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Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research
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ISSN (Print) 1065-1136 - ISSN (Online) 2329-258X
Published by Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Homepage  [4 journals]
  • Calculating the Cost of Pilot Turnover

    • Authors: Kristine M. Kiernan
      Abstract: Controlling costs is a critical ingredient in achieving profitability in the airline industry. Typically, labor costs are the first or second highest cost category for airlines. Some components of labor costs, such as pay and benefits, are easy to calculate. Turnover costs, however, are not easy to calculate, and are often underestimated. This paper builds a model for examining turnover costs for pilots in Part 135 carriers, and tests the model empirically in a Part 135 carrier. The model provides a framework to assist airlines in estimating turnover costs for pilots. The case study of a Part 135 cargo operator showed that the turnover rate for pilots was 46%, compared to the average across all jobs and all industries of 15%. Pilot turnover costs for the carrier were shown to be $17,405, compared to the average across all jobs and all industries of $13,996. Per capita turnover costs for the carrier represent 43% of the average pilot’s salary of $40,000. This information can be used by airlines to make cost benefit judgments about retention efforts.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Mar 2018 08:13:36 PST
  • Adaptive Learning Pedagogy of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) for
           Multimodal Training

    • Authors: Ziho Kang et al.
      Abstract: Traditionally, students or trainees usually receive training through a unidirectional instructional approach that can lack interactive activities or through a single material source in classrooms. Therefore, it is possible that some trainees might encounter a sink-or-swim situation if they are not able to understand the materials presented during classroom lectures nor execute correct procedures during laboratory sessions with time-intensive training. To address this issue, the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) asserts that trainees can increase their performance if instructors can provide the trainees with diversified means of information representation, expression opportunities, and engagement means. However, we lack the framework on how to adapt and integrate the process of evaluating the trainees’ learning styles with the UDL principles, especially in the context of time-intensive tasks such as air traffic control training. In this article, we propose an adapted framework that (1) utilizes the Index of Learning Styles (ILS) based on categories such as perception, input, processing, and understanding, (2) maps the UDL methods with the ILS outcomes, and (3) provides possible approaches to address any issues with the teaching materials. The developed approach might be used to investigate whether and how we could enhance the air traffic trainees’ performances at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Academy with minimum need to elongate the training time. The proposed approaches were benchmarked with a small group of qualified Aviation students at the University of Oklahoma who are preparing for the FAA training program to see whether we could find ways to support their learning styles given the time and resource constraints. This preliminary research provides a foundation to improve our approaches when we investigate the learning styles of the trainees’ at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Academy in the near future.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Mar 2018 08:13:30 PST
  • Pilot Supply at the Regional Airlines: Airline Response to the Changing
           Environment and the Impact on Pilot Hiring

    • Authors: Becky Lutte
      Abstract: Regional airlines facing pilot supply challenges have responded to the rapidly changing environment by increasing pay, adjusting lifestyle factors, and enhancing career pathway opportunities. The purpose of this research is to provide a current view of the status of airline hiring at regional airlines, given the changes in pay and other factors, and to explore the impact of increased pay on the airlines' ability to meet hiring goals. Data for analysis was collected through interviews of pilot recruiting personnel from the largest regional airlines. Results reveal that increased pay at regional airlines has positively impacted the carriers' ability to meet hiring goals for first officers. In addition, airlines have made efforts to improve pilot lifestyle and create opportunities for career pathways to the majors. While these efforts are currently allowing most interviewed airlines to meet hiring goals, concern remains that this may be a short-term fix. This research contributes to the discussion of the role of pay as it relates to pilot supply, provides a current snapshot of regional airline hiring, and presents discussion of the short term and long term issues related to the pilot supply.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Mar 2018 08:13:24 PST
  • Broadening Traditional Aviation Meteorology Education to Support
           Spaceflight Operations

    • Authors: Thomas A. Guinn et al.
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the expansion of traditional aviation meteorology education necessary to support the growing commercial space-operations industry. While spaceflight meteorological considerations do overlap with those of traditional aviation operations, there are notable differences schools must address for appropriate education and training of both meteorologists and operators. These include knowledge of increased weather sensitivities, space-weather impacts, triggered lightning, triboelectrification, and high-resolution vertical wind-profile analyses. An added challenge in the educational process is the more limited amount of publicly available weather and space-weather products necessary to support spaceflight education. Furthermore, in comparison with traditional aviation meteorology, real-world experiential learning opportunities for students to support actual space-launch and on-orbit operations are limited. However, flight simulations employing historical meteorological and space-weather data may help provide the basic educational tools necessary to overcome these limitations and better prepare students pursuing careers in spaceflight, either as operators or as meteorologists.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Jul 2017 08:10:22 PDT
  • Forecasting the Air Race Classic: Lessons in Interdisciplinary Aviation
           Weather Support and Decision-Making

    • Authors: Shawn M. Milrad et al.
      Abstract: The Air Race Classic (ARC) is an all-female Visual Flight Rules air race held each June. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Daytona Beach (ERAU-DB) has had primarily student race teams participate and frequently place strongly in the ARC since 1996. The ERAU-DB Meteorology Program has provided successful weather support to ERAU-DB race team(s) for the past decade, including as the terminus host institution in 2016. In 2014, the weather support was formalized as a three-credit interdisciplinary summer course, incorporating a mix of aeronautical science (pilot), dispatch, and meteorology students. Using concepts of service and experiential learning, the ARC course has successfully integrated students from varying educational backgrounds into cohesive weather support teams that serve the ERAU-DB air racers. As such, students from primarily aviation backgrounds have had to learn about aviation weather support tools and techniques they were not previously aware of, while students from primarily meteorological backgrounds had to integrate aviation concepts such as fuel burn and service ceiling into their forecasts. The ARC weather support experience has helped to expose students to real-world situations and decision-making, given them an increased sense of purpose and service to the ERAU-DB community, and improved their ability to combine aviation and meteorological thinking for the purpose of real-time aviation weather forecasting.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Jul 2017 08:10:19 PDT
  • Finding the Balance Between Price and Protection: Establishing a

    • Authors: Earl W. Burress Jr; Ph.D.
      Abstract: Currently, U.S. air carriers do not provide equipment or training necessary to mitigate the risk posed by surface-to-air fire (SAFIRE) threats. These threats consist of self-guided weapons (infrared shoulder-fired surface-to-air missiles), manually-aimed threats (small arms, recoilless grenade launchers, rockets, and light anti-aircraft artillery), and hand-held lasers. Technological solutions to counter infrared shoulder-fired missiles have been explored, but were rejected due to prohibitive equipment and maintenance costs. A lower cost option, providing air-carrier pilots with SAFIRE risk-reduction training, has not been formally addressed by the air-carrier industry or the U.S. federal government. This effort will use a business concept, the Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA), to illustrate a method that could be used to help policy makers and stakeholders determine if the SAFIRE threat warrants the individual air-carrier expense associated with a mandatory SAFIRE risk-reduction training program. This project advocates the creation of a panel with (a) the expertise necessary to conduct a detailed CBA of air-carrier expense to determine the necessity for a federally mandated SAFIRE risk-reduction training program; and (b) the authority to implement the policy as determined by the lead agency. To understand the issues surrounding the CBA, it is necessary to examine the nature of the three primary categories of SAFIRE threats, identify potential stakeholders, review notional training options, examine statistical tools, and quantify potential expenses. Two notional CBAs were used to show the difference in results between potential statistical methodologies, with the Direct Comparison model validating the concept and the Expectant Value model showing that the training expense far outweighed the financial risk. Although this project describes how a training program could be developed and implemented, it is not intended to support either the implementation or the absence of SAFIRE risk-reduction training.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Jul 2017 08:10:16 PDT
  • Competency-Based Training in Aviation: The Impact on Flight Attendant
           Performance and Passenger Satisfaction

    • Authors: Latoya Gibbs et al.
      Abstract: According to the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO, 2017), over one billion tourists traveled the globe in 2016. In spite of this increase of travelers, airlines are faced with declining levels of customer service and quality of customer experience (American Customer Satisfaction Index [ACSI], 2012). Frontline service employees, like flight attendants, create a critical impression of the service which affects customer perceptions and satisfaction. Nevertheless, many unknowns exist about what creates such impression and how it can be improved. In particular, no study has investigated the effects of Competency-Based Training (CBT) on flight attendants’ performance and consequently passengers’ satisfaction. The goal of this research was to examine the effect of CBT on flight attendants’ performance and consequently passengers’ satisfaction. A group of 109 flight attendants was trained in four competences: managing stress, dealing with conflict situations, displaying human relations skills, and delivering quality customer service. Pre-and post-training measures of flight attendants’ performance and customer satisfaction were taken. Random sampling was employed to administer questionnaires to passengers traveling between the Caribbean and North America. Bivariate analysis revealed that there was a positive association between flight attendant performance and customer satisfaction. However, flight attendant performance was not positively associated with CBT. Further analysis revealed that customer satisfaction is associated with CBT. Consequently, theoretical and practical implications were developed.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Jul 2017 08:10:13 PDT
  • The Value of a Collegiate FAR Part 141 Jeopardy-Crew Resource Management
           (CRM)-Simulation Event

    • Authors: Samuel M. Vance
      Abstract: This article explores the viability of using a FAR Part 141 collegiate crew resource management (CRM) flight simulator scenario event as a jeopardy event (a graded, syllabus item) in an upper-level professional pilot curriculum course. Ultimately, the objective is to suggest this approach as a value-added curriculum consideration for other collegiate professional pilot programs. The selection of four CRM criteria to be examined was made by the course professor. Using the four principles, the students assembled the grading rubric for their event. The simulator scenario placed students in airspace, geography and weather dissimilar to that in which they were training in real aircraft. To add additional realism, PilotEdge™.net, was contracted with to provide live Air Traffic Control (ATC) service. Seventeen “ATC events” representing real-world disruptions were negotiated with PilotEdge™.net, a minimum of one which was to be randomly introduced into each jeopardy event. The student reaction to this jeopardy event was surprisingly positive. Student crews left the event challenged, but importantly not overwhelmed, and more valuably with positive attitudes about what they had just experienced.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Jul 2017 08:10:10 PDT
  • Exploration of a Confidence-Based Assessment Tool within an Aviation
           Training Program

    • Authors: Paul F. Novacek Ph.D.
      Abstract: Traditional use of multiple-choice questions reward a student for guessing. This technique encourages rote memorization of questions to pass a lengthy exam, and does not promote comprehensive understanding or subject correlation. In an effort to identify guessing on answers during an exam within a safety-critical aviation pilot training course, a qualitative research study was undertaken that introduced a confidence-based element to the end-of-ground-school exam. Confidence-based assessments consist of students’ self-reported level of certainty in their responses, indicating which answers they believe are correct while also indicating how confident they feel with their selections. The research goals were to clearly identify correct, or misinformed, guesses, and also provide an evidence-based snapshot of aircraft systems knowledge to be used as a formative study aid for the remainder of the course. Pilot and instructor interviews were conducted to gather perceptions and opinions about the effectiveness of the confidence-based assessment tool. The findings from the interviews found an overall positive experience and confirmed that the confidence-based assessments were successfully used as intended, to identify weak knowledge areas and as study aids for their remaining study time or during pre-simulator briefing sessions. The study found that if properly trained and administered, a robust confidence-based assessment tool would be minimally-burdensome while offering worthwhile benefits.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 15:53:19 PST
  • Employing Flight Simulation in the Classroom to Improve the Understanding
           of the Fundamentals of Instruction among Flight Instructor Applicants

    • Authors: Kenneth P. Byrnes Ph.D.
      Abstract: An examination of the gap in the knowledge and understanding of teaching methods that exists in the aviation training industry is examined in this study. Previous research highlights the deficiencies associated with the initial training of Certificated Flight Instructors (CFIs). This study focuses on the training that is required on the fundamentals of instruction, specifically the difficulty associated with training future instructors on how to identify and respond appropriately to human behavior will be addressed. For the purpose of this study a virtual learning environment was created through role play and the use of flight simulation in the classroom. Two groups of CFI candidates were used. The first group consisted of 19 students and employed the traditional method of training. The second group consisted of 17 students and employed the use of role play and flight simulation in the classroom. The second group performed significantly better on the end of course knowledge exam that focused on the fundamentals of instruction. The results of the study suggest that the use of simulation and role play in the classroom has a significant impact on student understanding of the fundamentals of instruction.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 15:53:15 PST
  • Using Conversation Analysis in Data-Driven Aviation Training with
           Large-Scale Qualitative Datasets

    • Authors: William A. Tuccio Ph.D. et al.
      Abstract: This paper contributes to a growing body of work related to the Conversation Analytic Role-play Method (CARM) by studying the primary flight instruction environment to create training interventions related to radio communications and flight instruction practices. Framed in the context of conversation analysis, an approach to the detailed analysis of naturally occurring interaction, the large-scale, long-duration qualitative audio/video data collection and coding methodology is discussed, followed by trends identified in the ongoing study. The concept of CARM “trainables” are discussed with examples. The study shows that large-scale qualitative datasets may be leveraged to produce valuable data-driven training interventions.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 15:53:11 PST
  • The Tornado that Struck Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University on Christmas
           Day, 2006: Lessons Learned from a Near-Miss

    • Authors: John M. Lanicci
      Abstract: An F2 tornado that touched down in Daytona Beach on Christmas Day afternoon caused over $50 million of damage to the Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University campus and nearby neighborhoods. The tornado was part of a severe-weather outbreak over Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina that began during the overnight hours of 25 December 2006. Examination of surface and upper-level meteorological charts and vertical soundings on the morning of 25 December showed stability and wind-shear conditions favorable for tornadic thunderstorms over this region. The evolution of the squall line that moved through east-central Florida, and the parent thunderstorm that produced the tornado was examined using meteorological data from the Next Generation Doppler Radar, and Daytona Beach International Airport’s Automated Surface Observing System and Low Level Wind Shear Alert System. Non-meteorological data included eyewitness accounts from the Embry-Riddle Campus Safety Department and the airport tower’s air traffic controllers. These data sources were used to construct a timeline for the squall line’s passage, tornado touchdown at the east end of the airport’s runway 7L/25R complex, and subsequent damage path across the Embry-Riddle campus. A reconstruction of the damage path using fall semester enrollments and class locations estimated that between 400 and 500 people would have been in the tornado’s path had it occurred during a typical Monday afternoon when classes were in session. Additionally, Comair Flight 580, enroute to Daytona Beach from New York, was scheduled to land at the same time the tornado touched down at the airport, but a power outage in the radar approach control facility caused the flight to deviate from its scheduled track. Fortunately, the crew established contact with Daytona Tower and were guided to a safe landing about 25 minutes after the tornado hit. Lessons learned from this case are outlined in the form of a protocol that can be adopted by collegiate aviation programs and airport management, patterned after the four phases of emergency management: (a) mitigation, (b) preparedness, (c) response, and (d) recovery.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Jun 2016 09:24:37 PDT
  • Judging Airline Pilots’ Performance With and Without an Assessment
           Model: A Comparison Study of the Scoring of Raters From Two Different

    • Authors: David Weber
      Abstract: Various models have been suggested to assess the performance of airline pilots. However, the influence of a model on assessors’ scoring remains largely unexplored. The aim of the present study was to contrast the assessments of raters from two airlines, who assessed performance in pairs of the same airline and rank by using or not using an assessment model. The results showed differences between the assessors of the two airlines in terms of their scoring. Implications were drawn in regards to the usage of a model and its influence on pilot performance assessment.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Jun 2016 09:24:33 PDT
  • Developing a Challenging Online Doctoral Course Using Backward and
           Three-Phase Design Models

    • Authors: Jan G. Neal et al.
      Abstract: Current Practices and Future Trends in Aviation (DAV 735)—one of 19 online courses in the Ph.D. in Aviation program at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University—has run five times since 2011. A team of one instructional designer and one professor were responsible for its initial design, development, and ongoing improvement. This continuity provided the opportunity for a longitudinal, descriptive case study reporting on three wicked instructional design challenges: (a) doctoral student body comprised largely of multidisciplinary aviation professionals, (b) no seminal textbook on the course topics, and (c) unforeseen usability problems with Internet technologies. This case analysis has significance because of the lack of literature reporting on the practices of instructional design teams in terms of how theories are applied. An adapted three-phase design model and the backward design model informed the initial design and ongoing improvement of the course. This approach was successful in addressing needs of the users and was instrumental in the course receiving a Blackboard® Catalyst Exemplary Course award in 2014. Recommendations include: (a) adopting an iterative and collaborative course development and improvement process, (b) using problem-based learning, and (c) empowering students to both define and enhance their learning. Use of a template-based production process, reliance on post-course perceptions to inform major improvements, and lack of generalizability when student enrollments or feedback are limited led to questions as to whether the models need to be extended or elaborated.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Jun 2016 09:24:28 PDT
  • A Study of How Flight Instructors Assess Flight Maneuvers and Give Grades:
           Inter-rater Reliability of Instructor Assessments

    • Authors: Beth M. Beaudin-Seiler et al.
      Abstract: This article discusses calibration of flight instruction to an academic institution’s “gold standard”. Flight instructors reviewed four lessons within the private pilot curriculum. Each lesson required rating four maneuvers and assigning an overall letter grade. Data was compared to the gold standard set by flight faculty from the institution. Initial data revealed instructors with one year or less of experience had less agreement to the gold standard. A curriculum to rate maneuvers and grade lessons was developed and practice sessions occurred in instructor meetings starting Fall 2013. Post-test results show improvement in agreement in one year or less experienced group.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Dec 2015 07:01:45 PST
  • Human Behavior During Spaceflight - Evidence From an Analog Environment

    • Authors: Kenny M. Arnaldi et al.
      Abstract: Spaceflight offers a multitude of stressors to humans living and working in space, originating from the external space environment and the life-support system. Future space participants may be ordinary people with different medical and psychosocial backgrounds who may not receive the intense spaceflight preparation of astronauts. Consequently, during a mission, a space participant’s mood and behavior could differ from a trained astronaut. This study was an exploratory research project that used an artificial habitat to replicate an orbital environment and the activities performed by humans in space. The study evaluated whether the type of environment affects mood and temperament. Two male participants were enclosed in an artificial habitat where they performed Profile of Mood States 2nd EditionTM tests and Keirsey Temperament Sorter®-II tests. The participants later reproduced those tests in their normal living environment. Results from descriptive statistics, paired-samples t-tests, and a comparative study suggested that the type of environment affects mood and temperament. In addition, anecdotal information collected through personal logs confirmed the aforementioned results. The researcher concluded that further research must be conducted to test larger sample-sizes using a structured schedule.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Dec 2015 07:01:43 PST
  • A Meta-Analysis of Crew Resource Management/Incident Command Systems
           Implementation Studies in the Fire and Emergency Services

    • Authors: John C. Griffith et al.
      Abstract: This research is a meta-analysis of studies on Crew Resource Management (CRM)/Incident Command System implementation in the fire and emergency services. After a thorough literature review, four sets of results were analyzed to determine if CRM training was effective. An aggregate total of 283 test scores were evaluated. The data indicated that CRM training was effective in all studies analyzed. Fixed and random effects models indicated significance as well. The studies had a high degree of heterogeneity probably due to different training and testing procedures used. The data support the use of CRM training in the fire and emergency services. There is evidence for the need for ongoing CRM training as well. Recommendations include designing CRM training with both initial and recurring sessions to ensure internalization of CRM concepts. Future research should also focus on studies with course outcome measures such as pre and post test scores.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Dec 2015 07:01:40 PST
  • Development of Training Scenarios in the Flight Training Device for Flight
           Courses at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

    • Authors: Robert Thomas et al.
      Abstract: Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University’s (ERAU) Daytona Beach Campus operates as a certificated flight school under 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 141. Additionally, ERAU employs the use of Frasca Level 6 Flight Training Devices (FTD) for each of their flight courses. Scenario based training cross-country lessons are included in each of the private pilot, instrument rating, commercial pilot, and multi-engine additional rating courses. Each FTD is equipped with software that allows a programmable lesson plan to be created and replayed for each student. They allow for voice recognition from the student, "real" radio calls and background chatter, automatic dependent surveillance – broadcast (ADS-B), and visual traffic displays. While the student is flying, they will be presented with a situation that will force them to make a decision. The software will allow the scenario to branch off and allow the student to experience the result of that decision further and will allow multiple branches and decisions to be made, if needed, for the duration of the simulation. This form of decision-based scenario training using this software was created with the goal of training the flight students to the application or correlation level of learning. This paper describes the process that a team of flight instructors and support staff completed to use this software and their experience to create more realistic scenarios and a more immersive flight training experience.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 May 2015 14:10:54 PDT
  • Is “Green Dot” Always the Optimum Engines-Out Glide Speed on the
           Airbus A320 Aircraft'

    • Authors: Kivanc A. Avrenli et al.
      Abstract: The dual-engine failure checklist of the Airbus A320 states that the optimum airspeed at which the aircraft can be flown is the “green dot” speed when an engine restart is considered impossible. This is because the “green dot” speed maximizes the power-off glide range in wings-level flight. However, it is not known whether the “green dot” speed would still be the optimum airspeed if the power-off landing maneuver primarily consists of sharp turns. The objective of this study is to find out the optimum power-off glide speed for the A320 if the emergency landing maneuver primarily requires sharp turns rather than wings-level flight. For this purpose, the study analyzes a total-loss-of-power scenario, in which an A320 undergoes dual-engine failure due to bird strike during the initial climb-out, and attempts a turn-back maneuver to the departure runway. The results show that the optimum power-off glide speed would be the lowest selectable airspeed because it requires the lowest altitude loss to reach the departure runway, enables the most favorable bank angle history, and requires the shortest runway length for landing roll. Therefore, the statement that the “green dot” speed is the optimum power-off glide speed may be a misleading item in the dual-engine failure checklist of the A320 in emergency situations. The findings can be used to revise and improve the existing dual-engine failure checklist of the Airbus A320, which transports over 71.5 million annual passengers on U.S. air carriers (Research and Innovative Technology Administration [RITA], 2014). This study is also the first of its type to analyze the power-off glide performance of a commercial jet.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 May 2015 14:10:52 PDT
  • Starting a Safety Management System Culture in Small Flight School

    • Authors: Gregory S. Woo
      Abstract: Small flight school organizations have unique cultures and challenges which are very different from larger air carrier and air charter organizations. In the modern, increasingly complex aviation environment, the rapid rate of evolution and change in technology, regulations, and operational considerations is driving aviation service providers to adopt the use of Safety Management Systems (SMS). A strong safety-oriented culture is needed to support the implementation of an SMS, however. This article studies the prerequisite safety culture challenge for small flight school organizations and makes recommendations on effective first steps for getting started with an SMS implementation initiative.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 May 2015 14:10:50 PDT
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Heriot-Watt University
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