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Aggression and Violent Behavior
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.238
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 458  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1359-1789
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3157 journals]
  • Mental health, empowerment, and violence against young women in
           lower-income countries: A review of reviews
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Rose Grace Grose, Katherine A. Roof, Daniel C. Semenza, Ximena Leroux, Kathryn M. Yount Gender-based violence (GBV) against women is a pervasive global human-rights violation. This systematic review of reviews synthesized research about the mental health and empowerment outcomes of GBV for adolescent girls and young women (ages 10–24) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). GBV exposures included child maltreatment, female genital mutilation/cutting, child marriage, intimate partner violence (IPV), and non-partner sexual violence. PubMed and PsycINFO searches were supplemented with expert consultations and searches of reference lists and key organizational websites. Sixteen systematic reviews were quality rated and summarized. Study-level data were extracted from the five highest quality reviews (N = 25 unique studies) and results from 41 samples were synthesized. Empowerment studies were too few to synthesize. Reviews and extracted studies were predominantly from Asia and Africa and addressed child maltreatment, IPV, and non-partner sexual violence. We included combined samples with adolescent girls and adult women (ages 9–60 years) and found consistent associations between GBV and composite measures of mental health, suicidal ideation and behavior, and symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress, and eating disorders. Findings suggest that GBV must be addressed to cultivate mental health for adolescent girls and young women globally.
       
  • A systematic literature review of early posttraumatic interventions for
           victims of violent crime
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Stéphane Guay, Dominic Beaulieu-Prévost, Josette Sader, André Marchand Criminal acts are the most common traumatic events to which the general population is exposed. Developing clinical guidelines for preventing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among victims of violent crime would help to reduce the mental health costs related to these events. The goal of the current article was to systematically review published studies on the efficacy of early interventions for victims of violent crime. Of the twelve selected studies, six evaluated the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), four evaluated psychological debriefing (PD) and two evaluated another type of intervention (i.e., video). Our review found modest and inconsistent effects of active early interventions. CBT appeared to be the most promising early intervention when compared to an assessment condition or a progressive relaxation group, but relatively equivalent to supportive counselling. No proof of efficacy was found for PD compared to other interventions or a control group. A psychoeducational video for rape victims appeared to help a subgroup of victims. The assessment conditions and PD led to similar reductions in posttraumatic symptoms, while CBT had a greater impact. Further research is needed in order to develop early interventions to prevent PTSD, improve quality of life, and reduce healthcare costs.
       
  • The application and adoption of four ‘third wave’ psychotherapies for
           mental health difficulties and aggression within correctional and forensic
           settings: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Gary Byrne, Áine Ní Ghrada ObjectiveThe prisoner population have substantially higher mental health needs than those reported in community samples. A number of third wave therapies have accrued varying levels of evidence in clinical and community samples for a range of psychological difficulties.MethodsThis review, using PRISMA guidelines, reviewed four third wave therapies, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT), Metacognitive Therapy (MCT) and Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) and their respective effectiveness in addressing psychological difficulties and aggression for those incarcerated in a number of forensic settings.ResultsA total of nine studies were included in the review, 8 studies for ACT, 1 for CFT and none for MCT or FAP. The study provides very tentative evidence for the use of ACT with addiction issues and anger/aggression with a prisoner population but that this is significantly tempered by methodological shortcomings and small sample sizes.ConclusionsACT shows some potential promise as a treatment with a prisoner population but the general lack of methodologically sound studies greatly limits any conclusions that can be made. At present other treatments such as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and other third wave therapies, most notably, Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) have accrued more evidence as a result of greater amount of research.
       
  • Immediate responses by service providers after a violent critical
           incident: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Philip Birch, Erin Cox
       
  • Examining ACTV: An argument for implementing neuroscience-based and
           trauma- informed treatment models in offender treatment programs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Eraina Schauss, Haley R. Zettler, Amanda Russell There is a well-established link between experiencing traumatic events in childhood such as witnessing violence and later perpetration of domestic violence. Within the United States, literature in the area of domestic violence has largely neglected the link between the neuroscience of trauma exposure in childhood and later instances of perpetration. Few research studies have explored the neurological impact of adverse childhood experiences on adult offending behavior. Additionally, the most common treatment models for these offenders do not focus on addressing prior trauma that may be related to offending behavior. Through the development of two theoretical models, this paper explores the relationship between childhood trauma and later perpetration of domestic violence. This paper argues that ACTV (Achieving Change Through Values-Based Behavior), a relatively new treatment model that incorporates elements of mindfulness, interoception, and experiential avoidance may be an effective treatment intervention for domestic violence offenders with a history of trauma.
       
  • Inner gnawing, outward clawing - The role of existential crises in crime
           causation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): John T. Bennett This paper provides an interdisciplinary perspective on the role of existential crises in crime causation. The theory presented in this paper is that a crisis of meaning is interrelated with other criminogenic factors, and that these factors together lead to frustration, which in turn may lead to aggression in some cases. Specifically, factors of anomie, boredom, mass entertainment, subculture, and gender are explored. This framework traces the influence of both social structure and culture on the individual level of motivation. This paper follows in the theoretical tradition advanced by Dollard et al., linking frustration to aggression and positing “there is a strong tendency for inhibited direct aggression to be displaced, i.e., not to disappear but to be expressed in altered form or to be directed toward individuals who were not the source of the frustration.” (Dollard, 1967). The paper develops a Weberian ideal type of the anomic individual within the criminal subculture. For an additional layer of social psychological perspective, the analysis continually engages with Merton's theory of anomie. Overall, this framework invites the reader to explore the interaction of psychological, sociological, and cultural variables. By appreciating the relationship between these variables, we might recognize the motivational power of the subjective experience of acute frustration present during existential crises. The results of this analysis are directly applicable to the perennial social issue of aggression.Scholarly elucidation of the criminogenic existential crisis can provide vivid guidance to teachers, parole officers, social work professionals, and therapists from a variety of traditions. The existential perspective provides an important reason to remain attuned to the psychological vulnerability of young people. Primarily, the need for meaning-oriented leadership should be seriously considered. Another basic precept of prevention should be to provide young people with a third way between models of ostentatious affluence and nihilistic ego gratification. Additionally, boredom should be recognized as a criminogenic state of being.Importantly, the pervasiveness of criminal subcultures must be reckoned with. Rather than denying the pervasiveness of such subcultures, preventive policy should incorporate destructive or unflattering norms and behavior into a positive framework of counseling or therapy.Finally, supervision during the period of inner crisis is absolutely vital. Constructive supervision would consist of ensuring that external control is concurrent with purposeful activity and outlets for inevitable frustrations.This framework has implications for criminal justice. By focusing closely -as this paper does- on psychological drives, we begin to perceive limitations to punitive policy. As this paper suggests, external controls may merely redirect inner drives, which will tend to discover or create outlets once the external control is removed.
       
  • Psychopathic killers: A meta-analytic review of the psychopathy-homicide
           nexus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Bryanna Fox, Matt DeLisi Despite cultural notions that psychopathy and homicide are strongly linked, there has not been a quantitative meta-analytic review of the association between psychopathy and homicide offending. The current study meta-analyzed data from 29 unique samples from 22 studies that included 2603 homicide offenders, and found that the mean psychopathy score on the PCL-R for a homicide offender was 21.2 (95% CI = 18.9–23.6). This score is indicative of moderate psychopathy. The overall effect size r = 0.68 was large, and effect sizes intensified in studies of more severe manifestations of homicide including sexual homicide (r = 0.71), sadistic homicide (r = 0.78), serial homicide (r = 0.74), and multi-offender homicide (r = 0.80). Current study findings make clear that psychopathy and homicide are importantly linked and that psychopathic personality functioning is a significant risk factor for various forms of lethal violence.
       
  • Characteristics and clinical applicability of the validated scales and
           tools for screening, evaluating and measuring the risk of intimate partner
           violence. Systematic literature review (2003–2017)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): María Analía Gómez-Fernández, Josefina Goberna-Tricas, Montserrat Payá-Sánchez IntroductionSeveral tools have been developed to objectively identify women who are experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). The objective of this systematic review is to identify and describe the properties and clinical usefulness of the validated tools for detecting IPV published in the past 15 years.MethodsA systematic review was performed of the bibliographic databases PubMed, Cochrane Library, ENFISPO, IME, CINHAL, CUIDEN and Cuidatge. The search was restricted to articles published in the past 15 years. It was broadened to include grey literature. The articles selected present tools for screening, evaluating and measuring the risk of IPV, along with information on the validation of the tool. They are either written in Spanish or English.Results536 articles were found in total, of which eight were excluded as they appeared in two different databases. A further 461 were excluded after reading the title and summary. 67 full articles were reviewed. 63 articles were finally included and 39 tools.ConclusionThis systematic review provides a big-picture perspective of validated IPV tools published since 2003. It can help health professionals and researchers choose the most appropriate tool for their specific purposes and context.
       
  • Unsanctioned aggression and violence in amateur sport: A multidisciplinary
           synthesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Ramón Spaaij, Hebe Schaillée Physical and psychological harm as a result of unsanctioned aggression and violence in sport continues to be a cause for concern. This article critically reviews and synthesizes contemporary scientific research on unsanctioned aggression and violence in amateur sport. The authors identify the need to understand violence in amateur sport within its social ecology. The proposed framework sensitizes researchers, policymakers, and practitioners to the multi-level web of interacting influences on unsanctioned aggression and violence in amateur sport, as well as to factors and issues to be considered in relation to the prevention and mitigation of violent behavior in amateur sport. The findings indicate that there is a dearth of studies that analyze the meanings and narratives of aggression and violence created by amateur sports participants themselves. The article proposes that situational approaches and, in particular, the role of bystanders offer promising directions for future research, policy, and practice concerning unsanctioned aggression and violence in amateur sport.
       
  • The quantitative study of serial murder: Regression is not transgression
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Emma E. Fridel, James Alan Fox In Too Few Victims: Finding the Optimal Minimum Victim Threshold for Defining Serial Murder, we empirically examined how victim count influences the definition of serial homicide. With a series of multinomial logistic regressions, we determined that a cutoff of three victims was optimal to ensure a more homogeneous population, and recommended a return to this traditional threshold (Fridel & Fox, 2018). In response, Yaksic (2018) published a scathing review of our work, claiming that our study was “transgressing” against serial homicide research and actively hampering law enforcement investigations. In addition to defending our original study, we reject his suggestion to rely solely on the qualitative methods of the past and firmly advocate for the modernization of serial homicide research through rigorous quantitative analysis.
       
  • Translating research into practice: Designing effective reentry services
           for adolescent offenders
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Nancy G. Calleja This article introduces the model design of a specialized juvenile reentry program that resulted in reducing recidivism to less than half the recidivism rate of those in the control group. The reentry program and evaluation was funded by the Second Chance Act and has been identified as a promising practice in reentry planning. The reentry project was a collaborative, region-wide effort involving juvenile justice administrators, law enforcement officials, treatment providers, and other community support partners. The intensity and type of reentry services provided were determined by the results of standard risk assessment and were delivered based upon a prescribed, dosage-based schema. Best practices in reentry planning are identified and the manner in which current best practices informed the model design is illustrated throughout the article. The article is intended for information dissemination and potential project replication.
       
  • Sexual cyberbullying: Review, critique, & future directions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Anandi C. Ehman, Alan M. Gross Sexual cyberbullying is a relatively novel issue wherein various forms of technology including cell phone messaging, social media, and other online tools are used to harass another individual in a sexually explicit fashion, or to coerce an individual into providing private sexual information or engage in activities which are sexual in nature. The present article explores the relevant research to date on sexual cyberbullying. A methodological critique of this literature is discussed and suggestions for future research are provided. In particular, the importance of establishing a theoretical framework which can be used to better conceptualize and understand sexual cyberbullying and other forms of technologically mediated aggression is highlighted. Contextual factors which may also influence sexual cyberbullying, such as alcohol, hookup culture, and the recent discussion of revenge porn in the media, are also discussed.
       
  • Risk markers for physical intimate partner violence victimization: A
           meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 November 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Chelsea M. Spencer, Sandra M. Stith, Bryan Cafferky This meta-analysis provides a comprehensive overview of risk markers for intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. Data from 391 studies, yielding 1731 effect sizes, were analyzed. Using Dutton's (1995) nested ecological theory, we categorized risk markers into the exosystem, microsystem, and ontogenetic levels. We examined 50 risk markers for IPV victimization for women, and 28 risk markers for IPV victimization for men. Using a random-effects approach, the overall strength of each risk marker for men and women was calculated to find out which risk markers were most strongly correlated with IPV victimization for both men and women. Next, gender was used as a moderator on 28 risk markers to test if there was a significant difference in the strength of risk markers between men and women. We found that the strongest risk markers for IPV victimization for both men and women were risk markers located in the microsystem, and specifically risk markers associated with previous relationship violence. We also found that the strength of 5 out of 28 risk markers for IPV victimization significantly differed between men and women (alcohol use, child abuse in family of origin, depression, older age, sexual IPV victimization). Implications for future research and for clinicians are discussed.
       
  • The Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2): A review of the properties,
           reliability, and validity of the CTS2 as a measure of partner abuse in
           community and clinical samples
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Harriet Chapman, Steven M. Gillespie The purpose of this review is to explore the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2), focusing on its research uses for assessing IPV. An overview of the CTS2 is presented, including the area that it assesses, the purpose of the tool, and its content. The tool's attempts to measure the purported construct are evaluated, drawing upon principles of reliability, validity and appropriate norms. The CTS2 has been found to be a reliable and valid instrument to measure IPV across different populations and across different cultures. However, there are some concerns regarding the internal consistency of the sexual coercion scale among female samples, and explorations of the factor structure of the CTS2 have yielded inconsistent models. While some statistical properties of the scale have been established for different populations, more research is needed to ascertain the validity and reliability of the CTS2 in varied clinical and forensic settings. The strengths and limitations of the CTS2 considered in the review have important implications for interpreting findings of studies investigating IPV using only this tool.
       
  • The role of affect regulation in the treatment of people who have
           committed sexual offences
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): E. Gunst, J.C. Watson, J. Willemsen, M. Desmet Affect regulation problems have been found to play an important role in the onset of problematic behavior, such as sexual abuse. The role of emotion and maladaptive coping has become relevant in both research and treatment interventions. Forensic treatments have been strongly influenced by conceptualizations of affect regulation that emphasize the control of emotional experience and expression. For a long time, emotions were treated as less important than cognition. However, the view of emotion as an adaptive resource and meaning system is now emerging in the forensic literature. General psychotherapy research has shown that improved affect regulation and deeper experiencing is associated with better outcomes in psychotherapy. These findings, in combination with the role of emotions in behavioral and relational functioning, are leading to a shift in forensic treatment approaches. In this paper, we review the literature on affect regulation in treatment programs for individuals who have committed sexual offences. The implications of this work for forensic practice will be considered. Finally, Emotion-Focused Therapy will be presented as a promising therapeutic approach for forensic treatment programs to promote clients' emotional engagement and processing, and to improve treatment outcomes.
       
  • Acknowledging the victim to perpetrator trajectory: Integrating a mental
           health focused trauma-based approach into global violence programs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Heidi L. Kar Violence prevention and intervention programming continues to overlook conclusive findings from biopsychosocial research that demonstrates the salience of early interpersonal trauma in subsequent perpetration of violent behavior. As a result, programs struggle to achieve significant and sustained behavior change in individuals whose past experiences of early interpersonal violence predispose them to use violence against others. A robust research literature unequivocally links early interpersonal trauma experience with future violence perpetration. Though legal consequences have demonstrated some success in curtailing future violence among those involved with the legal system and only in situation in which law enforcement and judicial processes protect victims, there is growing recognition that rehabilitation and treatment of perpetrators is necessary. Globally, studies demonstrate that exposure to early interpersonal violence negatively impacts brain development, interpersonal skills, and emotional resilience and escalates risk for future violence perpetration. Studies of youth and adult violence perpetrators consistently demonstrate that individuals who engage in violent behavior are much more likely to have experienced early interpersonal trauma. It is essential to integrate a mental health approach into public health frameworks to address the core of violence perpetration. Unaddressed early trauma greatly distorts the normal developmental trajectory of cognitive and psychological/emotional abilities. Unsurprisingly, many of the affected systems are also linked to violence perpetration. This position paper outlines the interconnections between early trauma and violence perpetration, and demonstrates the necessity of integrating a mental health, trauma-based framework into violence interventions.
       
  • Assault–related sharp force injury among adults in Scotland 2001–2013:
           Incidence, socio-demographic determinants and relationship to violence
           reduction measures
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Christine A. Goodall, Fiona MacFie, David I. Conway, Alex D. McMahon BackgroundThe number of patients with assault-related sharp force injury has declined in recent years in Scotland. This study aimed to determine the incidence of these injuries over time and to explore their key socio-demographic determinants.MethodsRoutinely collected coded hospital admission data for the time period 2001–2013 were used to calculate annual incidence rates by age-group, gender, geographical region, and area-based Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation using midyear population estimates. A Poisson regression analysis model was developed including the variables: age-group, gender, year, geographical region, and deprivation quintile. The data were compared with available published crime data.ResultsThe incidence of sharp force injury showed an ongoing decline between 2001 and 2013. The fall was greatest among young people and in the West of Scotland and mirrored the reduction in weapons and knife related offences. The relative risk of sustaining a sharp force injury was greatest for younger age-groups, among males, and in those resident in the West of Scotland and in areas of socioeconomic deprivation.ConclusionsThere already exist a range of violence prevention measures in Scotland, but in order to further reduce the inequality associated with sharp force injury, interventions should be further targeted to working with younger men from deprived communities of Scotland.
       
  • Self-control, differential association and the drug–crime link in
           Uruguay in the context of the legalization of marijuana
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Nicolas Trajtenberg, Pablo Menese
       
  • Bullying and cyberbullying: Protective factors and effective interventions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Izabela Zych, David P. Farrington, Maria M. Ttofi
       
  • School-based anti-bullying interventions for adolescents in low- and
           middle-income countries: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Bhagya Sivaraman, Elizabeth Nye, Lucy Bowes Bullying is an international phenomenon that is increasingly becoming recognized as a public health issue and mental health concern. Systematic reviews suggest that complex, whole-school anti-bullying interventions are effective at reducing victimization and bullying in high-income countries (HICs). We report a systematic review evaluating the effectiveness of school-based interventions to reduce and prevent bullying among adolescents in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In addition to searching 31 databases, we also hand searched key journals and grey literature. We contacted experts in the field for input during the search process. After rigorously screening retrieved studies against predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria, only three studies were included in this review. One study used a cognitive and behavioral approach to target bullying among adolescents in Romania, one study adapted the international Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP) for use in Malaysia, and the other developed a model for use in South Africa. Results from all three studies were mixed and provided no overall evidence of effect for the interventions. The validity of the results for two of the studies was unclear due to substantial or unclear risks of bias. Given the well-established evidence base for anti-bullying interventions in HICs, there is an urgent need for more rigorously evaluated and reported studies in LMICs, adapted for contexts of considerable resource constraints.
       
  • Moral domain as a risk and protective factor against bullying. An
           integrating perspective review on the complexity of morality
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 July 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): E.M. Romera, J.A. Casas, O. Gómez-Ortiz, R. Ortega-Ruiz Developmental psychology has paid special research attention to explain how certain moral-nature factors influence behavior. Most research on morality and bullying has focused on studying moral disengagement as a risk factor for peer aggression. However, neuroscience has revealed that morality is a complex phenomenon composed of several factors. Thus, it requires the usage of holistic explanatory models that study the complexity of the moral functioning. The purpose of this review is to explore —from an integrative perspective— the moral elements that influence the transgressive behavior that damages other people, and its relation to bullying, a clear example of unjustified and immoral aggressiveness. This article reviews the state-of-the-art of morality including moral sensitivity, reasoning, emotion, motivation and identity, and group norms, analyzing its protective role against bullying. The need for a comprehensive theoretical approach to morality understood as a complex construct is discussed, starting from the articulated analysis of all its dimensions. This work advances knowledge useful for the design of educational interventions aimed to prevent bullying, to stimulate the socially desirable and prosocial behavior, as well as to improve peer relationships.
       
  • A literature review of protective factors associated with homophobic
           bullying and its consequences among children & adolescents
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Dorothy L. Espelage, Alberto Valido, Tyler Hatchel, Katherine M. Ingram, Yuanhong Huang, Cagil Torgal Research has consistently linked homophobic bullying (e.g., teasing, name-calling, use of slurs) with an array of negative outcomes for children and adolescents. While most of the extant research covers risk factors related to homophobic bullying perpetration and victimization, there is a budding literature surrounding protective factors of these behaviors and their associated consequences. This article reviews 32 studies that focused on protective factors associated with homophobic bullying perpetration and victimization among children and adolescents. The review examines homophobic bullying as it applies to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth and their heterosexual and cisgender peers. Using the social-ecological framework, this paper highlights protections at the individual level (e.g., sexual identity, self-esteem), the family level (e.g., social support at home), the peer level (e.g., positive friendships) and the school level (e.g., school policies against homophobic bullying, positive school climate). With the aim of contributing to the development of the field, directions for future research are also discussed.
       
  • Protective factors against bullying and cyberbullying: A systematic review
           of meta-analyses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Izabela Zych, David P. Farrington, Maria M. Ttofi Bullying and cyberbullying are damaging aggressive behaviors in which some children and adolescents intentionally inflict frequent and long term harm on peers who become victimized. The number of studies on bullying is high and a lot of knowledge has already been gathered. Nevertheless, there are still many gaps in knowledge that need to be addressed. Research on protective factors and effective interventions is still in its relatively early stages. This systematic review of meta-analyses on protective factors against bullying and cyberbullying was conducted to synthesize knowledge and discover the most important community, school, family, peer and individual protective factors. After systematic searches and the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 meta-analyses with 128 effect sizes were included and analyzed. Forest plots were constructed and median effect sizes were calculated for each group of protective factors. Self-oriented personal competencies were the strongest protector against victimization. Low frequency of technology use protected from involvement in cyberbullying. Good academic performance and other-oriented social competencies were the strongest protective factors against perpetration. Positive peer interaction was the strongest protective factor against being a bully/victim. These findings can be useful to improve anti-bullying programs, policy and practice.
       
  • Standing up to bullying: A social ecological review of peer defending in
           offline and online contexts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Laura J. Lambe, Victoria Della Cioppa, Irene K. Hong, Wendy M. Craig Bullying is a relationship problem that most often occurs in the presence of peers. Peers who witness bullying play a critical role in intervening. Peer intervention, or defending, is a complex behavior. Defending a victimized peer can occur offline and online, with many similarities between the two contexts. This paper, guided by the Social Ecological Model, systematically reviewed the correlates associated with defending at different levels including: individual, peer, family, and school. Inclusion criteria retrieved a final sample of 130 original, peer-reviewed research articles on offline defending, and 25 articles for online defending.Consistent results across both contexts reveal that individuals who defend tend to be girls, have high empathy and low moral disengagement, are popular and well-liked by their peers, and perceive supportive relationships with their parents, teachers, and schools. More research is needed to understand interactions that may occur between levels of the model, as defending is a complex behavior that cannot be characterized by isolated correlates.
       
  • Cyberhate: A review and content analysis of intervention strategies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Catherine Blaya This paper presents a review of intervention programmes against cyberhate. Over the last decade, the preoccupation over the use of electronic means of communication as a tool to convey hate, racist and xenophobic contents rose tremendously. NGOs, legal professionals, private companies, and civil society have developed interventions but little is known about their impact. For this review we followed the method and protocol from the guidelines from the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook for Systematic Reviews and the Campbell Collaboration Crime and Justice guidelines. The review identified three key intervention areas: law, technology and education through the empowerment of the individuals under the form of counter-speech. No specific intervention towards aggressors was found and most projects focus on prevention or victims through confidence building and skills learning to speak out, report and potentially react in an appropriate way. We did not find any rigorously assessed interventions, which highlights a gap in research and stresses the need for this type of studies. The evaluation of effectiveness of interventions needs to be included in the near future research agenda. Up to now, although intentions are good, we have no evidence that the steps that are undertaken are effective in preventing and reducing cyberhate.
       
  • Consistency of gender differences in bullying in cross-cultural surveys
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Peter K. Smith, Leticia López-Castro, Susanne Robinson, Anke Görzig Many studies have reported on gender differences in bully and victim rates, but with the majority of reports from a small number of countries. Here we report on such gender differences from five large cross-national data bases. We report on overall male:female (M:F) ratios, and variations in these by age (or grade), by survey time point, and by offline/online bullying. We also compare consistency of M:F ratios across countries, over the five surveys. The preponderance of male perpetrators of bullying is found consistently across surveys, and survey time point. It is also consistent by age, but HBSC data suggest a curvilinear trend in early adolescence. Males also tend to more frequently be victims of bullying, consistent across age and survey time point, but with variations by survey. There is some indication of a decrease in M:F ratio recently in mid-adolescence, possibly related to online bullying. At least relatively, females are more involved as victims of online than offline bullying. Comparing recent findings on M:F ratio across countries for the five surveys, correlations vary from high to near zero. Implications for the explanation of gender differences in different countries, the comparability of data from different surveys, and for gender-specific interventions, are discussed.
       
  • Are children involved in cyberbullying low on empathy' A systematic
           review and meta-analysis of research on empathy versus different
           cyberbullying roles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Izabela Zych, Anna C. Baldry, David P. Farrington, Vicente J. Llorent Cyberbullying is a relatively new aggressive behavior in which young people repeatedly and intentionally inflict harm on peers, using electronic devices. Cyberbullying has very damaging consequences and studies on the topic are increasing. Nevertheless, there are still gaps in sound knowledge regarding factors that could protect children from being cyberbullies or cybervictims. The current systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to overcome limitations of previous studies on risk factors to establish if and how empathy is related to the different cyberbullying roles. After exhaustive searches with rigorous inclusion and exclusion criteria, 25 studies were included. Cyberbullying perpetration was found to be related to low empathy (OR = 1.5) and this relationship held also after controlling for covariates (OR = 1.3) but cybervictimization was not significantly related to empathy (OR = 0.94). There were some indications that cybervictims could have high affective empathy (OR = 0.83), but more research is needed to clarify this relationship. Results are presented also separately for the relationship between affective and cognitive empathy and different cyberbullying roles. There were not enough studies to draw conclusions about the relationship between empathy and being a cyberbully/victim or defender, but some tendencies were found and described. These results have important implications for policy and practice and might be very useful in designing specific tailored programs to prevent cyberbullying.
       
  • A developmental approach to cyberbullying: Prevalence and protective
           factors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Robin M. Kowalski, Susan P. Limber, Annie McCord Recent years have witnessed a plethora of research on cyberbullying. However, many of the published studies have yielded mixed findings related to cyberbullying and its relation to demographic variables such as age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Review papers have been published on some of these topics, but comprehensive reviews of the relation between age and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration are lacking, particularly with regard to protective factors. Thus, the current paper takes a developmental approach to examine age and cyberbullying. The review focuses specifically on age variations in technology use, prevalence of cyberbullying involvement, risk and protective factors, and outcomes. Directions for future research, including implications for prevention and intervention, are discussed.
       
 
 
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