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International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.174
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2374-6793
Published by Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Homepage  [4 journals]
  • US Regional Airline Pay Scale Changes

    • Authors: Alex Nikle et al.
      Abstract: The United States regional air carrier industry has recently undergone a substantial transformation in pilot salaries and hiring practices. Regional airlines are employing professional aviators at unprecedented rates in response to economic growth, regulatory reform, and legacy air carrier retirements. The combination of these factors has spurred demand for qualified air carrier pilots. As the hiring continues to increase, regional airlines are finding new ways to attract certified pilots to include: salary increases, bonuses incentives, and legacy airline employment flow agreements. The following report analyzes the salary changes that have occurred at US regional airlines from 2007-2017. From this data, an independent samples t-Test was performed to determine if there was significance between wholly owned and independently owned regional airlines. The results of this analysis indicate significance for hourly pay rates and effective wages between wholly owned and independent carriers during 2007, 2011, and 2016. This suggests that wholly owned air carriers have implemented pay increases prior to independently owned regional airlines.
      PubDate: Sun, 13 May 2018 11:05:59 PDT
  • Ranking of Human Senses in Relation to Different In-flight Activities
           Contributing to the Comfort Experience of Airplane Passengers

    • Authors: Joyce Bouwens et al.
      Abstract: Bubb, Bengler, Grünen, and Vollrath (2015) identified six environmental comfort factors and ordered them from most important to least important (smell, light, vibrations, sound, climate and anthropometry). This paper attempts to verify whether this suggested order of comfort-related factors also applies to the expectations of aircraft passengers. For this purpose, two studies were carried out. First, a survey was conducted among 183 aircraft passengers between 19 and 64 years old. In this survey, respondents were asked to rank six comfort factors by selecting the most important factor from 15 pairs of factors (e.g. light versus smell). The respondents indicated anthropometry as the most important factor, followed by noise, smell and climate. These were followed by the vibration factor and the light factor, which was considered the least important. However, respondents stated after the survey ,that the context of the factors was unclear, since the importance of each factor might depend on the in-flight activity performed. Moreover, the factors were insufficiently explained (e.g. it is not clear if climate refers to warm or cold air). Based on this, a second survey was conducted among 167 aircraft passengers who were between 19 and 61 years old. In this survey, the comfort factors were clarified and two activities were predefined. The results illustrate that different orders of comfort factors can be identified for different activities, however, according to respondents, the comfort of the seat is the most important factor for all activities. The indicated order of comfort factors could help aircraft interior manufacturers prioritize design efforts aimed at improved passenger comfort for intended in-flight activities.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 Apr 2018 10:33:34 PDT
  • Exploring Commercial Counter-UAS Operations: A Case Study of the 2017
           Dominican Republic Festival Presidente

    • Authors: Ryan J. Wallace et al.
      Abstract: The proliferation of commercial off-the-shelf unmanned aircraft technology has resulted in a growing number of illicit or hazardous UAS activities, highlighting the growing need for effective counter-UAS mitigations. The purpose of this exploratory research is to develop a better understanding of the existing tactics, techniques, procedures involved in counter-UAS operations. Using a critical paradigm approach, the authors conducted a qualitative, unstructured interview with counter-UAS professionals. The authors sought to identify mission planning considerations, counter-UAS engagement tasks, and unanticipated conditions associated with performing a commercial [non-military] counter-UAS mission. The authors codified 11 key mission planning tasks and a 22-step engagement process by which one organization effected counter-UAS operations at a contracted, international event. The authors conclude that the study’s findings underscore existing vulnerabilities to UAS threats and the accompanying need for additional research in this field of UAS security.
      PubDate: Fri, 13 Apr 2018 11:26:32 PDT
  • Improving airplane boarding time: a review, a field study and an
           experiment with a new way of hand luggage stowing

    • Authors: Jessica Coppens et al.
      Abstract: The airplane (de)boarding process is not organized optimally. The goal of this paper is to search for improvement possibilities. In this paper literature is reviewed, boarding characteristics are studied in a field study and a pilot study with a new way of hand luggage stowing is performed. Computer simulations indicate that there are more efficient boarding methods than those currently in use, like the reverse pyramid method which starts window seat columns in the back and ends with aisle seat columns in the front. The literature also shows that hand luggage stowing in the overhead lockers can block other passengers increasing the boarding time. Also, the field observations and the pilot test indicate that hand luggage stowing could block the aisle and is one of the main elements in boarding that influences passenger experience and boarding time. Training and preparing the boarding process could potentially reduce the boarding time by 3-4 minutes, but further research is needed to prove this.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Apr 2018 19:58:41 PDT
  • Experimental investigation of a new spiral wingtip

    • Authors: Naseeb Ahmed Siddiqui et al.
      Abstract: Experiments on the relative merits and demerits of slotted wingtips mimicking a bird’s primary feathers have been performed. The real emargination length of feather tips, their flexibility and curved shapes during cruise are considered in the present study. The experiments were performed at a Reynolds number of 3.7 x 105 on a symmetric flat plate half wing of aspect ratio 3. Lift, drag and pitching moments were measured using a six component aerodynamic balance. Four different shapes inspired by bird primary feathers have been analysed. The rigid curved tip performed the best increasing the L/D ratio by 20%. This improvement has been compared with forty different wingtips model available in the literature which shows that rigid curved tip provide better L/D performance. Based on this improvement the key performance indicator of Jet and propeller airplane has been calculated that shows a 7.8% and 9% increase in range for propeller and Jet airplane, respectively.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Mar 2018 08:38:20 PDT
  • Comparing the Distraction of Cell Phone Conversations to In-Person
           Conversations on a Simulated Commercial Flight

    • Authors: Tianhua Li et al.
      Abstract: The purpose of the study was to determine the difference in participants’ attention to announcements and compliance with safety behaviors when talking on a cell phone and when talking face-to-face in a simulated commercial flight. Currently, passengers are forbidden from making cell phone calls during flights in the United States due to electronic interference. However, any possible interference can be eliminated with the help of new technology. Although talking on the cell phone does not cause electronic interference, the distraction of a passenger caused by a cell phone may negatively impact safety. This study compared the extent of safety compliance (checking seatbelts, raising tray tables) and retention of announcements among three groups: cell phone conversation, face-to-face conversation (i.e., talking with the passenger next to them), and control. Findings revealed that the cell phone conversation group and the face-to-face conversation group recalled less information from safety announcement and complied with safety behaviors to a lesser degree than the control group. The face-to-face conversation group was not safer than the cell phone conversation group on any measure. Cell phone conversations did not have any greater influence on passenger’s attention to the announcements in comparison to the face-to-face conversations. Furthermore, safety compliance of passengers on cell phones appears to pose no greater risk than a passenger talking to an adjacent passenger. The findings support lifting the ban on cell phone calls on commercial flights.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Mar 2018 08:54:53 PDT
  • Characteristics of Helicopter Accidents Involving Male and Female Pilots

    • Authors: Scott S. Burgess et al.
      Abstract: Studies examining aviation accidents have not found differences in accident rates by gender, though there may be gender differences in the types of accident. Baker, Lamb, Grabowski, and Rebok (2001) examined fixed-wing aviation accident rates of male and female private pilots and found that males were more likely to have accidents related to inattention or poor planning while female pilots were more likely to have accidents due to mishandling the aircraft. This research analyzed the National Transportation Safety Board’s aviation accident database system to examine the severity of injury and aircraft damage in rotary-wing (helicopter) accidents by gender. The data indicated that female helicopter pilots have slightly higher accident rates with higher aircraft damage and personnel injury rates at lower levels of training and experience, but have superior records as compared to male pilots at higher levels of experience. Overall, minimal differences in accident rates for helicopter pilots can be tied to gender differences.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Mar 2018 08:43:31 PDT
  • Manufacturing Process Simulation – On Its Way to Industrial

    • Authors: Dennis Otten et al.
      Abstract: Manufacturing process simulation (MPS) has become more and more important for aviation and the automobile industry. A highly competitive market requires the use of high performance metals and composite materials in combination with reduced manufacturing cost and time as well as a minimization of the time to market for a new product. However, the use of such materials is expensive and requires sophisticated manufacturing processes. An experience based process and tooling design followed by a lengthy trial-and-error optimization is just not contemporary anymore. Instead, a tooling design process aided by simulation is used more often. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities of MPS in the fields of sheet metal forming and prepreg autoclave manufacturing of composite parts summarizing the resulting benefits for tooling design and manufacturing engineering. The simulation technology is explained briefly in order to show several simplification and optimization techniques for developing industrialized simulation approaches. Small case studies provide examples of an efficient application on an industrial scale.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Mar 2018 19:52:58 PDT
  • The Challenges of Processing Kite Aerial Photography Imagery with Modern
           Photogrammetry Techniques

    • Authors: Jeremy W. Aber et al.
      Abstract: Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) is a traditional method of collecting small-format aerial photography used for work in a variety of fields. This research explored techniques for processing KAP imagery with a focus on some of the challenges specific to photo processing. The performance of multiple automated image compositing programs was compared using a common set of 29 images. Those packages that were based on a photogrammetry approach outperformed the non-photogrammetric software, and generated similar levels of quality to one another. While all three photogrammetric packages produced satisfactory output, each had unique challenges.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Mar 2018 15:13:16 PDT
  • Literature Review of GA Pilots Transition to Advanced Cockpit Technologies

    • Authors: John A. Kolmos
      Abstract: Pilots for many years have received training on the round instrument gauges and the question is, can they now safely make the transfer to the new cockpit technologies' Studies show a cognitive deficit with pilot's age 40 years and older making transitions to these advanced cockpits. Older pilots as well as older adult learners in general absorb and retain information different than our younger counterparts. The training and instructional programs are now geared towards a one size fits all and problems seem to surface according to the literature affecting particularly older pilots. This article addresses these concerns.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Mar 2018 15:13:10 PDT
  • Building Evidence the Federal Aviation Administration's UAS Safety
           Strategy Needs Improvement

    • Authors: Ryan J. Wallace et al.
      Abstract: The growth of unmanned aircraft operations within the National Airspace System (NAS) reveal an uptick of alarming safety indicators that suggest unmanned aircraft system (UAS) regulatory policy may require adjustment. Recent reports of aircraft collisions with UAS, an increase in pilot-reported near-misses, and research findings that indicate UAS platforms are capable of causing structural damage to aircraft suggest safe and effective UAS integration may not be proceeding as planned. The authors examine several safety indicators within the context of Heinrich’s Triangle to reveal the UAS industry’s susceptibility to evolving safety-related problems.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Mar 2018 18:43:08 PDT
  • The Role of Mentoring in the Careers of Female Airline Transport Pilots

    • Authors: Paul E. Cline
      Abstract: Women have been a part of aviation since its inception, yet they have been traditionally underrepresented in the ranks of commercial pilots. This study explored what role mentoring played in the lives and careers of female Airline Transport Pilots (ATP).It was determined that there was no statistically significant difference in self-reported perceptions of success between female ATP who had been mentored and those who had not. Of the female ATP who had been mentored, those who reported an informal mentoring relationship rated their relationship higher than those who reported a formal mentoring relationship when it came to career oriented assistance and advice. The results for mentoring factors related to psychosocial needs and activities were less certain, but the preponderance of evidence supports the assertion that those female ATP who reported an informal mentoring relationship were more satisfied in these areas than their formal mentor counterparts.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Feb 2018 06:23:06 PST
  • Low Reynolds Number Numerical Simulation of the Aerodynamic Coefficients
           of a 3D Wing

    • Authors: Khurshid Malik et al.
      Abstract: A low Reynolds number, three-dimensional CFD analysis is carried out for a finite flat plate wing using the commercial CFD code STAR CCM+. The six-aerodynamic force and moment components CL, CD, CM, CN, Cl, CY and their derivatives are computed at a Reynolds numbers of 3x105 by varying the pitch, roll and yaw angles about the quarter chord point. The computed results have been validated with experimental aerodynamic balance data when possible. The results indicate that roll and yaw angle affect the aerodynamic coefficients of the flat plate wing along with the pitch angle. The influence of roll and yaw angles on the six aerodynamics coefficients were found to be significant for high pitch angles specially 100 and 150. Stability derivatives have also been reported. This data is important for the design of MAVs and small UAVs and is currently perhaps not available in the open literature.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Feb 2018 06:03:03 PST
  • Effect of Anthropometric Variability on Middle-Market Aircraft Seating

    • Authors: Tara C. Sriram
      Abstract: A middle-of-market aircraft, or MoMA, is defined as an aircraft capable of flying 180-250 passengers without refueling for 2,300-5,800 miles(~2,000-5,000 nautical miles). As the name suggests, middle-of-market aircraft are positioned in between the market segments served by narrow body (single-aisle) and wide body (twin-aisle) aircraft. This paper presents the findings of a study on the effect of anthropomorphic variability on economy class seating on middle-market aircraft currently in service. The study found that among 130 middle-market LOPAs, the mean seat pitch was greater for US airlines than for Asian airlines. Furthermore, the sampled Asian airlines had a higher preference for denser seating configurations, while the US airlines had a preference for less dense seating configurations. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that airlines optimize their aircraft interior configurations based on the anthropomorphic characteristics of the population they serve.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Feb 2018 05:33:07 PST
  • Flight Simulator Fidelity, Training Transfer, and the Role of Instructors
           in Optimizing Learning

    • Authors: Paul L. Myers III et al.
      Abstract: Simulators have been integrated into flight training at various levels for decades, increasing in utility as they increased in fidelity. Today, practically all levels of qualification in passenger-carrying commercial airliners can be obtained entirely in the simulator, with the first experience in the aircraft on a revenue-producing flight. Flight training in the U.S. is a tightly controlled, highly regulated process overseen by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). It is also a very successful one; commercial aviation maintains a remarkable safety record. To that end, pilot training has been studied and analyzed extensively over the years, and as to the focus of this paper, the efficacy of simulator training has generated as much debate as consensus with regards to the utility of the devices. Much of this research, to include experiments, has focused on simulator fidelity – how well the device replicates the actual aircraft – and to what extent that training transfers to the aircraft. Very little research has focused on the role and interaction of the simulator instructor with the student(s) and what impact he/she has upon the final training result nor has elements of current instructional design methodology been considered. This paper analyzes vital simulator training concepts, examines accidents and incidents where the investigation revealed potential deficiencies in the training devices used by the crews of these airplanes, and then considers the role of the simulator instructor through the lens of modern instructional design concepts. The authors provide suggestions as to the direction of further research into the vitality of this role in maximizing the potential of training with flight simulators to further safety goals.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Feb 2018 21:52:40 PST
  • Hazards and Mitigation Measures in Aerospace Non-Destructive Testing

    • Authors: Khay-Wai Leong et al.
      Abstract: As an aircraft component is subjected to tensile/torsional/bending forces and heat cycles during operation, non-destructive inspection programs have been mandated by aviation regulatory authorities and component manufacturers to ensure that cracks and flaws in the aircraft structure, engine and components are detected before reaching catastrophic failure modes. In aerospace settings, eddy current, magnetic particle, dye penetrant and radiography inspection methods are known to affect worker health. Two recent studies have linked dye chemicals to bladder cancer, excessive electromagnetic field exposure has been linked to undue stress on the human body, and excessive exposure to ionizing radiation has been linked to cancer. The electromagnetic field magnitude levels (at respective frequencies) during eddy current and magnetic particle inspection processes must be within the established safety limits. Dye chemicals utilized in magnetic particle and dye penetrant testing must be kept away from contact or isolated through dilution and exhaust ventilation. Wireless imaging and data transfer technology and shielding should be used to minimize ionizing radiation during radiographic inspection. Ultrasonic testing is much less hazardous to human health when compared to radiographic, eddy current, magnetic particle and dye penetrant inspection methods, and passive infrared thermography devices pose no health hazards to workers in aerospace. As such, regulatory authorities and aircraft manufacturers should prescribe ultrasonic testing and passive thermographic inspections as the preferred non-destructive testing methods in the aviation field to mitigate the health hazards.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Feb 2018 21:33:01 PST
  • Assessment and Comparison of Aviation Manufacturing Industries throughout
           Mexico and Brazil

    • Authors: Omar E. Morsi et al.
      Abstract: This literature review serves to provide insight and understanding in regards to the evolving aviation manufacturing industry throughout the globe and more specifically, Mexico and Brazil. Increased demand for aircraft units both in the commercial and private sectors have led to unprecedented expansions in aircraft manufacturing across the industry. In order to illuminate certain potentials and current growth levels of such industries, this review will delve into an array of information and specifications in regards to economic, political, and cultural influences throughout both Mexican and Brazilian markets respectively. In conclusion, the review will identify the transformation of an aviation manufacturing stronghold from one nation to another.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Feb 2018 08:15:52 PST
  • To Drive or Fly: Will Driverless Cars Significantly Disrupt Commercial
           Airline Travel'

    • Authors: Stephen Rice et al.
      Abstract: In the past, commercial airlines and automobiles have shared a symbiotic relationship and rarely compete directly with each other except for very short flights. However, with driverless vehicles on the horizon, many of which will be made available to the average American consumer within a few years, the airline industry may find that they are now facing a competitor that is unlike anything they have seen in the past. In the current paper, we analyze some of the issues that the airline industry will encounter, and provide consumer survey data that shows that at least 10% of the flying public will switch to driverless vehicles once they realize the advantages that driverless cars offer over commercial flight. These numbers may snowball as the airline industry contracts, particularly for airlines that use the hub and spoke model. We discuss the implications of these potential changes.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Feb 2018 08:15:46 PST
  • Subjectivity in Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA) Severity
           Classification within a Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) Context

    • Authors: Marc Banghart et al.
      Abstract: This research paper investigated subjectivity in the severity rating of failure modes within a risk analysis process. Although several risk analysis processes can be utilized, the study considered the application of Failure Modes Effects Analysis (FMEA) or Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) due to its common use within the Aerospace Industry. The study investigated both differences in severity selection given varying amounts of experience as well as any association between severity selection and the provided input information. The main goal of the research was to investigate the impact of data quality on severity selection and to identify factors that impact the severity score, and thus greatly influence the overall risk reduction strategies both in new acquisition and fielded systems. Participants consisted of both experienced and inexperienced FMEA/FMECA users. Participants were tasked to select a severity rating for nine failure modes (across three trials) assuming a typical severity scale. Different input data sets were provided in each trial to ascertain if an association exits between severity class selection and the amount of information available during analysis. This study provided evidence that risk analysis participants are subjective during severity rating selection when utilizing FMEA/FMECA processes. Users who are provided with irrelevant failure and mishap data tend to select similar severity levels; however, when no information is provided to users, user selections will be dramatically more conservative. Participants appear to select similar severity ratings regardless of the relevancy of the provided data.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Feb 2018 14:53:05 PST
  • Base Pressure Control using Micro-jets in Supersonic Flow Regimes

    • Authors: Vigneshvaran Sethuraman et al.
      Abstract: Base pressure plays a vital role in aerospace-related applications and its control is essential in reduction of drag and improving fuel consumption. Low pressure at the base of Rockets, Missiles, bombs and shells are a very common problem happening at transonic and supersonic speeds. In most of the cases there is a significant dip in pressure at the base region which will have implications on the design of aerospace vehicles. This paper presents an experimental investigation carried out for flow control at supersonic regimes. Experiments were conducted to measure the base pressure in the base region and wall pressure distribution in the enlarged duct at Mach 1.25 and 2.0, for L/D = 10, for four area ratios namely, 2.56, 3.24, 4.84, and 6.25. From the results it is found that active control in form of micro-jets is effective in boosting base pressure only at higher Mach numbers with larger area ratios at under-expanded conditions. Wall pressure flow field reveals that the quality of the flow with and without control is almost identical and there is no adverse effect of the control mechanism on the flow field of the duct. The variation in reattachment point along the downstream of the duct has very minimal effect with micro-jets as control.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Feb 2018 14:53:01 PST
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Heriot-Watt University
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