Journal Cover Beyond : Undergraduate Research Journal
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2332-130x
   Published by Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Homepage  [4 journals]
  • Observations and Simulations of Whistler Waves in the Van Allen Radiation
           Belts

    • Authors: Miles Bengtson et al.
      Abstract: When the first American satellite, Explorer I, was launched into space in 1958 it inadvertently discovered one the most significant features of our local space environment: the Van Allen Radiation Belts. This region contains highly energetic protons and electrons from the sun which become trapped in the Earth’s magnetic field. These particles are extremely hazardous for spacecraft, causing damage to electronics and endangering astronauts on the International Space Station. Certain natural or artificial events, such as solar coronal mass ejections or high-altitude nuclear explosions, can enhance the radiation belts and decrease satellite lifetimes by orders of magnitude. Therefore, there is a strong motivation to develop a means by which to deplete the radiation and protect our assets in space from this threat. We present one promising remediation mechanism based on the interactions between these particles and very-low-frequency electromagnetic waves known as whistlers. One important property of whistler waves is that they can be guided along narrow inhomogeneities of plasma density called ducts. We have analyzed several events of ducted whistlers observed by the Van Allen Probes satellites and reproduce them with numerical simulations based on whistler theory. We demonstrate quantitative agreement between our simulations and the observations, indicating that our model successfully explains the existing satellite observations and can be used to predict the results from future experiments of launching whistler waves into the radiation belts from ground stations and space-based transmitters.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 May 2018 11:37:04 PDT
       
  • In-house Fabrication of Temperature Sensitive Paint for Turbine Cooling
           Research

    • Authors: Mayur D. Patel et al.
      Abstract: The Temperature Sensitive Paint (TSP) is a widely used method in measuring and visualizing flow separation and heat transfer. Compared to the cost and time consumption needed for methods such as pitot tubes, temperature sensitive paint is a cheaper alternative. Due to high usage in College of Engineering research projects, it was determined that in house fabrication of temperature sensitive paint would reduce time and cost limitations. For initial stages, literature research was performed to determine the recipe of intensity based TSP with luminophore and polymer binder that operated optimum at temperatures from 0-100°C. Europium III thenoyltrifluoroacetonate was determined to be an effective luminophore to create a solvent for turbine cooling and heat transfer research. Standard operating procedure was also created such that it met the environmental and safety risk factors associated with fabrication of paint. Using acrylic glass test piece with existing experimental setup, intensity data were obtained. Experiments resulted in intensity change magnitude and Arrhenius curve similar to commercially available TSP. In addition, in-house TSP was significantly cheaper and less time-consuming. Further research would involve calibration curve and developing a Pressure Sensitive Paint.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Feb 2017 10:51:27 PST
       
  • Determination of Aqueous Surfactant Solution Surface Tensions with a
           Surface Tensiometer

    • Authors: Remelisa Esteves et al.
      Abstract: Surfactant solutions are applicable to engineering systems for cooling equipment for electronics. Surfactants can be added to water to improve heat transfer. An application of using aqueous surfactant solutions can be through microchannel heat sink. Although it is ideal to redesign these systems to reduce heat, it is a costly method. Surfactant solutions at optimal solution concentration can be able to transfer heat quickly and effectively with minimum expense. The surface tension of surfactant solutions is an important parameter for boiling heat transfer and must be taken into consideration. The purpose of this research is to measure surface tension of surfactant solutions at varied concentrations and determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC) point. A surface tensiometer that utilizes the Wilhelmy plate method was used to measure the surface tensions of SLS, ECOSURFTM EH-14, and ECOSURFTM SA-9 of various compositions at room temperature. The measured data for SLS followed a pattern similar to reported data in the literature. There are no reported data for EH-14 and SA-9 in the literature since they are new surfactants. Although each surfactant solution had different surface tension values, it was observed that, as surfactant concentration increased, the surface tension decreased and eventually leveled out at the CMC point.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Nov 2016 13:38:45 PST
       
  • STEM Education Discrepancy in the United States and Singapore

    • Authors: Elizabeth K. Worsham et al.
      Abstract: One of the hottest topics over the past several years has been science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education. The United States is lagging behind in the STEM education rankings as compared to its counterparts in Europe and Asia, including Singapore, ranked second overall in math and science based on the Program of International Student Assessment. Even as such a small country, Singapore has one of the best education systems in the world, one of the busiest ports, and is a leader in the science and technology market. One factor of this is the family life and the culture that education should improve one’s quality of life. Parent involvement and the drive of the student help them to become more apt learners and pursue a STEM career. The government also plays a role in creating an environment where students will become innovating minds in the workforce and help sustain the country’s economy and place in the global market. The education system fosters student’s interests in math and science and caters to different levels of students abilities in order to retain them in schools. All these factors contribute to Singapore having a higher percentage of students graduate from universities with STEM degrees than in the United States.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Nov 2016 13:38:41 PST
       
  • Determination of Surfactant Solution Viscosities with a Rotational
           Viscometer

    • Authors: Remelisa Esteves et al.
      Abstract: Aqueous surfactant solutions are used in engineering systems for improving boiling heat transfer. The purpose of this research is to determine the viscosities of surfactant solutions and to investigate the effect of composition on viscosity. The results obtained can possibly be used as reference for further study in the effects of surfactant solution viscosities on nucleate boiling. A rotational viscometer was used to determine the viscosities of three surfactant solutions – SLS, EH-14, and SA-9 – of various compositions at room temperature. It was discovered that the viscosities of SLS, EH-14, and SA-9 had a nearly consistent pattern as their compositions increased. The approximate maximum viscosity measured was 1.39 mPa.s for SLS, 1.52 mPa.s for EH-14, and 3.17 mPa.s for SA-9. Based on the results, it was inferred that as the composition of these surfactant increases, so does the viscosity of the solution.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Nov 2016 13:38:38 PST
       
  • Breakdown of ITCZ-like PV Patterns

    • Authors: Ajay Raghavendra et al.
      Abstract: The Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is a zonal belt of intense convection, responsible for the genesis of over 80% of all tropical cyclones. This region of intense diabatic heating and shear results in a maximum of Ertel's potential vorticity (PV) meeting Rayleigh's necessary condition for barotropic instability. A fundamental issue is understanding the necessary precursor events leading to the breakdown of the ITCZ and subsequent formation of tropical cyclones. Our research examines the non-linear PV dynamics of the breakdown of both finite-length and infinite-length vorticity strips of varying widths and shapes, simulating the ITCZ found near the tropical eastern Pacific region. We have also introduced regularly and irregularly-spaced mass sinks embedded in the strips to simulate pockets of enhanced diabatic heating. To study the evolution, we have developed a shallow-water, normal-mode spectral model in Cartesian coordinates on the f-plane. Since the absolute vorticity divided by the fluid depth is materially conserved in the shallow water framework, we can draw an analogy to the evolution of Ertel's PV in a stratified fluid. While the analogy is not exact, it does offer insight into to the fundamental dynamics of PV rearrangement. Comparisons with linear stability theory and observed cases are made to determine the extent to which linear theory captures the non-linear dynamics.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Sep 2016 13:35:07 PDT
       
 
 
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