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RADS Journal of Biological Research & Applied Sciences
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2305-8722 - ISSN (Online) 2521-8573
Published by Jinnah University for Women Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Prevelance of Overweight and Obesity among Young Female Students in
           association with BMI

    • Authors: Farha Aziz, Madiha Muzaffar Ali, Farah Jabeen
      Pages: 01 - 04
      Abstract: The study is designed to obtain the occurrence of obesity among 180 young female students of university, age 19-23 years in association with body mass index (BMI) according to WHO classification. A Questionnaire was prepared to collect information, including age, height, body weight, and socioeconomic status. Among 180 girls 18.33% (33) of girls were under weight, 58.88 % (106) were normal, 16.66 % (30) were overweight and 6.11% (11) of girls were obese. Overweight was more common among female students than obesity. The dietary practices and choices of young female girls have been evaluated  by using food frequency questionnaire and found majority of students were used to skipped breakfast and frequent consumption of fast food including burgers, pizzas and coca cola due to lack of knowledge on healthy balance diet and adverse effect of obesity. Healthy living, eating healthy balanced diet and regular exercise help to maintain standard body weight and health
      PubDate: 2017-12-12
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2017)
  • Microbiological Analysis of Marketed Available Cough Syrups in Karachi

    • Authors: Fatima Jameel
      Pages: 05 - 10
      Abstract: During this decade, various pharmaceutical companies have improved and gives the quality assurance of cough syrups in Karachi. The production of substandard cough syrups in pharmaceutical industries may cause non-therapeutic effect in patients particularly in children. For this purpose, this study was conducted to determine the microbiological  quality of the cough syrup marketed available in Karachi .Different branded cough syrups were purchased from the local pharmacy stores. Spread plate technique was performed to enumerate the microbial contaminant from the collected syrup samples. Membrane Filtration technique was also performed in which sample was passed through a filter membrane paper and transferred into sabouraud dextrose agar and nutrient agar plates under aseptic conditions. In the result we found that all the samples that we have performed except two syrups were found to be the contaminated with a highly permissible number of CFU/ml. Fortunately, gram negative bacteria were completely absent in all tested samples except in Sancos, while the gram positive bacteria such as S.aureus and Bacillus cereus were found in both of samples (Sancos and Tixylix). The prevalence of these microorganisms in the pharmaceuticals products such as syrup samples may explain the un-hygiene condition followed by Karachi pharmacies. These contaminated syrups explain the poor treatment & complicacy of the immunocompromised people & sick children. So we can say the people who are consuming these contaminated syrups, they are highly at risk.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2017)
  • A Study on Bacteriological Detection of Food-Borne Pathogens

    • Authors: Laraib Nadeem, Hira Batool
      Pages: 11 - 14
      Abstract: This study was conducted to estimate the bacteriological quality of different fast food items. Standard microbiological methods were used for isolation, enumeration and identification of bacteria. A total of 9 samples were collected from different sources like: Fries, Roll paratha, Zinger burger and some bakery products like bread, Rusk, simple cake, and some fresh fruits sample were also used like orange, banana and apple. Bacteria were isolated by serial dilution technique. Then isolation and identification of bacteria perform by cultural characteristics on Blood agar and MacConkey agar. Gram staining, colony morphology and biochemical characteristics also performed for further confirmation. Four strains of pathogenic organisms were identified as E.coli 29%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 25%, Pseudomonas 25%, Staphylococcus aureus 42.85% and Bacillus subtilis 29%. Recent study concluded that fast food can lead to food poisoning and food borne illnesses. Heftiness is related with an expansion in respiratory issue. Obesity increases the likelihood of heart diseases, kidney disease, joint pains, high blood pressure and diabetes. Your kidney stone, kidney disease and stomach cancer risk may also increase due to the excess amount of sodium, and may also increase your risk of developing osteoporosis (thin, fragile bones).  The top risk factor for heart disease and stroke may cause due to the high cholesterol and high blood pressure. Chocolate and greasy foods were possessing high amount of carbohydrates increase blood sugar levels, they may also trigger acne. Fast food was identified as potential health hazards it can be proposed that satisfactory cleanliness rehearses are required in the wake of cooking the nourishments and furthermore before serving.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2017)
  • Assessment of Biosafety Practice in A Hospital Gynae Department; An Eye

    • Authors: Maria Batool
      Pages: 15 - 19
      Abstract: The patients can acquire the nosocomial infections by the hands of surgeon and surgical instruments because they are highly contaminated with hospital pathogens. Protective measures should be taken in hospital setting to stop transmission of infections. Therefore, the steps are established to remove the contamination as much as possible. In this study, were collected the different samples from the surgical tools in gynecology department to check the microbial load and antibiotic susceptibility against the isolated microorganisms. The isolated micro organisms were Staphylococcus aureus Escherichia coli, Enterococci spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). These organisms are susceptible to Novobiocin, Erythromycin, Meropenem except Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed resistance to amikacin. The study provides the knowledge about the presence of possible hospital pathogens and the chances to cause infectious diseases in the patients.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2017)
  • Quality Assessment of Ice-cream & In Vitro Antibacterial Effect of Bitter
           Gourd Extract on the Isolated Pathogens.

    • Authors: Soudah Bint-E- Junaid, Sumaira Javed
      Pages: 20 - 24
      Abstract: The study is performed to assist the microbial quality of different ice-cream & ice pops of different brands, to analyze the presence of contaminants that will cause pathogenesis. Antibacterial efficiency of Bitter Gourd is also studied against these isolated pathogens. Microbial count of ice cream estimated by performing serial dilution & spread plate technique, while further microbes isolated performing biochemical Test & confirmation test. The effectivity of Bitter Gourd was observed after the preparation of its aqueous extract & tested by performing antibacterial assay. Both Gram positive & negative groups of bacteria were isolated including Bacillus, Lactobacillus, S.aureus, S.epidermidis, E.coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Shigella and Pseudomanas. Among these isolates, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella & S.epidermidis has shown sensitivity against the extract of bitter gourd, while all others are resistant to it. These contaminants can be avoided & the quality of Branded ice cream & ice pops can be improved if the industries set up under appropriate Food & Hygiene practices & Bitter Gourd can be used as the treatment or pre-treatment agent against the pathogens for which it is effective. As per being a natural product, it does not contain any side effects.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2017)
  • Bacterial Appraisal in Expired and Unexpired Pharmaceutical Products

    • Authors: Rida Inam, Hira Batool
      Pages: 25 - 30
      Abstract: The microbial quality of expired and unexpired Pharmaceutical products like Metronidazole, Acetylsalicylic acid, Chloramphenicol, Silver sulphadiazine, combination of Polymyxin B Sulphate, Propylene Glycol, Lignocaine, combination of Betamethasone and Neomycinand the combination of Lignocaine, Ethanol and Cetylpyridiniumwere examined by the microbial growth on culture plates. Isolation was performed by serial dilution method and bacterial recovered by streak plate technique on Blood Agar, Chocolate Agar and MacConkey’s Agar. Isolates were characterized morphologically by gram staining and biochemical analysis. Microorganisms isolated from expired product are S.epidermidis (33.3%), B. subtilis (4.7%), Streptococcus (28.5%), Pseudomonas (9.5%), Listeria (4.7%) and B.cereus (19%) while B. subtilis(9.5%), Enterococcus (9.5%), E. coli (9.09%), S. epidermidis (27.2%), Listeria (9.5%) and Streptococcus (9.09%) are isolated from unexpired products.  The isolated organism is mostly normal flora but opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria are also isolated which can cause disease especially in immune-compromised person or infants. The isolation of organisms may be due to improper hygiene maintenance or poor packaging techniques as the risk of contamination is higher while processing rather than during use. It revealed that quality of unexpired products have to be improved by producers to minimize the bio-liability so pharmaceutical companies should adopt good manufacturing practice to avoid microbial contamination in unexpired pharmaceuticals as well as the consumer should be educated and are aware of hazardous effect of using expired products.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2017)
  • Production and optimization of Amylase from A. niger isolated from legume

    • Authors: Sana Khan, Hira Batool
      Pages: 31 - 36
      Abstract: Legumes are type of plant whose fruit is enclosed in a pod. Chick peas, cow peas, peas, broad beans and kidney beans all are type of legumes. Legume seeds are important source of protein. Legume seeds are more proteinacious than non legumes. Many fungi are pathogens of legumes they infect during storage. Penicillium, Aspergillus, Mucor and Rhizopus are common genera isolates from seeds. Whereas A.niger is predominant and most recovered isolate of legume seeds. A.niger is widely used organism and now it is extensively used for the productivity of amylase enzyme. Amylase enzymes have vast applications at industrial level where it is used for the production of fructose and glucose syrup from starch degradation, biofuel formation, and production of dough, juices and cakes and in brewing industry. Amylases are also used as diagnostic tool. The ability to degrade starch is used as a standard for the determination of α-amylase production by A.niger. The determination of optimum time, pH, temperature, carbon and nitrogen sources are important for the better yield of the enzyme. A.niger produce amylase enzyme with greater extent at day 6 with pH 6 and at temperature 25 °C. It uses about all carbon and nitrogen sources but in maltose and ammonium sulphate production of amylase is higher. Submerged fermentation method is chosen technique for the production of amylase at laboratory level although it is not used widely at industrial level.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2017)
  • Inactivation of fecal bacteria and water borne pathogens by solar heating
           in Karachi

    • Authors: Fasiha Saeed
      Pages: 37 - 41
      Abstract: Sunlight is a very rich source of energy and it’s now widely used in many fields. Another use of it is purification or disinfecting the water, as sunlight is capable of penetrating in water and have ability to purify it also by killing the microbes present in it. This method is applicable in some areas mostly in those which are nearer to equator because intensity of sunlight is highest at equator and reduced as we go down or up to the equator. The main purpose of this research was to check the affectivity of sunlight in disinfecting water in the city of Karachi; it may differ because of geographical differences in countries. In this research a laboratory made bacterial suspension of Escheracia coli and Salmonella typhimirium is added in sterilized water. Water is then exposed to sun and cfu/0.1ml is checked after every hour. The results obtained are showing a significant decrease in microbial load after sun exposure of 3 hours. This technique can be a blessing for many under developed countries which are suffering from water borne illnesses due to poor hygiene maintenance in developing countries. Moreover, this method is very simple and can be apply by people themselves locally, but before its application further more testing is required on this method efficiency.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2017)
  • Effect of Azadirachta indica extract on phagocytic activity against the
           common clinical pathogen

    • Authors: Rimsha Saeed, Amna Shafiq
      Pages: 42 - 45
      Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance exhibit by pathogenic microorganisms has encouraged more biocompatible and eco-friendly approaches to screening of herbs for their prospective antibiotic activity to manage and control infectious diseases. Herbal plants play a paramount role in the complementary medicines worldwide because of their many health benefits with no side effects. The objective of this study was to determine in vitro effect of Azadirachta indica (neem) on phagocytic activity against the common clinical pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. The phagocytic activity was determined by employing slide method. In this method, number of ingested cells was found to be 60 out of 100 after 1.5 hour incubation of blood sample with Staphylococcus aureus and Azadirachta indica. Azadirachta indica showed enhanced phagocytic activity as compared to control blood sample without the herb. This suggests that diet or drug supplemented with Azadirachta indica (Neem) is likely to augment the immune system and reduce the growth of pathogenic bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2017)
  • To Study the Efficacy of Bio-Sand Filter for Commercial Use

    • Authors: Maria Aslam
      Pages: 46 - 50
      Abstract: Water is essential for life. Without water, not only, no one can survive but it also affects health, education and well being of a person. Industrialization, climate change and other environmental factors contributes in contamination of water. Access to safe potable water is basic human right for drinking, and other purposes. Filtration through biosand filter is among one of several methods for the purification of contaminated water. Biosand filter is easy to construct, use and maintain. It can be made from local materials and is also low in cost. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the biosand filter. In this study 30 samples were run to detect the effectiveness of biosand filter. Results suggest that biosand filter effectively reduced microbial load up to 98%. It is also effective in removing suspended particles, turbidity and other impurities from water and improves the taste and quality of water for drinking, sanitation and other purposes.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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