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International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.174
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2374-6793
Published by Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Homepage  [4 journals]
  • Measuring Public Utilization Perception Potential of Unmanned Aircraft

    • Authors: Julius Keller et al.
      Abstract: The integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the National Air Space (NAS) in recent times has been met by mixed public responses. The paper establishes four constructs each of which encapsulates multiple backgrounds and concerns of the stakeholders: functional knowledge, utilization trust, operational integration support, and safety risk-benefits. The paper hypothesizes that these constructs can serve as underlying components for a research instrument namely, the Public Utilization Perception Potential (PUPP) which can be used to assess the opinions of the public on UAS integration into NAS. Responses from the public on items in a beta-tested survey instrument were analyzed for construct validity and reliability using Principal Axis Factoring (PAF). Four factors that suggest constructs underlying PUPP instrument were derived. Using Structural Equation Model (SEM) approach, a hypothesized measurement model of PUPP was further validated and the final measurement model showed good fit of the observed data based on the RMSEA goodness-of-fit index (0.034). The paper further assessed the strength of relationships between the underlying constructs of PUPP. The results suggest that approximately 65% and 27% of all respondents had partial and no knowledge, respectively, about UAS integration into the NAS. There was a statistically significant difference in the mean scores on safety-risk benefits on UAS among gender. Males were found to be more likely to patronize unmanned commercial passenger services compared to females. The results indicated a statistically significant difference in UAS knowledge and perceptions across educational levels. It was rather counter-intuitive as respondents with lower educational levels were found to be more knowledgeable about UAS compared to those of higher levels based on the results of this study. Investments in information resources and training by industry, government and academia may be helpful to improve UAS knowledge and perceptions among the public if any commercial utilization as a transport mode will be feasible. Future studies will replicate the study in countries other than the United States.
      PubDate: Sat, 21 Jul 2018 12:30:28 PDT
  • Implications of Short Scheduled Ground Times for European Carriers

    • Authors: Johannes Waltenberger et al.
      Abstract: Low-cost carriers are applying hybrid business strategies in Europe to compete with traditional airlines for more customers. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between low-cost and non-low-cost carriers on an operational basis in terms of on-time performance, turnaround scheduling, turnaround performance, and block time setting. Data was retrieved from and analyzed for three major European low-cost carriers and two hub-and-spoke operators for the airport of Valencia. Results indicate that the combination of turning around aircraft quickly and sufficient time on ground to absorb delay is a key factor for success. The findings are relevant for airlines aligning their strategies with current market requirements. Further research is required to fully uncover current strategies of European low-cost carriers on a network-wide basis.
      PubDate: Sat, 21 Jul 2018 12:30:18 PDT
  • An Optimal Airline Revenue Management Seat Pricing Plan Model

    • Authors: Constantine M. Koursaris et al.
      Abstract: The goal of an airline is to sell tickets at the highest fare possible, thus yielding maximum profit for the stakeholders. As airline seat pricing is divided into different fare classes, a revenue management system is created and maintained to identify opportunity costs where the airline may sell an optimum number of available seats in both discounted fare and full fare classes. Ideally, under perfect conditions, the airline will sell all available seats at full capacity for each leg of a trip. Under non-ideal conditions for the airline, not all available seats may sell at either full fare or discounted fare prices, thus resulting in potential revenue loses. This study will present an optimal model of an airline revenue management seat pricing plan to maximize revenue for each leg of a trip. The recommended discounted fare and full fare seats in the economy class will be calculated under a desired optimal full capacity seating plan.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jul 2018 06:04:39 PDT
  • The perceived value of frequent flyer program benefits among Australian

    • Authors: Yi Gao et al.
      Abstract: Understanding the perceived value of frequent flyer program benefits is crucial for commercial operations of airlines. This study aimed to investigate if travelers value various benefits provided by airlines and if such valuation correlates with certain characteristics of travelers. Through a scenario-based questionnaire it was confirmed that travelers do value extra and premium benefits offered by airlines, and such valuation increases along with the distance of route. It was also been found that top-tier members were willing to make a much higher offer for the same benefits on long-haul international route than members of lower status, but such difference in offer was not statistically significant on other routes. Results of this study could fulfill the gap of the current literature on frequent flyer programs, and offer practical guidance for airlines to generate higher revenues though customized pricing and targeted sales promotion to elite frequent flyers.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jul 2018 06:04:27 PDT
  • Portable Electronic Devices on the Flight Deck

    • Authors: Irena Wentzel et al.
      Abstract: The emergence of portable electronic devices (PEDs) has provided people with most anything at the touch of a button but has caused many safety-related distractions at the same time. A somewhat addictive reliance on PEDs, mostly smart phones, seems to exist even during times that would prohibit their use. Operation of PEDs during these times has led to some fatal accidents in all areas of transportation. The urgency of this safety issue now means the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) studies what role a PED may have played in every new accident investigation. Examining the use of PEDs on the flight deck, this field study researched: (a) whether pilots use PEDs when they would otherwise be prohibited, (b) whether PEDs cause errors on the flight deck, and (c) if there is one phase of flight where PED use takes place more than another. This study was administered to 20 commercial airline pilots using a 10-question, online survey. The four phases of flight examined in this survey included preflight preparation, cruise, final approach, and after landing/taxi-in. The study found that most pilots still use their PEDs even when they are prohibited, mainly due to the need for stimulation at cruise during long flights. The study also determined that a little more than half of the pilots do not believe PED usage led to errors. While non-operational use PEDs are not currently allowed during flight, there may be value in exploring an approval for their use during cruise. Many pilots use them despite their prohibition, and the evolution of avionics technology has resulted in low workload at cruise where pilots need stimulation to stay alert.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Jul 2018 10:24:11 PDT
  • A Comparison of the Strengths and Weaknesses of Small-Format Aerial
           Photography Platforms

    • Authors: Jeremy W. Aber et al.
      Abstract: The demand for small-format aerial photography continues to grow in large part due to the rapid adoption of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Prior to the explosion of UAV use, this kind of photography was collected using older technologies such as tethered kites and blimps. Due to the increased demand for aerial imagery, this article looks at four platforms commonly used to collect small-format aerial imagery: multi-rotor UAVs, fixed-wing UAVs, kites, and blimps. Practical use considerations are explored, including characteristics of flight and operation, atmospheric and site factors, imaging sensors and costs, and regulatory limitations.Each of the four categories of lifting platform have their strengths and limitations, and they often complement one another. UAVs tends to be more maneuverable and able to cover more ground, but they have limited flight times due to battery technology limitations. They also have clearly defined regulatory requirements for use, whereas the tethered platforms have very few legal restrictions on use. In some cases, a tethered platform may be the only legal option for gathering small-format aerial imagery at a location. There is no one perfect option that will fill all needs, but rather multiple solutions that are better suited to some situations than others. The ways in which some of these strengths and limitations may change in the future in regards to technology and regulations is also discussed.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jul 2018 10:25:11 PDT
  • Book Review: Fundamentals of International Aviation

    • Authors: Alan Bender
      Abstract: Not applicable.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Jun 2018 09:57:04 PDT
  • Competitiveness of Hybrid Electric Aircraft on Short Range Scheduled

    • Authors: Johannes Anton et al.
      Abstract: Hybrid electric aircraft are expected to enter the small regional aircraft market within the next two decades. The aim of this study was to investigate if a hybrid electric passenger aircraft with 50 seats can be competitive against the established 100 seat aircraft on short range scheduled flights. The Embraer EMB 145 and EMB 190 regional jets were chosen as benchmarks for that market. A hypothetical hybrid version of the EMB 145 with increased fuel efficiency was tested on a cost per available seat mile (CASM) basis. The t tests confirmed significant (p < 0.05) competitiveness of the hybrid version, while in contrast the conventional 50-seater was significantly more expensive compared to the 100seat aircraft. This indicates that hybrid aircraft could enter the short haul market with a competitive advantage, even against the established 100 seat regional jets.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Jun 2018 10:59:49 PDT
  • Personality Types and Learning Styles of Collegiate Aviation Students

    • Authors: Stephanie Fussell et al.
      Abstract: The personality types and learning styles of students have been studied across education populations, yet the research analyzing aviation students is lacking. A replication study assessed the distribution of personality types and learning styles of students enrolled in the aeronautical science baccalaureate degree program at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU). The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Form M and the Kolb Learning Style Inventory (KLSI) were used to analyze the personality types and learning styles, respectively. When compared to the personality type distribution of the traditional college student sample using a selection ratio type table, a significant overrepresentation of the personality type of ISTJ was found among the aviation students (I = 4.36, p < .001). The distribution of learning styles of the aviation students were also compared to the traditional college student sample; Chi-square goodness-of-fit tests revealed an overrepresentation of divergent learners, χ2 (3) = 7.40,p = .002. A Pearson Chi-square test for independence examined if personality type is a predictive factor of aviation student learning preference and found no evidence to support a relationship in the sample.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Jun 2018 10:59:39 PDT
  • US Regional Airline Pay Scale Changes

    • Authors: Alex Nikle et al.
      Abstract: The United States regional air carrier industry has recently undergone a substantial transformation in pilot salaries and hiring practices. Regional airlines are employing professional aviators at unprecedented rates in response to economic growth, regulatory reform, and legacy air carrier retirements. The combination of these factors has spurred demand for qualified air carrier pilots. As the hiring continues to increase, regional airlines are finding new ways to attract certified pilots to include: salary increases, bonuses incentives, and legacy airline employment flow agreements. The following report analyzes the salary changes that have occurred at US regional airlines from 2007-2017. From this data, an independent samples t-Test was performed to determine if there was significance between wholly owned and independently owned regional airlines. The results of this analysis indicate significance for hourly pay rates and effective wages between wholly owned and independent carriers during 2007, 2011, and 2016. This suggests that wholly owned air carriers have implemented pay increases prior to independently owned regional airlines.
      PubDate: Sun, 13 May 2018 11:05:59 PDT
  • Ranking of Human Senses in Relation to Different In-flight Activities
           Contributing to the Comfort Experience of Airplane Passengers

    • Authors: Joyce Bouwens et al.
      Abstract: Bubb, Bengler, Grünen, and Vollrath (2015) identified six environmental comfort factors and ordered them from most important to least important (smell, light, vibrations, sound, climate and anthropometry). This paper attempts to verify whether this suggested order of comfort-related factors also applies to the expectations of aircraft passengers. For this purpose, two studies were carried out. First, a survey was conducted among 183 aircraft passengers between 19 and 64 years old. In this survey, respondents were asked to rank six comfort factors by selecting the most important factor from 15 pairs of factors (e.g. light versus smell). The respondents indicated anthropometry as the most important factor, followed by noise, smell and climate. These were followed by the vibration factor and the light factor, which was considered the least important. However, respondents stated after the survey ,that the context of the factors was unclear, since the importance of each factor might depend on the in-flight activity performed. Moreover, the factors were insufficiently explained (e.g. it is not clear if climate refers to warm or cold air). Based on this, a second survey was conducted among 167 aircraft passengers who were between 19 and 61 years old. In this survey, the comfort factors were clarified and two activities were predefined. The results illustrate that different orders of comfort factors can be identified for different activities, however, according to respondents, the comfort of the seat is the most important factor for all activities. The indicated order of comfort factors could help aircraft interior manufacturers prioritize design efforts aimed at improved passenger comfort for intended in-flight activities.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 Apr 2018 10:33:34 PDT
  • Exploring Commercial Counter-UAS Operations: A Case Study of the 2017
           Dominican Republic Festival Presidente

    • Authors: Ryan J. Wallace et al.
      Abstract: The proliferation of commercial off-the-shelf unmanned aircraft technology has resulted in a growing number of illicit or hazardous UAS activities, highlighting the growing need for effective counter-UAS mitigations. The purpose of this exploratory research is to develop a better understanding of the existing tactics, techniques, procedures involved in counter-UAS operations. Using a critical paradigm approach, the authors conducted a qualitative, unstructured interview with counter-UAS professionals. The authors sought to identify mission planning considerations, counter-UAS engagement tasks, and unanticipated conditions associated with performing a commercial [non-military] counter-UAS mission. The authors codified 11 key mission planning tasks and a 22-step engagement process by which one organization effected counter-UAS operations at a contracted, international event. The authors conclude that the study’s findings underscore existing vulnerabilities to UAS threats and the accompanying need for additional research in this field of UAS security.
      PubDate: Fri, 13 Apr 2018 11:26:32 PDT
  • Improving airplane boarding time: a review, a field study and an
           experiment with a new way of hand luggage stowing

    • Authors: Jessica Coppens et al.
      Abstract: The airplane (de)boarding process is not organized optimally. The goal of this paper is to search for improvement possibilities. In this paper literature is reviewed, boarding characteristics are studied in a field study and a pilot study with a new way of hand luggage stowing is performed. Computer simulations indicate that there are more efficient boarding methods than those currently in use, like the reverse pyramid method which starts window seat columns in the back and ends with aisle seat columns in the front. The literature also shows that hand luggage stowing in the overhead lockers can block other passengers increasing the boarding time. Also, the field observations and the pilot test indicate that hand luggage stowing could block the aisle and is one of the main elements in boarding that influences passenger experience and boarding time. Training and preparing the boarding process could potentially reduce the boarding time by 3-4 minutes, but further research is needed to prove this.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Apr 2018 19:58:41 PDT
  • Experimental investigation of a new spiral wingtip

    • Authors: Naseeb Ahmed Siddiqui et al.
      Abstract: Experiments on the relative merits and demerits of slotted wingtips mimicking a bird’s primary feathers have been performed. The real emargination length of feather tips, their flexibility and curved shapes during cruise are considered in the present study. The experiments were performed at a Reynolds number of 3.7 x 105 on a symmetric flat plate half wing of aspect ratio 3. Lift, drag and pitching moments were measured using a six component aerodynamic balance. Four different shapes inspired by bird primary feathers have been analysed. The rigid curved tip performed the best increasing the L/D ratio by 20%. This improvement has been compared with forty different wingtips model available in the literature which shows that rigid curved tip provide better L/D performance. Based on this improvement the key performance indicator of Jet and propeller airplane has been calculated that shows a 7.8% and 9% increase in range for propeller and Jet airplane, respectively.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Mar 2018 08:38:20 PDT
  • Comparing the Distraction of Cell Phone Conversations to In-Person
           Conversations on a Simulated Commercial Flight

    • Authors: Tianhua Li et al.
      Abstract: The purpose of the study was to determine the difference in participants’ attention to announcements and compliance with safety behaviors when talking on a cell phone and when talking face-to-face in a simulated commercial flight. Currently, passengers are forbidden from making cell phone calls during flights in the United States due to electronic interference. However, any possible interference can be eliminated with the help of new technology. Although talking on the cell phone does not cause electronic interference, the distraction of a passenger caused by a cell phone may negatively impact safety. This study compared the extent of safety compliance (checking seatbelts, raising tray tables) and retention of announcements among three groups: cell phone conversation, face-to-face conversation (i.e., talking with the passenger next to them), and control. Findings revealed that the cell phone conversation group and the face-to-face conversation group recalled less information from safety announcement and complied with safety behaviors to a lesser degree than the control group. The face-to-face conversation group was not safer than the cell phone conversation group on any measure. Cell phone conversations did not have any greater influence on passenger’s attention to the announcements in comparison to the face-to-face conversations. Furthermore, safety compliance of passengers on cell phones appears to pose no greater risk than a passenger talking to an adjacent passenger. The findings support lifting the ban on cell phone calls on commercial flights.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Mar 2018 08:54:53 PDT
  • Characteristics of Helicopter Accidents Involving Male and Female Pilots

    • Authors: Scott S. Burgess et al.
      Abstract: Studies examining aviation accidents have not found differences in accident rates by gender, though there may be gender differences in the types of accident. Baker, Lamb, Grabowski, and Rebok (2001) examined fixed-wing aviation accident rates of male and female private pilots and found that males were more likely to have accidents related to inattention or poor planning while female pilots were more likely to have accidents due to mishandling the aircraft. This research analyzed the National Transportation Safety Board’s aviation accident database system to examine the severity of injury and aircraft damage in rotary-wing (helicopter) accidents by gender. The data indicated that female helicopter pilots have slightly higher accident rates with higher aircraft damage and personnel injury rates at lower levels of training and experience, but have superior records as compared to male pilots at higher levels of experience. Overall, minimal differences in accident rates for helicopter pilots can be tied to gender differences.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Mar 2018 08:43:31 PDT
  • Manufacturing Process Simulation – On Its Way to Industrial

    • Authors: Dennis Otten et al.
      Abstract: Manufacturing process simulation (MPS) has become more and more important for aviation and the automobile industry. A highly competitive market requires the use of high performance metals and composite materials in combination with reduced manufacturing cost and time as well as a minimization of the time to market for a new product. However, the use of such materials is expensive and requires sophisticated manufacturing processes. An experience based process and tooling design followed by a lengthy trial-and-error optimization is just not contemporary anymore. Instead, a tooling design process aided by simulation is used more often. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities of MPS in the fields of sheet metal forming and prepreg autoclave manufacturing of composite parts summarizing the resulting benefits for tooling design and manufacturing engineering. The simulation technology is explained briefly in order to show several simplification and optimization techniques for developing industrialized simulation approaches. Small case studies provide examples of an efficient application on an industrial scale.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Mar 2018 19:52:58 PDT
  • The Challenges of Processing Kite Aerial Photography Imagery with Modern
           Photogrammetry Techniques

    • Authors: Jeremy W. Aber et al.
      Abstract: Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) is a traditional method of collecting small-format aerial photography used for work in a variety of fields. This research explored techniques for processing KAP imagery with a focus on some of the challenges specific to photo processing. The performance of multiple automated image compositing programs was compared using a common set of 29 images. Those packages that were based on a photogrammetry approach outperformed the non-photogrammetric software, and generated similar levels of quality to one another. While all three photogrammetric packages produced satisfactory output, each had unique challenges.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Mar 2018 15:13:16 PDT
  • Literature Review of GA Pilots Transition to Advanced Cockpit Technologies

    • Authors: John A. Kolmos
      Abstract: Pilots for many years have received training on the round instrument gauges and the question is, can they now safely make the transfer to the new cockpit technologies' Studies show a cognitive deficit with pilot's age 40 years and older making transitions to these advanced cockpits. Older pilots as well as older adult learners in general absorb and retain information different than our younger counterparts. The training and instructional programs are now geared towards a one size fits all and problems seem to surface according to the literature affecting particularly older pilots. This article addresses these concerns.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Mar 2018 15:13:10 PDT
  • Building Evidence the Federal Aviation Administration's UAS Safety
           Strategy Needs Improvement

    • Authors: Ryan J. Wallace et al.
      Abstract: The growth of unmanned aircraft operations within the National Airspace System (NAS) reveal an uptick of alarming safety indicators that suggest unmanned aircraft system (UAS) regulatory policy may require adjustment. Recent reports of aircraft collisions with UAS, an increase in pilot-reported near-misses, and research findings that indicate UAS platforms are capable of causing structural damage to aircraft suggest safe and effective UAS integration may not be proceeding as planned. The authors examine several safety indicators within the context of Heinrich’s Triangle to reveal the UAS industry’s susceptibility to evolving safety-related problems.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Mar 2018 18:43:08 PDT
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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