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Periodica Polytechnica Architecture
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0324-590X - ISSN (Online) 1789-3437
Published by Budapest University of Technology and Economics Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Architectural Design Techniques of Urban Buildings in the Late 19th and
           Early 20th Century

    • Authors: James Dougherty
      Pages: 1 - 22
      Abstract: Urban buildings constructed in historic city centers of Europe and America in the late 19th and early 20th Century demonstrate a remarkable consistency of architectural excellence and harmony which can be observed from the large urban forms, down to minute details. The comprehensive system of design principles employed by architects of the time in the creation of these buildings has resulted in urban environments that achieve a very high degree of functionality as well as adaptability to the evolving needs of their modern populations. This essay explores the specific physical design techniques employed by architects of the late 19th and early 20th Century to achieve these remarkable results.
      PubDate: 2018-05-03
      DOI: 10.3311/PPar.11830
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 1 (2018)
  • Connecting the Centre of Belgrade with the Danube and Sava Riverfronts to
           Increase Attractiveness

    • Authors: Jelena Maric, Aleksandra Djukic
      Pages: 23 - 28
      Abstract: Although Belgrade is set on the confluence of two rivers, its riverfronts have never been an integral part of the city, due to the barriers between its historical urban core and the waterfronts. Over the last decade, these areas have come into focus because of their potential for becoming one of the most attractive and important ambient urban environments. In this research, a method for the inclusion of the Sava riverfronts into the urban life of its users was established through an analysis of the quality and intensity of open public spaces and the possibility for improving the pedestrian networks. The area known as Kosančićev Venac has been chosen as a case study, being an important connection between these two sites with its cultural values, tradition and identity. The methods used were observation and content analysis of existing literature, strategies and planning documents. In accordance with a participatory approach, direct surveying of selected stakeholders was developed through interviews and questionnaires and a method of mapping users on social maps. Two main groups of users were included in this research: citizens and tourists. Furthermore, the results were presented in the form of a SWOT analysis showing the main obstacles and barriers, but also the strengths and of open public spaces and a pedestrian network. In conclusion, this paper could serve as a knowledge base for developing future strategies containing specific guidelines for revival and inclusion of riverfront areas, in order for city waterfronts to live up to their full potential.
      PubDate: 2018-04-27
      DOI: 10.3311/PPar.11773
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 1 (2018)
  • Effects of Height and Plan Geometry on the Costs of Tunnel Form
           Residential Buildings

    • Authors: Zeynep Yeşim İlerisoy, Mehmet Emin Tuna
      Pages: 29 - 37
      Abstract: Tunnel form systems, which are industrialised construction systems developed in the last century, are widely used in reinforced concrete projects. Accurate determination of the costs of the building properties in the design phases of construction with the tunnel form system can lead to lower construction costs. The purpose of this study is to examine the cost variations resulting from changes in geometrical characteristics of buildings in the architectural design phase. The research was carried out on residential projects, which have the biggest share in the construction sector. Six housing projects with different plan geometries were designed, and these projects were examined for nine different numbers of floors. The study aims to reveal the extent to which both the plan shape and the number of floors influence the building costs. During the design phase, recommendations are given for reducing the building costs and finding the optimal form. It has been shown that tunnel form projects are not cost-effective in low-rise buildings and after a certain height. Furthermore, when different geometries are examined, the most economical cost is obtained in square form, and the cost increases as the two dimensions in plan plane move away from each other. As a result, the data obtained from this study will provide a better assessment of the relationship between building properties and unit cost in buildings constructed with tunnel form systems.
      PubDate: 2018-06-15
      DOI: 10.3311/PPar.12384
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 1 (2018)
  • Structural System Selection Using the Integration of
           Multi-Attribute-Decision-Making (MADM) Methods

    • Authors: Gul Polat, Harun Turkoglu, Atilla Damci
      Pages: 38 - 46
      Abstract: A structural system carries all loads acting on the building and transfers them effectively to the soil through the foundation. Since it is the essential component of a building, selecting the most appropriate structural system is one of the critical decisions in the structural design. The design team, which consists of engineers and architects, is responsible for determining the structural system that will satisfy the owner's and end user's needs as well as the legal requirements. Due to the fact that a number of compromising and conflicting criteria may affect the structural system selection process, it is a difficult task and it should be considered as a multi-attribute-decision-making (MADM) problem. The main objective of this study is to provide the design teams with a MADM approach that will assist them in selecting the most appropriate structural system in a more objective and systematic manner. In the proposed approach, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to compute the weights of the criteria and Vise Kriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR) is employed to rank the structural system alternatives. In order to demonstrate how the proposed can be applied in a real life problem, the structural system of a housing project in Istanbul, Turkey is selected via this approach. The findings of the model were discussed with the decision making team in the studied project and they stated that the proposed approach could be easily employed as a guideline in selecting the most appropriate structural system from the managerial viewpoint. This paper is the revised version of the paper that has been published in the proceedings of the Creative Construction Conference 2018 (Polat et al., 2018).
      PubDate: 2018-06-29
      DOI: 10.3311/PPar.12670
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 1 (2018)
  • Early Contractor and Facility Management Team Involvement in the BIM

    • Authors: Hao Wang, Xianhai Meng, Patrick J. McGetrick
      Pages: 47 - 58
      Abstract: Knowledge is the resource that contributes the most to an organisation’s competitiveness. Construction projects usually introduce project teams from different disciplines. Hence, knowledge in projects is complex and difficult to manage. To efficiently manage knowledge in projects, various strategies and tools have been applied over the years to support knowledge management (KM). Building information modelling (BIM) is a technology that has recently gained a lot of attention in the construction industry. The main feature of BIM is object-oriented and parametric modelling with the functions of dynamic visualisation, life cycle simulation, early analysis, coordination and collaborative working. Many studies have explored the functions of BIM mainly at the information level. However, only a few studies have considered the management of knowledge in a BIM environment. To fill this knowledge gap, this study explored the potential and expectation of a BIM-based system for early collaboration among contractor, facility management (FM) and design teams in the design stage. This study chose semi-structured interview as the main method to collect qualitative information. A total of 30 experts working in the construction industry were interviewed. On the basis of the analysis results of the collected information, a discussion was presented on how BIM can facilitate KM activities and relieve KM challenges. Therefore, the discussion focused on the requirements and expectations of the integrated KM system in a BIM environment that can facilitate the early involvement of construction contractors and the FM team into the design stage. This study also provides a new research direction for the transformation of research focus from BIM to building knowledge modelling. This paper is the revised version of the paper that has been published in the proceedings of the Creative Construction Conference 2018 (Wang et al., 2018).
      PubDate: 2018-06-29
      DOI: 10.3311/PPar.12693
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 1 (2018)
  • Market Evaluation of Museum Buildings

    • Authors: Miklós Hajdu, István Hajnal
      Pages: 59 - 65
      Abstract: One of the less explored areas in the profession of property valuation is the assessment of the market value of publicly owned or used properties (such as roads, public utilities, parks or prisons). In particular, the “quasi-market” segment, which partly operates according to market mechanisms, is the most challenging point. Hospitals, theatres and museums are examples of such “quasi-market” public properties. Those projects have some market revenues; however, these are not enough to provide a return on the invested capital. Advanced methods of decision-support and analysis have been developed regarding public investments, and the modern technical literature studies the measurement of consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) intensively. Adopting these foundations for a museum building, authors proposes a framework which follows the logic of market valuation and facilitates the Market Value appraisal of “quasi-market” properties based on uniform principles. This is an extended version of article titled as “Model for the market valuation of public, “quasi-market” properties, using the valuation of a museum building as an example”, presented at Creative Construction Conference 2017, CCC 2017, 19-22 June 2017, Primosten, Croatia.
      PubDate: 2018-06-29
      DOI: 10.3311/PPar.12736
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 1 (2018)
  • An Estimation of the Learning Curve Effect on Project Duration with Monte
           Carlo Simulation

    • Authors: Levente Mályusz, Anita Varga
      Pages: 66 - 71
      Abstract: The aim of this paper is to estimate learning curve effect on project duration with the mean of project scheduling techniques. To measure this effect only one assumption is taken: the activity time individuals / groups take to perform an activity decreases at a given rate as experience is gained with the activity. Unfortunately this effect directly is not taken into account by project management software. In some software after scheduling, supervisor manually can switch on the "as soon as possible" or "as late as possible" buttons on an activity.
      Monte Carlo simulation was used to model the risks in the total project durations. It is assumed that the (normal) durations of the activities can vary according to the beta distribution. The minimum estimate is 95 % of the original (normal) duration, and the maximum estimate is 140 % of the original (normal) duration. We assumed that most likely value is the (normal) duration of each activity. The learning effect on project duration with the help of test problems and real problems was investigated. In test problems learning effect can occur between two consecutive activities. These pairs are chosen randomly. After calculating project duration, these pairs are allocated to be closer to each other using the predecessor's total float time. It is assumed that the duration of impending repetitive activities is shorter due to the learning curve effect if the gap between consecutive activities is small enough. This iteration is carried out until it is not possible to shorten the successor's activity time in a pair. It is shown that this effect brings a 2-3 % shorter project duration meanwhile variance is also left in a 1-2 % range. Numerical tests were implemented by XPRESS-Mosel Optimization Software.
      PubDate: 2018-07-02
      DOI: 10.3311/PPar.12759
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 1 (2018)
  • Rome and Its Domes: Drawing, Art and Architecture

    • Authors: Emanuela Chiavoni
      Pages: 72 - 76
      Abstract: Any analysis performed to gather data about architectural and urban heritage always begins with the observation of reality and the involvement established between the observer and the space around them. A spectator inevitably interprets what they see in a personal manner so as to give objects a specific meaning. The ability to understand the data and the relationship between the parts and then assign it a value varies from person to person. That the mind can mediate the mental processes of perception-action-thought means that any direct analysis to understand a cultural asset is scientifically extremely important. The critical process sparked by an on-site study exploits the concise graphic transcription of what is visible, including the graphics tool used to achieve that representation. This contribution will present a study performed by the author to gather data using the drawings of several domes in the historical centre of the city of Rome.
      PubDate: 2018-05-04
      DOI: 10.3311/PPar.11826
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 1 (2018)
  • How (not) to Design a Landscape

    • Authors: Ján Urban, Andrea Lacková
      Pages: 77 - 85
      Abstract: The article describes some methods of water regulation and the impact that dykes have on the landscape. In the paper, the process of planning the Gabčikovo Waterworks is outlined together with the various solutions for the regulation of the river Danube, and the pros and cons of these variants. The paper aims to report the process of planning from the perspective of the authors, engineers, architects and landscape designers.
      For this article, archives were searched for published papers and journals to find the older versions of the regulation proposed for the river Danube. Later, the authors were interviewed about their part in the planning process. The paper seeks to answer the question: To what degree was the impact on the landscape was taken into account'
      Where the landscape was dealt with only from the biological and geological point of view, there was no demand for the image or design of the landscape. The result of this process is a drastic change, and it is upon our generation of architects, urban and landscape designers to learn from the past processes of construction and to improve any future changes in a more collaborative and socially oriented way.
      PubDate: 2018-04-20
      DOI: 10.3311/PPar.12085
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 1 (2018)
  • Digital by Nature: The Cephalopods and the Algorithms

    • Authors: Péter Lassu, Tibor Pálóczi
      Pages: 86 - 91
      Abstract: This presents the realisation of the experimental wooden structure, known as “Ammoniterasz” - (Ammonites+Terrace). During the making of this structure, the authors tried to analyse the practical usage of algorithmic design and the generative method. In the generative design, the 3D shape of the real structure is made using an algorithm with predefined editing rules. With an algorithm, it is possible to carry out a real-time structural analysis, together with different kinds of optimisation calculations and production methods. The compilation of the algorithm is created either with scripts or with a 3D graphic surface, which results in a flow chart, by another name, a visual script. Unlike the traditional shaping methods, with generative design, the result is not a static one, but a process which can offer countless options for the pre-defined design (geometric) program. To use a biological analogy: in this way, the designer is creating the rules of a growing process.
      PubDate: 2018-05-25
      DOI: 10.3311/PPar.11828
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 1 (2018)
  • Hidden Modernism: Architecture Theory of the Socialist Realist Gap

    • Authors: Borbála Jász
      Pages: 92 - 97
      Abstract: The aim of this paper is to clarify and exemplify the difference between modern, socialist realism and late modern in architecture. In the general pre-theoretical use of these terms, this distinction is often blurred; a unified expression, socialist realism, is used for all the aforementioned terms. This paper will examine a possible answer for this phenomenon by using examples from different areas of eastern-Central Europe, especially from Hungarian architecture.
      The paper first focuses on the façadism of socialist realism in the architecture of eastern-Central Europe. Following this, it shows that the architectural tendencies of classical modernism did not disappear in this period; they were just not explicitly manifest in case of public buildings for example. Finally, the paper argues that after this socialist realist gap, architectural theory and planning tendencies of the interwar period returned and continued, especially the work of Le Corbusier.
      PubDate: 2018-05-28
      DOI: 10.3311/PPar.12168
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 1 (2018)
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