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Eurasian Journal of Soil Science
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2147-4249
Published by DergiPark Homepage  [77 journals]
  • Soil physico-chemical properties and fertility status of long-term land
           use and cover changes: A case study in Forest vegetative zone of Nigeria

    • Authors: Idowu Ezekiel Olorunfemi; Johnson Toyin Fasinmirin, Funke Florence Akinola
      Abstract: Proper utilization of land is essential to soil quality maintenance andsustainable agricultural development. This study was conducted to evaluate effects ofland use management on physico-chemical characteristics of soils in EkitiState, Southwestern Nigeria. In this study, a total of 105 sampling points in35 locations comprising of the 3 land uses were sampled. Random samplingpattern of 3 sampling points perlocation were carried out and undisturbed soil samples were collected atdepths up to 30 cm. Soil physical properties (bulk density (BD), water holdingcapacity (WHC), and particle size distribution) and chemical properties(organic matter content (SOM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), phosphorus (P)and organic nitrogen (SON)), were determined and evaluated. Results showed thatnatural forest on the overall accumulated more nutrients than plantations andcropland. Thehighest SOM value of 4.07 % was recorded in the natural forests, while thelowest value of 1.52 % was found in the croplands. Organic matteraccumulation showed a decreasing trend in the order:  forest > plantation > cropland. Naturalforest soils had significantly higher volumetric moisture content (VMC) thanplantations and croplands.  Correlationanalysis of the 11 physico-chemical properties for the study area, showed asignificant correlation among 70 of the 190 soil attribute pairs. Landuse system reveals a significant decline of soil quality under cropland. Management systemsby which soil could be improved towards the development of suitable agricultural management systems must be incorporated during land cultivation. Inorder to have sustainable land use systems, land use development must not beonly economically sustainable but also socially acceptable and environmentallysound. Therefore, strategies to improve agricultural productivity have to seeka sustainable solution that better addresses soil fertility management.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • Spatial and fractal characterization of soil properties across soil depth
           in an agricultural field, Northeast Iran

    • Authors: Ali Keshavarzi; Henry Oppong Tuffour, Ali Bagherzadeh, Duraisamy Vasu
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to explore thefractal behavior and establish fractal dimensions of soil physical and chemicalproperties (i.e., sand, silt, and clay contents, bulk density, degree ofmoisture saturation, pH, organic carbon content, total nitrogen, availablephosphorus, and available potassium) to characterize their spatial patterns.Soil samples were collected from 0-30 (surface) and 30-60 cm (subsurface)depths from an agricultural field, Mashhad Plain, Northeast Iran. Descriptive statistics and fractal analysiswere used to describe the extent and form of variability. Spatial patterns ofthe soil properties were estimated using GS+ 10.0 software.  Soil properties showed low to high variationsin both surface and subsurface layers across the field, where bulk density andpH being the most reliable soil physical and chemical properties in the studyarea. The variability was high (CV > 35%) for total N, available P,available K and organic carbon in both surface and subsurface soils and it couldbe attributed to management practices and micro-topographical variations asthese are the dynamic properties of soil. Thefractal dimension (D) values of soil physical properties ranged from 1.398 to1.913 at the surface, and from 1.874 to 1.934 at the subsurface indicating bothshort and long range variations. The D values for the chemical propertiesranged from 1.331 to 1.975, and 1.148 to 1.990 in the surface and subsurfacelayers, respectively. The results showed that fractal analysis could be employedto effectively describe the structure of soil heterogeneity in spatial scalefor effective agricultural and environmental management of soil.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • Response of three soils in the derived savanna zone of southwestern
           Nigeria to combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizer as
           affecting phosphorus fractions

    • Authors: Abigail O. Ojo; Michael T. Adetunji, Christopher O. Adejuyigbe, Ibukun O. Fademi
      Abstract: Phosphorusinputs to the soil are primarily from the application of fertilizer P andorganic resources. A ten week incubation study was carried out to determine theeffects of organic and inorganic P sources on phosphorus fractions in threederived savanna soils. Poultry manure was applied at 0, 0.75g, 1.5g, 2.25g and3g per 300g weight of soil while single superphosphate was applied at 0.0023g,0.0046g, 0.0069g and 0.0092g per 300g of soil. Sampling was done at two weeksinterval. At 0 week of the incubation study, Ekiti series had the largestamount of P fractions i.e. Fe-P, Al-P, residual P, reductant soluble P,occluded P, organic P and occluded P while Ca-P was high in Apomu series.However, increases in Fe-P, Al-P, Ca-P and organic P were observed in the threesoil series evaluated and poultry manure was notably effective in reducing Pocclusion. In conclusion, it was observed that irrespective of the soil seriesat different stages of the incubation studies, poultry manure and the combinedapplication of poultry manure and Single superphosphate was highly effective inincreasing P fractions.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • Can arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and NPK fertilizer suppress nematodes and
           improve tuber yield of yam (Dioscorea rotundata ‘cv’ ewuru)'

    • Authors: Gani Oladejo Kolawole; Tunmise Moses Haastrup, Timothy Ipoola Olabiyi
      Abstract: Poorsoil fertility and nematodes limit yam tuber yield and quality. Arbuscularmycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and fertilizers may suppress nematodes and improve yamproductivity. We evaluated the extent AMF and fertilizer suppressed nematodesand improved yam performance. Tuber weight, mycorrhizal colonization of rootsand nematode populations were evaluated with eight treatments; Control (No amendments),90-50-75, kg N- P2O5-K2O ha-1(NPK), (AMF) (2g/kg soil), nematodes (5000 juvenile/pot), and theircombinations. Tuber weight was higher in NPK+AMF and NPK+nematode treatmentsthan AMF+nematode. NPK+AMF improved tuber weight by 17.5% and 32% compared withsole NPK or AMF respectively. Compared with control, nematodes did not reducetuber weight but, AMF+nematode reduced it by 49.4%. NPK reduced AMFcolonization of roots and reduced nematode population on tuber, in roots and soil by 34%, 42.6%and 41% respectively.  NPK+AMFtreatment was superior to either NPK or AMF in improving tuber yield while NPKwas superior to AMF in suppressing nematodes in roots, soil, and tuber. 
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • Soil-landscape relationship as indicated by pedogenesis data on selected
           soils from Southwestern, Iran

    • Authors: Hamidreza Owliaie; Mahdi Najafi Ghiri, Sirous Shakeri
      Abstract: Soils of semiarid regions of Dehdasht and Choram inSouthwestern Iran have formed on alluvium derived from mixedcalcareous-gypsiferous materials from Lower Miocene to Upper Pliocene. In orderto characterize and classify the soils and to determine the soil-landscaperelationship in the area, nine pedons located on different physiographicpositions including plateau, river alluvial plain, piedmontplain, alluvial plain and alluvial fan have been described, sampled andanalyzed. Physicochemical analyses, clay mineralogy and micromorphologicalstudies were performed. Theresults showed that topography and parent material were two important soilforming factors affecting soil formation in the area. The soils were dominatedby carbonate, gypsum, and clay illuviation and accumulation. More developedsoils were found on the stable plateau and piedmont plain. Clay illuviation andargillic horizon development in soils of the more stable alluvial plain wereassumed to be relict features from presumably more humid climates.Palygorskite, illite, chlorite, smectite, kaolinite, and quartz clay mineralswere identified in almost all physiographic surfaces, but more palygorskite and lesssmectite were found in the soils with gypsiferous parent materials. Observations by SEM revealed the occurrence ofneoformed palygorskite as thread-like faces and coating of gypsum crystals and marly matrix. Coating and infilling of gypsum and calcitecrystals in voids and channels were common pedofeatures observed in the soilsstudied. Two different distribution patterns of Fe-Mn oxideswere identified in aquic and non-aquic soils.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • Characterization and classification of soils of Yikalo Subwatershed in Lay
           Gayint District, Northwestern Highlands of Ethiopia

    • Authors: Endalkachew Fekadu; Kibebew Kibret, Bobe Bedadi, Asmare Melese
      Abstract: Soilresource information is vital for sound land use planning and sustainablefertility management. This study was carried out with the objective ofcharacterizing and classifying soils of Yikalo Subwatershed at Lay Gayintdistrict, Northwestern Ethiopia. Representative soil pedons were opened alongtopographic positions and described on genetic horizon basis in the field fortheir morphological characteristics and analyzed in the laboratory for selectedphysical and chemical soil properties. The soils were classified following the FAO(2014). The results revealed the presence of variations in the selectedmorphological properties within a pedon and along the topographic positions.Soils differed in reaction from 4.57 to 6.42. On the surface horizons of thesoil pedons, available P content varied from 0.21 to 3.25 mg kg-1,while exchangeable acidity ranged from 0.17 to 3.65 cmolc kg-1soil. There was no consistent trend for cation exchange capacity (CEC) and PBS(percent base saturation) with soil depth and topographic positions. The soilsin Yikalo Subwatershed were classified as Hyperdystric Cambisols (Humic), Haplic Alisols(Humic), CambicUmbrisols (Colluvic), HaplicLuvisols (Epidystric), and Pellic Vertisols (Mesotrophic). Optimumrates of organic and inorganic amendments should be applied to reduce the levelof soil acidity, and improve the fertility level of the soils for better cropproduction and productivity.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • Amending triple superphosphate with chicken litter biochar improves
           phosphorus availability

    • Authors: Audrey Asap; Ahmed Osumanu Haruna, Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid, Maru Ali
      Abstract: The reaction of H2PO42- and HPO4- with Al and Fe in acid soils to form a precipitate reduces P availability. Chicken litter biochar has been used to improve soil P availability for maize production but with limited information on optimum rates of biochar and Triple Superphosphate (TSP) to increase P availability. This study determined the optimum amount of chicken litter biochar and TSP that could increase P availability. Different rates of chicken litter biochar and TSP were evaluated in an incubation study for 30, 60, and 90 days. Selected soil chemical properties before and after incubation were determined using standard procedures. Soil pH, total P, available P, and water soluble P increased in treatments with 75% and 50% biochar. Total acidity, exchangeable Al3+, and Fe2+ were significantly reduced by the chicken litter biochar. The chicken litter biochar also increased soil CEC and exchangeable cations (K, Ca, Mg and Na). The use of 75% and 50% of 5 t ha-1 biochar with 25% TSP of the existing recommendation can be used to increase P availability whilst minimizing soil Al and Fe content. This rates can be used to optimize chicken litter biochar and TSP use in acid soils for crop production especially maize and short term vegetables.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • Relationships between soil properties, topography and land use in the Van
           Lake Basin, Turkey

    • Authors: Siyami Karaca; Füsun Gülser, Ramazan Selçuk
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine therelationship between soil properties and different topography and land uses inthe Van Lake Basin, Turkey. It has sharp and sheer slopes, and the bigdifferences on altitude generally occur from the mountainous formations.Surface soil samples (0–20 cm) were taken from 40 different points with threedifferent topography (backslope, footslope and terrace) and three differentlanduses (wheat, clover and pasture). Some of the studied soil properties (soiltexture, electrical conductivity [EC], pH, lime content, organic mattercontent, macro and micro nutrients) changed in response to land use andtopography. The clay, boron content, pH and EC values increased from thebackslope to the terrace. Soil organic matter and EC values were lower incultivated wheat and clover fields than in uncultivated pasture. The EC valueshad significant positive correlations with CaCO3, organic matter, K,B, Cu contents at 5% level and with Mg at 1% level statistically. The soilnutrient contents of cultivated wheat and clover fields were generally lowerthan the uncultivated pasture. The nutrient contents of soils in cultivatedfields decreased due to nutrient uptake by crops. Soil texture, EC, pH, lime,organic matter and nutrient contents significantly varied in differenttopographic positions due to leaching, transporting and accumulation.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • Chemical and microbiological properties in soil cultivated with sugarcane
           (Saccharum officinarum)

    • Authors: Rosana Faria Vieira; Nilza Patrícia Ramos
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate theresponse of chemical parameters and microbiological processes related to thenitrogen (N) cycling in an area cultivated with sugarcane (SC), as compared tothe native forest area (NF), considered as the reference. The pH value, thetotal C (Ctot), N (Ntot) contents, the P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn,Mn, B and Cu contents, the labile carbon (LC) content, cation exchange capacity(CEC), microbial biomass N (Nmic), potentially mineralizablenitrogen (PMN) and the urease activity (UA) were determined in soil samplestaken at depths of 0-10 and 10-20 cm. Most of the chemical properties werehigher in the NF soil at both depths, except for Ctot, Ntot andthe total K content, which did not present significant differences between theareas at the deeper level. All microbiological processes were higher in theNF soil and showed positive correlations with the total Cu and B contents,demonstrating the importance of these nutrients in the biological Ncycling.  The higher values obtained foralmost all parameters in the NF soil attest to the need for constant monitoringof areas cultivated with sugarcane in order to avoid the adverse effects ofsoil degradation. The results obtained between the areas, in relation to Ncycling processes also demonstrated the suitability of using them as reliableindicators of soil quality.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • Soil carbon, nitrogen and texture dynamics at root zone and between plants
           in Riverine plantation of Acacia catechu, Dalbergia sissoo, Phyllanthus
           emblica and Eucalyptus camaldulensis

    • Authors: Ram Asheshwar Mandal; Ishwar Chandra Dutta, Pramod Kumar Jha
      Abstract: This research was objectively carried out toassess the dynamic of carbon, nitrogen and texture at root zone and locationbetween plants. The plantation of Acacia catechu, Dalbergia sissoo, Phyllanthusemblica and Eucalyptus camaldulensis ofPragati community forest, Mahottari district, Nepal was selected for this studywhich was done in 2011. The stratified random sampling was applied to collectsoil samples. Altogether 320 soil samples were collected from 0-10, 10-30,30-60 and 60-90 cm depths. The result showed that soil carbon was about 8.16 t ha-1 atroot zone which was only 7.56 t ha-1 atlocation between plants at 0-10cm depth in Phyllanthus emblica stratum. The soilcarbon was the least nearly 2.08 t ha-1 at root zone which was 1.59 t ha-1 at location between plants in Eucalyptus camaldulensis stratum. The carbon percentage wasthe highest about 1.35% at root zone of Phyllanthus emblica stratum. However, the C/N ratio was the highest about 69:1 atlocation between plants of Dalbergiasissoo stratum. The texture of soil was loamy sand at root zone in Phyllanthus emblica, Acacia catechu andDalbergia sissoo plantations while itwas sandy at both root zone and between plants of Eucalyptus plantation. Plantations have significant effect on soilcarbon and nitrogen at 95% confidence level.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +030
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