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International Journal of Metalcasting
Number of Followers: 0  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1939-5981 - ISSN (Online) 2163-3193
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2348 journals]
  • From the Editor
    • Authors: Thomas Prucha
      Pages: 425 - 426
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40962-018-0235-2
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • Light Metals Alliance: Light Metals Technology 2017 Special Section
    • Pages: 427 - 427
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40962-018-0233-4
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • Effect of Co and Ni Addition on the Microstructure and Mechanical
           Properties at Room and Elevated Temperature of an Al–7%Si Alloy
    • Authors: Toni Bogdanoff; Arne K. Dahle; Salem Seifeddine
      Pages: 434 - 440
      Abstract: Abstract Increasing environmental demands are forcing the automotive industry to reduce vehicle emissions by producing more light-weight and fuel efficient vehicles. Al–Si alloys are commonly used in automotive applications because of excellent castability, high thermal conductivity, good wear properties and high strength-to-weight ratio. However, most of the aluminium alloys on the market exhibit significantly reduced strength at temperatures above 200 °C. This paper presents results of a study of the effects of Co and Ni in a hypoeutectic Al–Si alloy on microstructure and mechanical properties at room and elevated temperature. Tensile test specimens with microstructures comparable to those obtained in high-pressure die casting, i.e. SDAS ~ 10 µm, were produced by directional solidification in a Bridgman furnace. The results show an improvement in tensile properties up to 230 °C.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40962-017-0178-z
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • Dimensional Control of Nickel-Based Single Crystal Turbine Blade
           Investment Casting by Process Control Optimization
    • Authors: Fei Qiu; Kun Bu; Jin-Hui Song; Guo-Liang Tian; Xian-Dong Zhang
      Pages: 469 - 479
      Abstract: Abstract The main research is aimed at the deformation control of single crystal turbine blade margin plate. The measurement data and numerical results of margin plate are compared. The previous research indicates that the margin plate warpage deformation is related to the directional solidification structure and process parameters. However, the margin plate structure is designed by experience and usually the structure can not be changed. Thus, an optimizing method for the process parameters is put forward to control the deformation of blade margin plate. The characterization model for describing the margin plate warpage deformation is established by using analytic hierarchy process method. The chill plate temperature, shell mould preheating temperature, pouring temperature and withdraw rate are selected as the main process parameters to control the margin plate warpage deformation. Using the process optimization, the margin plate warpage deformation is reduced from 0.232295 to 0.181698 mm, decreasing 21.8%.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40962-017-0180-5
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • Effect of Silicon and Microstructure on Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron
           Thermal Conductivity at Elevated Temperatures
    • Authors: Kalle Jalava; Kaisu Soivio; Jarkko Laine; Juhani Orkas
      Pages: 480 - 486
      Abstract: Abstract Spheroidal graphite cast irons are materials that exhibit many possible microstructures and compositions, which in turn create a multitude of possible property combinations. Chemical composition and microstructure are some of the biggest influences on these material properties. This paper concentrates on the effect of silicon alloying in the range of 1–4% and varying ferrite–pearlite microstructures on thermal conductivity of spheroidal graphite cast irons from room temperature up to 400 °C. Results show that increasing silicon alloying levels decreases thermal conductivity, while a decreasing trend is also seen with increasing pearlite fraction, as composition and morphology act as hindrance to thermal conduction. Temperature dependence shows as an initial increase in thermal conductivity and a peak near 200–300 °C for the studied alloys. Based on the results, a model estimating thermal conductivity with silicon alloying, pearlite fraction and temperature is made to aid in the estimation of material properties for design use.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40962-017-0184-1
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • Microstructure and Tribological Characteristics of Strain-Induced Melt
           Activation (SIMA)-Processed Al–10Cu–Fe alloy
    • Authors: L. Sankara Rao; A. K. Jha; S. N. Ojha
      Pages: 523 - 542
      Abstract: Abstract In the present study, the influence of synthesis methods, namely the conventional metal mould casting (MMC) and strain-induced melt activation (SIMA) processes, on the microstructure and tribological characteristics of Al–10Cu–Fe alloy has been studied. The alloy was prepared by melting the commercial purity aluminium and copper. The effect of holding time in semi-solid region on the microstructure of the alloy subjected to SIMA was studied. Microstructural characterization was performed using optical and scanning electron microscopy, while chemical segregation is investigated using energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Hardness and strength of the resulting alloy are measured using macroindentation and tensile testing, respectively. Near-spherical grains were achieved in the SIMA process with an average grain diameter varying from 44 to 67 µm for holding times ranging from 30 to 55 min. The wear properties of stirred MMC alloy which was subjected to SIMA process are considerably better than those of either conventional MMCs or unstirred MMC subjected to SIMA process. The 50% pre-deformation followed by intercritical annealing at 580 °C and 30 min holding time is the optimum parameters to obtain the wear properties of Al–10Cu–Fe alloy. The improved wear and mechanical properties of the alloy are discussed in the light of the microstructural features of SIMA-processed alloy and the nature of the worn surfaces.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40962-017-0187-y
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • Effects of Electromagnetic Frequency and SiC Nanoparticles on the
           Microstructure Refinement and Mechanical Properties of Al A357-1.5 wt%
           SiC Nanocomposites
    • Authors: Reza Mohammadi Badizi; Mohsen Askari-Paykani; Amir Parizad; Hamid Reza Shahverdi
      Pages: 565 - 573
      Abstract: Abstract In this research, the effects of electromagnetic stirring and 1.5 wt% SiC nanoparticles on the solidification microstructure and mechanical properties of alloy Al A357 were studied at three different frequencies (10, 35, and 60 Hz). The microstructural evolution was characterized by scanning electron and optical microscopy, and the mechanical properties were studied by hardness and room-temperature uniaxial tensile tests. The results showed that with an increase in frequency to 60 Hz in the presence of 1.5 wt% SiC nanoparticles, the dendrite size was reduced from 59.5 ± 1.8 to 15.5 ± 3.6 µm (%73.9). By the application of electromagnetic stirrer frequencies from 0 to 60 Hz in the presence of 1.5 wt% SiC nanoparticles, the hardness, yield stress, and ultimate tensile stress of the Al A357-1.5 wt% SiC nanocomposites were increased by 30.9, 57.7, and 57.9%, respectively, compared to as-cast specimen. Orowan strengthening, Hall–Petch mechanism, and the load bearing were determined as the effective mechanisms in improvement in mechanical properties.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40962-017-0194-z
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • Effects of Addition of Transition Metals on Intermetallic Precipitation in
           Al–2%Cu–1%Si-Based Alloys
    • Authors: A. I. Ibrahim; E. M. Elgallad; A. M. Samuel; H. W. Doty; F. H. Samuel
      Pages: 574 - 588
      Abstract: Abstract Thermal analysis of various Al–2%Cu–1%Si alloy melts containing different transition metal additions was carried out to determine the sequence of reactions and phases formed during solidification under close-to-equilibrium cooling conditions. The main reactions observed in the base B0 alloy comprised (i) formation of the α-Al dendritic network at 640 °C, followed by precipitation of (ii) α-iron Al15(Fe,Mn)3Si2 phase at 620 °C and (iii) Al2Cu and Al5Mg8Si6Cu2 phases simultaneously as the final reaction at 495 °C. Two more reactions were observed with the addition of Zr, V and Ni to the base alloy, in addition to Mg2Si and AlSiTiZr, AlVTi, AlCuNi and AlCuNiFe phases. The addition of Mn (0.8%) resulted in reducing the detrimental effects of the platelet-like morphology of the β-Al5FeSi iron intermetallic phase by replacing it with the more compact and hence less harmful script-like α-Al15(Fe,Mn)3Si2 phase and sludge particles. Rare earth metals have an affinity to react with certain transition metals, in particular Cu. The results reported in this study were supported by EDS, WDS and DSC analysis.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40962-017-0196-x
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • Effect of Degassing and Grain Refinement on Hot Tearing Tendency in
           Al8Si3Cu Alloy
    • Authors: Muhammet Uludağ; Remzi Çetin; Derya Dispinar; Murat Tiryakioğlu
      Pages: 589 - 595
      Abstract: Abstract The effect of melt quality on hot tearing susceptibility of Al8Si3Cu alloy was examined under six different conditions, by using a traditional T-shaped mold. Grain refinement was carried out by two different modifiers: AlTi5B1 and Al3B. For each test, samples were cast before and after degassing of melt. Therefore, a new hot tearing tendency index was developed by both bifilm calculations and porosity that occurred in the middle of T-zone of casting parts. Results indicated that hot tearing of cast aluminum alloys was a complex phenomenon, and bifilms play a major role, especially by compensating for shrinkage and consequently contributing to the inconsistencies in results.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40962-017-0197-9
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • Counter-Gravity Sand Casting of Steel with Pressurization During
    • Authors: Lucas Archer; Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann
      Pages: 596 - 606
      Abstract: Abstract Counter-gravity filling and pressurization during solidification have been separately shown to improve casting quality in sand cast steel. Studies and industry practice show that counter-gravity filling increases the yield and reduces reoxidation inclusions. Other studies show pressurization during solidification has the potential to increase the feeding effectivity of risers, which leads to a reduction in centerline shrinkage. In the present study, a method for sand casting steel is developed that combines both practices. Casting simulations are used to determine key events during the process. Counter-gravity filling of a sand mold with liquid steel is performed by linearly decreasing pressure to a value of 0.053 MPa and holding this pressure for 40 s. After the vacuum pressure is released, the entire system is pressurized to a maximum pressure of 0.35 MPa, 220 s after the start of the filling process. The casting method is applied to cylindrical bar castings. Radiographic and dye penetrant inspection of the bars shows no detectable centerline porosity forms when the casting system is pressurized, unlike the gravity-poured control castings.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40962-017-0200-5
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • Effect of Ca on the Y Content and Cyclic Oxidation Behavior of Ni-Based
           Single-Crystal Superalloy
    • Authors: Genfeng Shang; Pengzhe Gao; Fuxin Luo; Jihui Yuan; Jinfa Liao; Hang Wang
      Pages: 607 - 613
      Abstract: Abstract Rare-earth elements in Ni-based single-crystal superalloys are easily lost during the casting process. The effects of incorporating Ca on the loss of Y from an Ni-based superalloy and the cyclic oxidation of this alloy have been investigated. The addition of Ca increases the Y content from 10.87 to 72.78 ppm, which has been rationalized by thermodynamic calculation of the Gibbs free energy. Ca also reduces the falling off of the protective oxide film of Y-containing Ni-based alloy and enhances the cyclic oxidation performance.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40962-017-0198-8
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • AlSi5Mg0.3 Alloy for the Manufacture of Automotive Wheels
    • Authors: M. Kaba; A. Donmez; A. Cukur; A. F. Kurban; H. E. Cubuklusu; Y. Birol
      Pages: 614 - 624
      Abstract: Abstract The heat-treated AlSi7Mg0.3 alloy is the standard wheel alloy as it offers the best compromise between fatigue strength and elongation. Alloys with less than 7 wt% Si may also be of interest for the manufacture of aluminium wheels to limit Si poisoning that impairs grain refinement. Hence, the potential of AlSi5Mg0.3 alloy was investigated as it could offer superior mechanical properties owing to a smaller grain structure. AlSi5Mg0.3 alloy does indeed exhibit smaller grains but fails to offer higher mechanical properties. AlSi7Mg0.3 alloy with a smaller dendritic structure but coarser grains is superior. The higher fluidity of the latter is believed to offer better feeding characteristics, which in turn improves the soundness of the casting and thus leads to superior structural quality and mechanical properties. An overall industrial assessment favours the standard Al7Si0.3 Mg alloy in the manufacture of light alloy wheels.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40962-017-0191-2
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • Inclusion Measurements in Al–Si Foundry Alloys Using Qualiflash and
           Prefil Filtration Techniques
    • Authors: A. M. Samuel; H. W. Doty; S. Valtierra; F. H. Samuel
      Pages: 625 - 642
      Abstract: Abstract Qualiflash is a quick method of assessing the melt cleanliness of foundry Al–Si alloys over a wide range of Si contents up to 17 wt%. It has an immediate response in measuring the quantity of oxides and non-metallic inclusions. Improving the melt cleanliness moves the Quality Temperature Index line toward lower Q values. Prefil curves demonstrate very good sensitivities to the variations in the melt treatment conditions. The filtration rate is greatly affected by grain refiner addition. The highest curve is displayed by the alloy without grain refiner addition. The filtration rate progressively decreases with increasing amount of grain refiner. When the total amount of boron in the grain refiner added to the melt reaches 60 ppm, the filtration rate is approximately nil. The overall error on the Prefil curve is ± 9% at a level of confidence of 95% at any time during the filtration.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40962-017-0185-0
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • Metalcasting Industry Research
    • Pages: 658 - 669
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40962-018-0239-y
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • Ultrasonic Melt Treatment of Light Alloys
    • Authors: Joaquim Barbosa; Hélder Puga
      Abstract: Abstract The application of ultrasonic vibrations when casting aluminium alloys can improve the final quality of castings. Moreover, ultrasound has no direct environmental impact as compared to traditional melt treatment routes. Ultrasound has been used with different purposes in aluminium casting: (1) degassing of aluminium alloys leading to high density and virtually gas porosity free castings; (2) promoting nucleation, thus leading to highly refined microstructures, including refinement and dispersion of intermetallic compounds; (3) improving castings mechanical properties either by promoting heterogeneous nucleation and development of equiaxed globular structures or dendrite fragmentation. This article presents the experimental work carried out so far at the University of Minho, Portugal, in this field and focuses on the results and benefits of ultrasonic melt processing when compared with traditional alternatives like the chemical routes.
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s40962-018-0248-x
  • Failure Analysis and Hot Tearing Susceptibility of Stainless Steel CF3M
    • Authors: Dheeraj S. Bhiogade; Sanjay M. Randiwe; Abhaykumar M. Kuthe
      Abstract: Abstract Hot tear formation has been witnessed during the solidification of the ferrous alloy by pulling the columnar dendrites in the transverse direction. The hot tearing susceptibility of an alloy is influenced by solidification rate, microstructure and the stress/strain conditions. It is valuable to predict the occurrence of tearing in a casting. In this study, hot tearing susceptibility of stainless steel CF3M grade casting was investigated using the method of constrained T-shaped solidification shrinkage and inducing strain by pulling dendrites in a transverse direction. An experimental setup equipped with the real-time measurement of temperature, displacement and contraction/applied force during solidification at elevated temperature has been developed. In this study, the sectioning technique was adopted for residual stress measurement after casting solidification, wire electric discharge machining has been identified as a suitable method of cutting along with a coordinate measuring machine sufficiently accurate for measurement, and finite element modeling and analysis were performed to calculate the stress. A metallographic study using an optical microscope and scanning electron microscope was performed to evaluate macro- and microstructure at failure zone of the casting. The study aims to investigate crack morphology and differentiate hot tear from other types of cracks in order to troubleshoot effectively. Stress, strain and temperature data provide onset of hot tearing and provide a base for mathematical model and validation. The results show that the strain or strain rate is more critical for hot tearing than stress. The studies on residual stress show that the tensile stress is not required to generate hot tears, but only the tensile strain is sufficient to form a hot tear.
      PubDate: 2018-07-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s40962-018-0246-z
  • Effect of Small Addition of Tin, Silicon and Iron on the Solute Atom
           Diffusion in the Al 3 wt% Cu 1 wt% Mg Alloy and Its Photoelectrochemical
    • Authors: Z. Chaieb; O. Ould Mohamed; A. A. Raho; F. Saib; M. Trari
      Abstract: Abstract The formation of the Guinier–Preston–Bagaryatsky (GPB) zones in the alloy AlCuMg is controlled by the solute atoms diffusion. It occurs by nucleation, a growth phenomenon, described by the JMAK model. It is governed by the diffusion of solute atoms and coarsening process described by the LSW theory. The diffusion coefficient of the solute atoms is determined during the GPB zones coarsening in AlCuMg. Small addition of iron and silicon slows down the diffusion of the solute atoms in the alloy during the precipitation of GPB zones. On the other hand, the corrosion resistance of the alloy is considerably improved by photoelectrochemical process; the cathodic protection is achieved by short-circuiting the working electrode to n-CdS illuminated by visible light; the corrosion current decreases by 65% under visible light.
      PubDate: 2018-07-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s40962-018-0244-1
  • Effect of Nonmetallic Inclusions on Solidification of Inoculated
           Spheroidal Graphite Iron
    • Authors: Simon N. Lekakh
      Abstract: Abstract Inoculation treatment of spheroidal graphite cast iron (SGI) controls graphite nodule heterogeneous nucleation and is used for elimination of solidification microporosity and improvement in casting performance. In this study, thermodynamic simulations were performed to predict precipitates formed in the inoculated melt above a liquidus temperature (primary precipitates) and during solidification (secondary precipitates). The experimental inoculation treatments were designed targeting formation of primary precipitates (Ti and Zr additions) and secondary precipitates (S and N additions to inoculant). An automated SEM/EDX analysis was applied to analyze the graphite nodule distribution statistics and a family of nonmetallic inclusions in the experimental castings. In inoculated SGI, the observed bimodal distributions of graphite nodules were related to continuous nucleation with the second nucleation wave that occurred toward the solidification end. The measured microporosity in the castings was linked to graphite nucleation. The origin of the continuous graphite nodule nucleation and the possibility of engineering nonmetallic inclusions to control casting soundness are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-07-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s40962-018-0243-2
  • Research on Dynamic Accumulation Effect and Constitutive Model of Aluminum
           Foams Under Dynamic Impact
    • Authors: Hua Gao; Chao Xiong; Junhui Yin; Huiyong Deng
      Abstract: Abstract Aluminum foams were prepared by melt foaming process. The mechanical properties of aluminum foams under repeated impacts were studied. The porosity and pore size of the prepared aluminum foam were measured. The effects of damage accumulation on the failure morphology of aluminum foam, the transmission rate, stress–strain curve, energy absorption capacity, and the ideal energy absorption efficiency were analyzed. The influence of the number of impacts on the dynamic mechanical properties of the material under the condition of equivalent damage accumulation was studied. Based on the Sherwood–Frost equation, the damage cumulative constitutive model of the aluminum foams under repeated impacts was established. The influence of the difference between the damage cumulative energy corresponding to the reference curve of the shape function and the damage cumulative energy in multiple impacts tests on the prediction accuracy of the constitutive model was analyzed. The results show that with the increase in the number of impacts, the degree of damage to aluminum foam increases, transmission rate increases, the elastic limit stress and the corresponding strain are enhanced, and the damage accumulation effect on aluminum foam under repeated impacts is helpful to improve the ideal energy absorption efficiency. It is verified that the constitutive model can reflect the mechanical properties of aluminum foam under repeated impacts.
      PubDate: 2018-07-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s40962-018-0245-0
  • Identifying Cast Iron Microstructure Variation Using Acoustic Resonance
    • Authors: Siddhartha Biswas; Charles Monroe
      Abstract: Abstract Cast iron foundries have historically utilized ultrasonic methods to determine nodularity levels in ductile iron parts. The foundries have begun to search for an alternative that would provide a test of the whole part, while eliminating part preparation, consumables, rust and plating issues and safety hazards. Progress has been made in the application and performance evaluation of resonant acoustic method as an alternative tool for detecting unacceptable levels of nodularity in ductile iron. This paper covers other aspects of cast iron microstructure, namely graphite shape, graphite size and matrix microstructure. To identify cast iron microstructure variation within a thick section, samples from different locations of a thick section (2″) were studied. Finally, a preliminary study of effect of having casting skin on resonant frequency was also conducted. Step block castings were produced with above-mentioned variables. Rectangular samples for resonant inspection were machined. The cast iron samples were excited by a calibrated hammer, and the resonant frequencies (RF) were recorded with an accelerometer. The RF measurements were normalized to eliminate weight change affect. Finite element analysis (FEA) was done to show the minimum level of shift in RF due to dimensional variability. The design of experiment analysis showed that the variations in graphite shape and matrix microstructure are identifiable. The graphite size variation due to section sizes is detectable to a certain extent, i.e., variation between 5/8″ and 1″. However, the result obtained in this study does not support the use of resonant frequency shift to identify samples from section sizes 1″, 2″ and 4″. The RF response showed that the samples with surface condition (presence of skin) variation can be identified for a known graphite shape.
      PubDate: 2018-07-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s40962-018-0241-4
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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