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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2602-2710
Published by DergiPark Homepage  [201 journals]
  • Kelâm’in Kozmolojik Argümani ve Modern Bilim

    • Authors: Enis Doko
      Abstract: Hudus delili (Günümüz batı felsefesinde Kelam’ın kozmolojik kanıtı olarak da bilinir) Tanrı’nın varlığı lehinde geliştirilmiş, evrenin zamanda bir başlangıcı olduğu fikrine dayanan bir delildir. Bazı teistler modern bilimin, özellikle modern kozmoloji ve termodinamiğinin ikinci yasasının argümanın kilit öncülü olan evrenin zamanda bir başlangıcı olduğu iddiasını desteklediğini iddia etmişlerdir. Diğer taraftan bazı ateistler Kuantum Mekaniğinin parçacıkların nedensiz olarak yaratılabileceğini gösterdiğini, bunun da başlangıcı olan her şeyin bir nedeni olduğunu ifade eden Hudus delilinin nedensellik öncülünü yanlışladığını iddia etmişlerdir. Bu makaledeki amacımız bu iddiaları değerlendirip, modern bilimin Müslüman kelamcılar tarafından geliştirilen bu delil hakkında ne söylediğini belirlemektir.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • The Possibility of Kalām as an Epistemological Axis

    • Authors: Cafer Genç
      Abstract: Scholars of kalām have divided the knowledge into two as qadīm (eternal) and hādith (temporal) and correlated "al-‘ilm al-hādith" with humanbeings. They never regarded eternal and temporal knowledge as two distinct types of knowledge, rather they established the framework that eternal knowledge encompasses temporal knowledge. According to this definition, all the knowledge voluntarily emanate from humans are parts of "al-‘ilm al-hādith". Fundamental disciplines have emerged by addressing the same subject-matter from different perspectives and by using different methods. However, as the knowledge these disciplines has accumulated, they became autonomous forgetting the epistemological axis to which they belonged and their interdisciplinary paradigm-based divergence has deepened gradually, resulting an epistemological disruption. Every discipline by starting a process of forming their own "reality", this divergence between the disciplines have deepened paving the way for the stage of "differentiation". This negative network of interrrelational structure between the disciplines has also affected the human interactions causing an institutionalisation in that regard. Throughout history, kalām has always sought to ensure an integration between different disciplines; therefore, it is obliged to put forth the disadvantages that were formed or will be formed by epistemological disruptions using its normative language. Thus, this work deals theoretically with the possibility of kalām being an epistemological axis for this regard.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • Some Marginal Mahdi Typologies and Discourse Analyzes

    • Authors: Murat Akın
      Abstract: The Qur'an and sunnah, the main sources of Islam, happen to be used in favour of personal goals and intentions for some people and/or groups to achieve. However, in order to influence people and to bring them to their fronts these two sources by means of dreams, oracles, prophecies and some publications become eventually disfunctional. Some marginal types, apart from large familiar structures, are using this method as well. Adnan Oktar, Serdar Ciftci, Iskender Evrenesoglu, and so on, who define themselves as spiritual authority for the salvation of mankind, regard their subjective experiences as a source of religion in the transmission of religious knowledge. At the same time they introduce themselves as the source of peace. Despite hundreds having been in the same allegation throughout the history, none brought any peace, yet they themselves were the cause of trouble. Even now, the aforementioned names in our work, victimised dozens of families and their legal investigations are still ongoing. Ultimately, these typologies offer nothing but dissension and depression to Islamic world instead of peace and unity. We intend to analyse some of these day-by-day-multiplying marginalised Mahdi typologies and their discourses.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • Knowledge, Sources of Knowledge and Its Value in Huseyin Avni of Arapkir

    • Authors: Mustafa Bozkurt
      Abstract: Hüseyin Avni of Arapkir was one of the representatives of philosophical Kalam, an important branch of the Ash’arî theological tradition, despite the fact that he belonged to the Matürîdî tradition. In this study, Avni's understanding of knowledge was tried to be revealed. Avni criticized many definitions of knowledge. He did not try to make his own definition of knowledge. He, however, made a classification of knowledge similar to that of the Tahâfut tradition. For him, sources of knowledge are the five senses, reason, and transmission (khabar). He argues that each of these sources offers information about a certain area, and that knowledge in the question was reliable. Avni gave place in his understanding of knowledge to five internal senses accepted by Islamic philosophers and five external senses accepted by theologians, thereby reflecting philosophical kalam attitude. He touched upon khabar pecifically to the right message. With message of Prophet, he meant the Hadith. 
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • Argumentations in Proving Attributions of Prophets in Sanūsī's
           Treatise, Umm al-Barāhīn

    • Authors: Nail Karagöz
      Abstract: Muhammad b. Yusuf al-Sanusi is one of the most important Ash'ari theologist in the 15th century North Africa. It is known that he wrote in most of the theological sciences which mainly in theology and mysticism. The fact that logic science is also included among these sciences, reflects the level of development in terms of "istidlal". Senûsî's booklet named "Umm al-berahin” was written with the purpose of proving the belief that "There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is his messenger" is the source of all faith. In addition to the inferences about Allah and His attributes he also explained the attributes that must be found in the messengers based on the word "Muhammad is His messenger" and also tried to prove these features, which are considered to be truthfulness, rescript and notification, with various arguments. According to Sanusi, who defends the opinion that belief to the Hereafter, other prophets, angels, sacred books were entering this context, this is because the Prophet brought religion as a means to attest to all this. He based his inferences about the messengers adjectives on the inverse analogy in "Umm al-barahin". Besides, he used "inference by using miracle", "arrangement two original according to a result", "chained analogy", "arrangement according to two original results" and "abbreviated analogy" forms.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • The Eternity of the Divine Attributes within the Context of the
           Origination of the Universe, the Temporality and the Mutability of
           Particulars and Human Freedom

    • Authors: Ekrem Sefa Gül
      Abstract: The relationship between the eternity of the divine attributes and the origination of the universe (ḥudūth al-‘ālam), fate, and human freedom is among the most important problems of Kalām. This study deals with this problem by examining the connection of the kalāmī view of the origination of the world with God’s attributes in general and His eternal knowledge in particular. In this connection, it also revisits the issue of human free will. One of the main arguments of this paper is that the difficulties in the explanation of the relationship between God and the universe lies on the misapprehension of the term eternity. The difficulties in the explanation of the divine attributes and their relation to the universe revolve primarily around the conception of eternity understood as the infinite succession of moments in time or as something before the beginning of time. On the other hand, if eternity is understood as an attribute peculiar to God only, which also embraces all the temporal extensions as a succession in it, we may provide some explanations regarding God’s attributes and their relation to the universe. Within this direction, some intellectual developments in the 20th century such as the theory of relativity and quantum physics have enabled us to posit a better concept of eternity that seems to be promising in the explanation of the abovementioned problems.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • The Main Theories of the Relationship Between God and the Universe in the
           Islamic Thought: Origination (Ḥudūth), Emanation (Ṣudūr), and
           Manifestation (Ẓuhūr)

    • Authors: Fatma Aygün
      Abstract: In this study, we will analyze the three major theories concerning the relationship between God and the universe: origination (ḥudūth), emanation (ṣudūr), manifestation (ẓuhūr or tajallī). The theory of origination was developed in the history of Kalam. The majority of the theologians (Mutakallimūn) aimed to offer a concept of God and His relation to the universe based on the origination theory. On the other hand, the Muslim philosophers, mostly Ibn Sīnā, suggested the theory of emanation to provide a causal explanation of the universe as well as God’s relation to it. The theory of manifestation emerged in the philosophical Sufism. Ibn ‘Arabī posited the concept of manifestation as an explanation of God’s connection with the universe. Based on their cosmological views, each field also aimed to offer their proof of God’s existence. The theologians argued that the universe was temporally originated (muḥdath) and therefore necessitates an originator (muḥdith) upon their premise that everything originated needs an originator. On the other hand, the philosophers attempted to address the premise of "from one comes only one" explaining how the multiplicity comes from the Absolute One (God). Considering God as the ultimate source of existence, they proposed a hierarchical order in the universe and explained it through their theory of emanation. The Sufi thinkers explained the relationship with the theory of manifestation, which is also known as the appearance of the Absolute Being or the revealing of the Absolute Being. In this study, we will primarily focus on these three theories and examine their differences and similarities as well as their significance in the formation of the cosmic existence in the Islamic thought.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • Karrāmiya and the Concept of Faith

    • Authors: Mehmet Kenan Şahin
      Abstract: This study aims to analyze the concept of faith focusing on the Karrāmiya in Khurasan, which was pioneered by Muhammad b. Karrām (190/805-255/868). The Karrāmiya claimed that one’s (public) testimony of faith is enough to be considered a Muslim as opposed to those who held that there is a relationship between faith and actions and argued for the assent (taṣdīq) of faith at the heart. The Karrāmīs were criticized because, according to their opponents, they seem to accept hypocrites as Muslims and separate faith from deeds. The sources of the Karrāmiya are scarce and therefore we have to build their views based on heresiographical works. When the concept of faith is taken into account in the context of the Qur'an, it has different aspects. The Qur’an mentions the concept of faith within the contexts of will (irāda), knowledge (‘ilm), assent (taṣdīq), the unseen (al-ghayb), and deeds (‘amal). Although the Karrāmīs did not seem to make emphases on those aspects of faith, we do not have reliable sources suggesting that they denied those Qur’anic aspects. We will shed some light on the Karrāmīs’ view of faith in this study. 
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +030
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Heriot-Watt University
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