variables predicted the other two fieldwork performance factors: Professional Behaviors and Intervention Skills. Although the results of this project did not fully support the hypothesized model, some interesting findings emerged for future exploration.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Jan 2019 17:06:10 PST
  • Occupational Therapy Student Conceptions of Self-Reflection in Level II

    • Authors: Susan L. Iliff et al.
      Abstract: Self-reflection is paramount to the development of professionalism and serves as the foundation of adult education and lifelong learning. Pedagogical approaches in health sciences programs that promote self-reflection are growing in popularity. Current literature identifies a gap in what and how students conceive self-reflection and whether self-reflection is creating professionals that meet the challenges of today’s healthcare climate. This qualitative study explores the conceptions of self-reflection for occupational therapy students in Level II Fieldwork. The use of phenomenographic methodology guided the collection of information-rich data through semi-structured interviews. Twenty-one occupational therapy graduates volunteered to participate in the interviews. Verbatim transcripts were coded to identify categories and patterns in the data. A focused discussion was employed as a member-checking method to ensure accuracy of study outcomes. Participants identified that self-reflection may serve to inform personal and professional practices during occupational therapy student clinical rotations. Although universally defined, student self-reflection occurred in countless ways and took many forms. Participants valued its function in expanded decision making, self-awareness, and competence in fieldwork and everyday occupations. These findings facilitate further research and the creation of new self-reflection educational methods or interventions designed to build or remediate self-reflective capacity of health sciences students during academic and clinical programming.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Jan 2019 17:06:01 PST
  • Towards Identifying Peer Supervision Competencies for Graduate-level
           Occupational Therapy Students: A Scoping Review

    • Authors: Annie Murphy-Hagan et al.
      Abstract: In the occupational therapy (OT) profession, peer supervision groups are recommended for professional development, lessening attrition, and relieving stress. Peer supervision is under researched, thus competencies to support this practice are unknown. The purpose of this scoping review was to: (1) summarize the research knowledge around peer supervision to support evidence-based practice in OT, (2) map supervision competencies and key themes in the literature, and (3) isolate peer supervision competencies that may be especially relevant to graduate-level OT students. The long-term aim of this research is to develop a framework for evidence-based peer supervision training. Researchers investigated the question: What competencies related to peer supervision, supervision in OT clinical education, and supervision in allied health are relevant to the education of graduate-level OT students' Using a six-step methodological framework, a scoping review of empirical, conceptual, and grey literature was conducted. Studies relevant to peer supervision, supervision in OT clinical education, and supervision practices in allied health professions were searched and appraised, yielding 15 high quality studies. Competencies were extracted and mapped, resulting in the following OT peer supervision competencies: flexibility, professional enculturation, providing constructive feedback, psychosocial support, teaching, and clinical skill acquisition. Findings suggest OT peer supervision competencies center on skillful relationship abilities, as supervision skills are not innate, not dependent on clinical skill, and typically need to be taught. This study warrants the need for additional efforts around supervision practices.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Jan 2019 17:05:53 PST
  • Self-Reflection and Measurement of Professional Behavior Growth in
           Entry-Level Occupational Therapy Students

    • Authors: Brenda S. Howard et al.
      Abstract: Occupational therapy (OT) educators have recognized the need to facilitate student professional development along a continuum of behavior that leads them toward professionalism. Reflection has often been a tool assisting in that process. The teaching of professional behavior has been a curricular thread throughout entry-level OT programs. Few studies exist, however, that have measured use of a self-assessment tool for reflection and development of professional behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine how self-perception of professional behaviors changed in two cohorts of an entry-level occupational therapy program. Investigators compared two cohorts of students at two points in time for both longitudinal and cross-sectional differences. Participants demonstrated significant increase from Time 1 to Time 2 in a greater number of professional behaviors in the area of Fieldwork vs. Academics. Students demonstrated unequal growth in categories, suggesting that academic environments may prompt growth in different professional behaviors than do fieldwork environments. In comparing the two cohorts, the second-year cohort demonstrated significantly higher scores in clinical reasoning (at Time 1), communication, and responsibility and reliability (at Time 2). Qualitative data suggested that students perceived reflection as a valuable tool for observing improvement and goal-setting in professional behaviors. Investigators summarized that self-reflection prompted awareness of changes in professional behaviors among entry-level OT students.
      Authors recommend utilizing both quantitative and qualitative means of self-reflection, with individualized review with academic advisors, in order to facilitate growth in professional behaviors.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Jan 2019 17:05:44 PST
  • Concepts of Caring: Uncovering Early Concepts of Care in Practice for
           First Year Occupational Therapy Students

    • Authors: James Battaglia
      Abstract: Caring for others is a central ideal of most health care professions. The ability to facilitate caring behaviors in occupational therapy students is essential to developing students who are well prepared to provide both technically and emotionally competent care. This study explored the early concepts of care of Master of Science Occupational Therapy students at the start of their graduate education through use of a questionnaire and follow-up interviews. The three most frequently identified student concepts of care were: (1) caring as it relates to time, (2) caring as a personal quality, and (3) caring through their communication with clients. Students also identified more frequently with negative past experiences in their responses but were not consciously aware of the impact of these experiences on their view of caring. Lastly, students were limited in their inclusion of social, cultural and socioeconomic factors in their responses and had difficulty resolving the conflict between treating everyone equally, and modifying care based on the impact of these factors. Results can inform occupational therapy education programs on how best to identify and facilitate comprehensive caring behaviors in students during the educational process. Further, the results provide a baseline for future evaluation of changes in these behaviors and beliefs over the course of the occupational therapy education process.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Jan 2019 17:05:37 PST
  • The Editors’ Perspective: Reflecting on Two Years of the Journal of
           Occupational Therapy Education

    • Authors: Renee Causey-Upton et al.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Jan 2019 17:05:28 PST
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Heriot-Watt University
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