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Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1065-1136 - ISSN (Online) 2329-258X
Published by Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Homepage  [4 journals]
  • Space Operations in the Suborbital Space Flight Simulator and Mission
           Control Center: Lessons Learned with XCOR Lynx

    • Authors: Pedro Llanos et al.
      Abstract: This study was conducted to better understand the performance of the XCOR Lynx vehicle. Because the Lynx development was halted, the best knowledge of vehicle dynamics can only be found through simulator flights. X-Plane 10 was chosen for its robust applications and accurate portrayal of dynamics on a vehicle in flight. The Suborbital Space Flight Simulator (SSFS) and Mission Control Center (MCC) were brought to the Applied Aviation Sciences department in fall 2015 at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach campus. This academic and research tool is a department asset capable of providing multiple fields of data about suborbital simulated flights. This tool will allow flight navigators to assess different aspects of a suborbital flight dynamics and generate various trajectory maps to establish procedures and preventive measures when the vehicle goes through the NAS. It was found that the XCOR Lynx is an unstable platform but has good glide capabilities. This information is useful to pilots who may someday fly the XCOR Lynx as well as air traffic controllers who may have Lynx operations at their airports.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 10:27:55 PDT
       
  • Meeting Real World Demands of the Global Economy: An Employer's
           Perspective

    • Authors: Doreen McGunagle et al.
      Abstract: Educational programs prepare students theoretically for the workplace, but many programs are still lacking in the real-world skills that the workplace requires. This is especially evident in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) education where today’s graduates hold a fundamental role in advancing science, medicine, sustainability, national security, and the economy, yet the programs to prepare them are falling short of employer expectations. At present, there is a lack of information on the necessary skills for workplace success that is specific to Airline, Aerospace, Defense (A&D) and related Industries’ STEM graduates. This paper attempts to fill this gap by offering a model of the skills required of STEM graduates for successful integration into the A&D and related Industries’ workplace. The purpose of the case study is to explore the employer’s perspective on the job skills that influence the success of STEM college graduates. The case study method was used that involved a purposeful sample strategy of hiring individuals for STEM based positions within the A&D and related Industries. The initial interviews support the job performance skills that have been identified in our research. The highest sought after skills are problem solving, team player, ability to gather data, and adaptability. The lowest sought after skill is negotiation. Two additional skills recommended by the interviewees will be added to future studies – time management and active listening skills. The conclusions reached emphasize the importance of real life applications during STEM classes and programs to better prepare future STEM employees for the workplace.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 10:27:48 PDT
       
  • Airships in U.N. Humanitarian and Peace Operations: Ready for Service'

    • Authors: Walter Dorn et al.
      Abstract: This study examines whether the United Nations should take steps in the near future to exploit the operational characteristics of lighter-than-air (LTA) and hybrid aircraft in support of its peace and humanitarian operations. Continued progress in the development of LTA transport system makes this a timely issue. At the same time, this progress highlights persistent challenges to the conduct of reliable and safe LTA operations, particularly in the face of bad weather and threats from groups hostile to the UN mission. The report examines this issue in four sections: (1) the potential advantages of LTA operations; (2) their disadvantages; (3) current developments in available systems; and (4) their general application to peace and humanitarian operations. In conclusion, the study recommends that the United Nations and its Humanitarian Air Service (UNHAS) begin an active program to assess the progress of and develop contacts within the emerging LTA industry. Once a proven airship of modest size becomes available on a contract basis, the study suggests that the United Nations seek an opportunity to integrate it into pilot projects and selected humanitarian and peace operation. Eventually, if its initial projects are successful, the UNHAS should look to acquiring a small fleet of LTAs.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 10:27:38 PDT
       
  • Crew Resource Management (CRM) and Cultural Differences Among Cockpit Crew
           - the Case of Turkey

    • Authors: Ozge Peksatici
      Abstract: The globalization of the aviation industry necessitated many international airlines to recruit cockpit and cabin crews from different countries with different national cultures. As airlines are becoming more multicultural, cultural issues, as well as language and communication issues among flight crew, become more and more important. The cultural differences among the cockpit crew seem to become a big challenge for Crew Resource Management (CRM). CRM is defined as the effective utilization and management of all resources, including information, equipment and people to achieve safe and efficient flight operations. Many studies have shown that cultural differences among pilots may strongly affect the basic concepts and fundamentals of CRM. The aim of this study was to investigate cultural differences among pilots flying in the Turkish aviation industry. In addition, it aimed to investigate the differences in CRM perception of pilots and their attitude toward flying in a multinational cockpit. A survey was conducted to 375 Turkish and foreign pilots flying in Turkish airline companies. The findings revealed that there were significant cultural differences between foreign and Turkish pilot flying in the Turkish aviation industry. In addition, significant sub-cultural differences were found among pilots with different training backgrounds and with different titles. Moreover, significant differences in CRM perception of the pilots and in pilots’ attitude towards a multinational cockpit were identified. These findings may provide a guideline to airlines with multi-cultural flight crew for implementing customized CRM programs to minimize the effect of these issues on safety. It may also help airlines to be aware of the differences in pilots’ attitudes toward a multinational cockpit and operational challenges that cockpit crew may experience due to language diversity in the cockpit.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 10:27:31 PDT
       
  • Calculating the Cost of Pilot Turnover

    • Authors: Kristine M. Kiernan
      Abstract: Controlling costs is a critical ingredient in achieving profitability in the airline industry. Typically, labor costs are the first or second highest cost category for airlines. Some components of labor costs, such as pay and benefits, are easy to calculate. Turnover costs, however, are not easy to calculate, and are often underestimated. This paper builds a model for examining turnover costs for pilots in Part 135 carriers, and tests the model empirically in a Part 135 carrier. The model provides a framework to assist airlines in estimating turnover costs for pilots. The case study of a Part 135 cargo operator showed that the turnover rate for pilots was 46%, compared to the average across all jobs and all industries of 15%. Pilot turnover costs for the carrier were shown to be $17,405, compared to the average across all jobs and all industries of $13,996. Per capita turnover costs for the carrier represent 43% of the average pilot’s salary of $40,000. This information can be used by airlines to make cost benefit judgments about retention efforts.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Mar 2018 08:13:36 PST
       
  • Adaptive Learning Pedagogy of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) for
           Multimodal Training

    • Authors: Ziho Kang et al.
      Abstract: Traditionally, students or trainees usually receive training through a unidirectional instructional approach that can lack interactive activities or through a single material source in classrooms. Therefore, it is possible that some trainees might encounter a sink-or-swim situation if they are not able to understand the materials presented during classroom lectures nor execute correct procedures during laboratory sessions with time-intensive training. To address this issue, the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) asserts that trainees can increase their performance if instructors can provide the trainees with diversified means of information representation, expression opportunities, and engagement means. However, we lack the framework on how to adapt and integrate the process of evaluating the trainees’ learning styles with the UDL principles, especially in the context of time-intensive tasks such as air traffic control training. In this article, we propose an adapted framework that (1) utilizes the Index of Learning Styles (ILS) based on categories such as perception, input, processing, and understanding, (2) maps the UDL methods with the ILS outcomes, and (3) provides possible approaches to address any issues with the teaching materials. The developed approach might be used to investigate whether and how we could enhance the air traffic trainees’ performances at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Academy with minimum need to elongate the training time. The proposed approaches were benchmarked with a small group of qualified Aviation students at the University of Oklahoma who are preparing for the FAA training program to see whether we could find ways to support their learning styles given the time and resource constraints. This preliminary research provides a foundation to improve our approaches when we investigate the learning styles of the trainees’ at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Academy in the near future.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Mar 2018 08:13:30 PST
       
  • Pilot Supply at the Regional Airlines: Airline Response to the Changing
           Environment and the Impact on Pilot Hiring

    • Authors: Becky Lutte
      Abstract: Regional airlines facing pilot supply challenges have responded to the rapidly changing environment by increasing pay, adjusting lifestyle factors, and enhancing career pathway opportunities. The purpose of this research is to provide a current view of the status of airline hiring at regional airlines, given the changes in pay and other factors, and to explore the impact of increased pay on the airlines' ability to meet hiring goals. Data for analysis was collected through interviews of pilot recruiting personnel from the largest regional airlines. Results reveal that increased pay at regional airlines has positively impacted the carriers' ability to meet hiring goals for first officers. In addition, airlines have made efforts to improve pilot lifestyle and create opportunities for career pathways to the majors. While these efforts are currently allowing most interviewed airlines to meet hiring goals, concern remains that this may be a short-term fix. This research contributes to the discussion of the role of pay as it relates to pilot supply, provides a current snapshot of regional airline hiring, and presents discussion of the short term and long term issues related to the pilot supply.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Mar 2018 08:13:24 PST
       
  • Broadening Traditional Aviation Meteorology Education to Support
           Spaceflight Operations

    • Authors: Thomas A. Guinn et al.
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the expansion of traditional aviation meteorology education necessary to support the growing commercial space-operations industry. While spaceflight meteorological considerations do overlap with those of traditional aviation operations, there are notable differences schools must address for appropriate education and training of both meteorologists and operators. These include knowledge of increased weather sensitivities, space-weather impacts, triggered lightning, triboelectrification, and high-resolution vertical wind-profile analyses. An added challenge in the educational process is the more limited amount of publicly available weather and space-weather products necessary to support spaceflight education. Furthermore, in comparison with traditional aviation meteorology, real-world experiential learning opportunities for students to support actual space-launch and on-orbit operations are limited. However, flight simulations employing historical meteorological and space-weather data may help provide the basic educational tools necessary to overcome these limitations and better prepare students pursuing careers in spaceflight, either as operators or as meteorologists.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Jul 2017 08:10:22 PDT
       
  • Forecasting the Air Race Classic: Lessons in Interdisciplinary Aviation
           Weather Support and Decision-Making

    • Authors: Shawn M. Milrad et al.
      Abstract: The Air Race Classic (ARC) is an all-female Visual Flight Rules air race held each June. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Daytona Beach (ERAU-DB) has had primarily student race teams participate and frequently place strongly in the ARC since 1996. The ERAU-DB Meteorology Program has provided successful weather support to ERAU-DB race team(s) for the past decade, including as the terminus host institution in 2016. In 2014, the weather support was formalized as a three-credit interdisciplinary summer course, incorporating a mix of aeronautical science (pilot), dispatch, and meteorology students. Using concepts of service and experiential learning, the ARC course has successfully integrated students from varying educational backgrounds into cohesive weather support teams that serve the ERAU-DB air racers. As such, students from primarily aviation backgrounds have had to learn about aviation weather support tools and techniques they were not previously aware of, while students from primarily meteorological backgrounds had to integrate aviation concepts such as fuel burn and service ceiling into their forecasts. The ARC weather support experience has helped to expose students to real-world situations and decision-making, given them an increased sense of purpose and service to the ERAU-DB community, and improved their ability to combine aviation and meteorological thinking for the purpose of real-time aviation weather forecasting.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Jul 2017 08:10:19 PDT
       
  • Finding the Balance Between Price and Protection: Establishing a
           

    • Authors: Earl W. Burress Jr; Ph.D.
      Abstract: Currently, U.S. air carriers do not provide equipment or training necessary to mitigate the risk posed by surface-to-air fire (SAFIRE) threats. These threats consist of self-guided weapons (infrared shoulder-fired surface-to-air missiles), manually-aimed threats (small arms, recoilless grenade launchers, rockets, and light anti-aircraft artillery), and hand-held lasers. Technological solutions to counter infrared shoulder-fired missiles have been explored, but were rejected due to prohibitive equipment and maintenance costs. A lower cost option, providing air-carrier pilots with SAFIRE risk-reduction training, has not been formally addressed by the air-carrier industry or the U.S. federal government. This effort will use a business concept, the Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA), to illustrate a method that could be used to help policy makers and stakeholders determine if the SAFIRE threat warrants the individual air-carrier expense associated with a mandatory SAFIRE risk-reduction training program. This project advocates the creation of a panel with (a) the expertise necessary to conduct a detailed CBA of air-carrier expense to determine the necessity for a federally mandated SAFIRE risk-reduction training program; and (b) the authority to implement the policy as determined by the lead agency. To understand the issues surrounding the CBA, it is necessary to examine the nature of the three primary categories of SAFIRE threats, identify potential stakeholders, review notional training options, examine statistical tools, and quantify potential expenses. Two notional CBAs were used to show the difference in results between potential statistical methodologies, with the Direct Comparison model validating the concept and the Expectant Value model showing that the training expense far outweighed the financial risk. Although this project describes how a training program could be developed and implemented, it is not intended to support either the implementation or the absence of SAFIRE risk-reduction training.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Jul 2017 08:10:16 PDT
       
  • Competency-Based Training in Aviation: The Impact on Flight Attendant
           Performance and Passenger Satisfaction

    • Authors: Latoya Gibbs et al.
      Abstract: According to the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO, 2017), over one billion tourists traveled the globe in 2016. In spite of this increase of travelers, airlines are faced with declining levels of customer service and quality of customer experience (American Customer Satisfaction Index [ACSI], 2012). Frontline service employees, like flight attendants, create a critical impression of the service which affects customer perceptions and satisfaction. Nevertheless, many unknowns exist about what creates such impression and how it can be improved. In particular, no study has investigated the effects of Competency-Based Training (CBT) on flight attendants’ performance and consequently passengers’ satisfaction. The goal of this research was to examine the effect of CBT on flight attendants’ performance and consequently passengers’ satisfaction. A group of 109 flight attendants was trained in four competences: managing stress, dealing with conflict situations, displaying human relations skills, and delivering quality customer service. Pre-and post-training measures of flight attendants’ performance and customer satisfaction were taken. Random sampling was employed to administer questionnaires to passengers traveling between the Caribbean and North America. Bivariate analysis revealed that there was a positive association between flight attendant performance and customer satisfaction. However, flight attendant performance was not positively associated with CBT. Further analysis revealed that customer satisfaction is associated with CBT. Consequently, theoretical and practical implications were developed.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Jul 2017 08:10:13 PDT
       
  • The Value of a Collegiate FAR Part 141 Jeopardy-Crew Resource Management
           (CRM)-Simulation Event

    • Authors: Samuel M. Vance
      Abstract: This article explores the viability of using a FAR Part 141 collegiate crew resource management (CRM) flight simulator scenario event as a jeopardy event (a graded, syllabus item) in an upper-level professional pilot curriculum course. Ultimately, the objective is to suggest this approach as a value-added curriculum consideration for other collegiate professional pilot programs. The selection of four CRM criteria to be examined was made by the course professor. Using the four principles, the students assembled the grading rubric for their event. The simulator scenario placed students in airspace, geography and weather dissimilar to that in which they were training in real aircraft. To add additional realism, PilotEdge™.net, was contracted with to provide live Air Traffic Control (ATC) service. Seventeen “ATC events” representing real-world disruptions were negotiated with PilotEdge™.net, a minimum of one which was to be randomly introduced into each jeopardy event. The student reaction to this jeopardy event was surprisingly positive. Student crews left the event challenged, but importantly not overwhelmed, and more valuably with positive attitudes about what they had just experienced.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Jul 2017 08:10:10 PDT
       
  • Exploration of a Confidence-Based Assessment Tool within an Aviation
           Training Program

    • Authors: Paul F. Novacek Ph.D.
      Abstract: Traditional use of multiple-choice questions reward a student for guessing. This technique encourages rote memorization of questions to pass a lengthy exam, and does not promote comprehensive understanding or subject correlation. In an effort to identify guessing on answers during an exam within a safety-critical aviation pilot training course, a qualitative research study was undertaken that introduced a confidence-based element to the end-of-ground-school exam. Confidence-based assessments consist of students’ self-reported level of certainty in their responses, indicating which answers they believe are correct while also indicating how confident they feel with their selections. The research goals were to clearly identify correct, or misinformed, guesses, and also provide an evidence-based snapshot of aircraft systems knowledge to be used as a formative study aid for the remainder of the course. Pilot and instructor interviews were conducted to gather perceptions and opinions about the effectiveness of the confidence-based assessment tool. The findings from the interviews found an overall positive experience and confirmed that the confidence-based assessments were successfully used as intended, to identify weak knowledge areas and as study aids for their remaining study time or during pre-simulator briefing sessions. The study found that if properly trained and administered, a robust confidence-based assessment tool would be minimally-burdensome while offering worthwhile benefits.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 15:53:19 PST
       
  • Employing Flight Simulation in the Classroom to Improve the Understanding
           of the Fundamentals of Instruction among Flight Instructor Applicants

    • Authors: Kenneth P. Byrnes Ph.D.
      Abstract: An examination of the gap in the knowledge and understanding of teaching methods that exists in the aviation training industry is examined in this study. Previous research highlights the deficiencies associated with the initial training of Certificated Flight Instructors (CFIs). This study focuses on the training that is required on the fundamentals of instruction, specifically the difficulty associated with training future instructors on how to identify and respond appropriately to human behavior will be addressed. For the purpose of this study a virtual learning environment was created through role play and the use of flight simulation in the classroom. Two groups of CFI candidates were used. The first group consisted of 19 students and employed the traditional method of training. The second group consisted of 17 students and employed the use of role play and flight simulation in the classroom. The second group performed significantly better on the end of course knowledge exam that focused on the fundamentals of instruction. The results of the study suggest that the use of simulation and role play in the classroom has a significant impact on student understanding of the fundamentals of instruction.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 15:53:15 PST
       
  • Using Conversation Analysis in Data-Driven Aviation Training with
           Large-Scale Qualitative Datasets

    • Authors: William A. Tuccio Ph.D. et al.
      Abstract: This paper contributes to a growing body of work related to the Conversation Analytic Role-play Method (CARM) by studying the primary flight instruction environment to create training interventions related to radio communications and flight instruction practices. Framed in the context of conversation analysis, an approach to the detailed analysis of naturally occurring interaction, the large-scale, long-duration qualitative audio/video data collection and coding methodology is discussed, followed by trends identified in the ongoing study. The concept of CARM “trainables” are discussed with examples. The study shows that large-scale qualitative datasets may be leveraged to produce valuable data-driven training interventions.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 15:53:11 PST
       
  • The Tornado that Struck Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University on Christmas
           Day, 2006: Lessons Learned from a Near-Miss

    • Authors: John M. Lanicci
      Abstract: An F2 tornado that touched down in Daytona Beach on Christmas Day afternoon caused over $50 million of damage to the Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University campus and nearby neighborhoods. The tornado was part of a severe-weather outbreak over Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina that began during the overnight hours of 25 December 2006. Examination of surface and upper-level meteorological charts and vertical soundings on the morning of 25 December showed stability and wind-shear conditions favorable for tornadic thunderstorms over this region. The evolution of the squall line that moved through east-central Florida, and the parent thunderstorm that produced the tornado was examined using meteorological data from the Next Generation Doppler Radar, and Daytona Beach International Airport’s Automated Surface Observing System and Low Level Wind Shear Alert System. Non-meteorological data included eyewitness accounts from the Embry-Riddle Campus Safety Department and the airport tower’s air traffic controllers. These data sources were used to construct a timeline for the squall line’s passage, tornado touchdown at the east end of the airport’s runway 7L/25R complex, and subsequent damage path across the Embry-Riddle campus. A reconstruction of the damage path using fall semester enrollments and class locations estimated that between 400 and 500 people would have been in the tornado’s path had it occurred during a typical Monday afternoon when classes were in session. Additionally, Comair Flight 580, enroute to Daytona Beach from New York, was scheduled to land at the same time the tornado touched down at the airport, but a power outage in the radar approach control facility caused the flight to deviate from its scheduled track. Fortunately, the crew established contact with Daytona Tower and were guided to a safe landing about 25 minutes after the tornado hit. Lessons learned from this case are outlined in the form of a protocol that can be adopted by collegiate aviation programs and airport management, patterned after the four phases of emergency management: (a) mitigation, (b) preparedness, (c) response, and (d) recovery.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Jun 2016 09:24:37 PDT
       
  • Judging Airline Pilots’ Performance With and Without an Assessment
           Model: A Comparison Study of the Scoring of Raters From Two Different
           Airlines

    • Authors: David Weber
      Abstract: Various models have been suggested to assess the performance of airline pilots. However, the influence of a model on assessors’ scoring remains largely unexplored. The aim of the present study was to contrast the assessments of raters from two airlines, who assessed performance in pairs of the same airline and rank by using or not using an assessment model. The results showed differences between the assessors of the two airlines in terms of their scoring. Implications were drawn in regards to the usage of a model and its influence on pilot performance assessment.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Jun 2016 09:24:33 PDT
       
  • Developing a Challenging Online Doctoral Course Using Backward and
           Three-Phase Design Models

    • Authors: Jan G. Neal et al.
      Abstract: Current Practices and Future Trends in Aviation (DAV 735)—one of 19 online courses in the Ph.D. in Aviation program at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University—has run five times since 2011. A team of one instructional designer and one professor were responsible for its initial design, development, and ongoing improvement. This continuity provided the opportunity for a longitudinal, descriptive case study reporting on three wicked instructional design challenges: (a) doctoral student body comprised largely of multidisciplinary aviation professionals, (b) no seminal textbook on the course topics, and (c) unforeseen usability problems with Internet technologies. This case analysis has significance because of the lack of literature reporting on the practices of instructional design teams in terms of how theories are applied. An adapted three-phase design model and the backward design model informed the initial design and ongoing improvement of the course. This approach was successful in addressing needs of the users and was instrumental in the course receiving a Blackboard® Catalyst Exemplary Course award in 2014. Recommendations include: (a) adopting an iterative and collaborative course development and improvement process, (b) using problem-based learning, and (c) empowering students to both define and enhance their learning. Use of a template-based production process, reliance on post-course perceptions to inform major improvements, and lack of generalizability when student enrollments or feedback are limited led to questions as to whether the models need to be extended or elaborated.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Jun 2016 09:24:28 PDT
       
  • A Study of How Flight Instructors Assess Flight Maneuvers and Give Grades:
           Inter-rater Reliability of Instructor Assessments

    • Authors: Beth M. Beaudin-Seiler et al.
      Abstract: This article discusses calibration of flight instruction to an academic institution’s “gold standard”. Flight instructors reviewed four lessons within the private pilot curriculum. Each lesson required rating four maneuvers and assigning an overall letter grade. Data was compared to the gold standard set by flight faculty from the institution. Initial data revealed instructors with one year or less of experience had less agreement to the gold standard. A curriculum to rate maneuvers and grade lessons was developed and practice sessions occurred in instructor meetings starting Fall 2013. Post-test results show improvement in agreement in one year or less experienced group.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Dec 2015 07:01:45 PST
       
  • Human Behavior During Spaceflight - Evidence From an Analog Environment

    • Authors: Kenny M. Arnaldi et al.
      Abstract: Spaceflight offers a multitude of stressors to humans living and working in space, originating from the external space environment and the life-support system. Future space participants may be ordinary people with different medical and psychosocial backgrounds who may not receive the intense spaceflight preparation of astronauts. Consequently, during a mission, a space participant’s mood and behavior could differ from a trained astronaut. This study was an exploratory research project that used an artificial habitat to replicate an orbital environment and the activities performed by humans in space. The study evaluated whether the type of environment affects mood and temperament. Two male participants were enclosed in an artificial habitat where they performed Profile of Mood States 2nd EditionTM tests and Keirsey Temperament Sorter®-II tests. The participants later reproduced those tests in their normal living environment. Results from descriptive statistics, paired-samples t-tests, and a comparative study suggested that the type of environment affects mood and temperament. In addition, anecdotal information collected through personal logs confirmed the aforementioned results. The researcher concluded that further research must be conducted to test larger sample-sizes using a structured schedule.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Dec 2015 07:01:43 PST
       
 
 
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