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Aggression and Violent Behavior
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.238
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 469  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1359-1789
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3184 journals]
  • Dynamic risk factors: Conceptualization, measurement, and evidence
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Roxanne Heffernan, Daniel Wegerhoff, Tony Ward The concept of “criminogenic need” is firmly entrenched within forensic research and practice. So much so that its status is rarely questioned, and its central role in risk reduction and management is accepted at face value. However, the analogue concept of dynamic risk factor (DRF) has recently come under scrutiny, with criticisms centering upon its composite nature and lack of coherence. These criticisms challenge the presumed causality of these factors, and thus their role in practice. In order to test this assumption this paper addresses three questions: 1) how are DRF conceptualized within the recent literature' 2) How are they measured' 3) What is the evidence that they a) change, b) that these changes predict outcomes (i.e., reduced recidivism), and c) that treatment targeting DRF influences this process' The answers can provide support for or cast doubt upon the status of DRF in the prediction and explanation of offending.
       
  • Continuity of the delinquent career behind bars: Predictors of violent
           misconduct among female delinquents
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Jessica M. Craig, Chad R. Trulson While many scholars have investigated potential predictors of institutional misconduct among adult inmates, few have assessed the determinants of misconduct among incarcerated juvenile delinquents. This lack of research attention to the predictors of institutional misconduct is especially notable among female delinquents. As females have been theorized to have unique pathways to offending, it is pertinent to examine their pathways to institutional misconduct. The current study investigates potential predictors of violent misconduct among a large sample (n = 1061) of state-committed serious female delinquents in a large southern state. Using negative binomial regression models, a large number of variables were examined that describe the youths' background, delinquency history, and commitment offense. While only a few individual-level factors such as poor mental health predicted violent misconduct, a larger number of delinquent history measures such as committing a violent offense and being sentenced to a blended sentence emerged as important predictors of involvement in violent institutional misconduct. Policy implications and limitations of the study are also discussed.
       
  • Parental supervision and later offending: A systematic review of
           longitudinal studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): India M.L. Flanagan, Katherine M. Auty, David P. Farrington Parental supervision has been identified as an important influence on offending. This systematic review focuses specifically on parental supervision, compared to existing systematic reviews which tend to concentrate on a wider range of family factors. The main aim of this article is to assess the precise nature of the association between parental supervision and offending. Overall, 19 prospective longitudinal studies were identified (published since 1996) which met the inclusion criteria. The results show a weighted mean effect size (ES) of Cohen's d = 0.37 between parental supervision and later offending. This review discovered that studies use different types of behavior to define parental supervision. Interestingly, a larger weighted mean effect size (d = 0.45) was found for studies measuring ‘level of parental knowledge’ compared to studies measuring ‘child disclosure to parents’ (d = 0.33) or ‘parental rule setting’ (d = 0.14). The results suggest that the strength of social bonds is important for enabling parents to maintain high levels of knowledge. Prevention programs should aim to develop robust channels of communication that increase parental knowledge regarding the activities of their children. Future research should also clarify the definition of parental supervision, in order to make it possible to compare different studies of parenting.
       
  • A systematic literature review of intimate partner violence victimisation:
           An inclusive review across gender and sexuality
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 47Author(s): Philippa Laskey, Elizabeth A. Bates, Julie C. Taylor The traditional view of intimate partner violence (IPV) is that the perpetrator is male and the victim is female (Dobash, Dobash, Wilson & Daly, 1992). As a result of this, most research into victimisation experiences appears to be conducted with female victims of IPV (Morin, 2014), and research with male victims, and victims from the LGBTQ+ community is less common. The main aim of the current research was to conduct a systematic literature review to synthesise the literature base of IPV victimisation experiences to ascertain how abuse is experienced, and the effects of that abuse. The secondary aim was to investigate the prevalence of different victim groups, across gender and sexuality, in current research studies. The review highlighted that victims of IPV experience several different types of abuse and the negative mental and physical health outcomes associated with that abuse are significant. Additionally, it was found that the large majority of research studies included in the review were conducted with female victims in opposite-sex relationships, and were quantitative and cross-sectional in nature. The implications of these findings are discussed and suggestions for future research are put forward.
       
  • Peers as Law Enforcement Support (PALS): An early prevention program
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Vincent B. Van Hasselt, Kristin E. Klimley, Samantha Rodriguez, Maureen Themis-Fernandez, Sarah N. Henderson, Barry A. Schneider Police officers encounter a variety of stressors, most of which are unique to the profession. These can exact a toll on an officer's mental health, and leave them at increased risk for experiencing psychological problems. However, due to stigma surrounding mental health, as well as traditional law enforcement culture, many officers find it difficult to report, or seek help for, difficulties due to fear of repercussions and/or distrust. Consequently, the potential value of incorporating trained peers as a “first line of defense” has received increased attention. This article describes the Peers as Law Enforcement Support (PALS) program developed in a collaboration between a local police agency and University psychology department. Results of a pilot study evaluating participants' perspectives on course content and quality of instruction are presented. Finally, the need for a broad spectrum approach to prevention and intervention of mental health issues in officers is underscored.
       
  • Preventing violence against children at schools in resource-poor
           environments: Operational culture as an overarching entry point
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Dipak Naker This paper articulates a case for prioritizing prevention of violence against children (VAC) at schools in resource poor environments of developing countries. The first section makes a broad case for why it is important to focus on schools as an entry point for preventing VAC. The second section discusses how the whole school approaches prevalent in developed nations such as Positive Behavioral Intervention Support (PBIS) can be adapted and contextualized for resource poor environments. The paper delineates between school climate and the operational culture of a school and discusses why practical approaches tend to address the latter. The final section of the paper discusses an evidence-based example of such an approach; the Good School Toolkit for preventing VAC at schools in resource poor environments. The paper concludes by articulating strategic considerations to bear in mind when designing such interventions.
       
  • Tracking narrative change in the context of extremism and terrorism:
           Adapting the Innovative Moments Coding System
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Raquel da Silva, Pablo Fernández-Navarro, Miguel M. Gonçalves, Catarina Rosa, Joana Silva Existing models of deradicalisation, countering violent extremism (CVE), and counter-terrorism (CT) have lacked a clear theory of change, as well as robust empirical methodologies. This paper proposes an empirically-based systematic and transparent methodology – the Innovative Moments Coding System (IMCS) – which is empirically sensitive, ethically defensible, and can be of use in the context of research to inform practitioner contexts. Through a case study of former violent militants, we explore the adaptation and usage of this instrument to identify and track self-narrative change in the processes of engagement and disengagement, as well as radicalisation and deradicalisation in the context of violent extremism and terrorism. We illustrate how this methodology has the potential to bring benefits to the work of researchers involved in producing guidelines for disengagement, deradicalisation or risk-reduction interventions.
       
  • Juvenile Firesetters as multiple problem youth with particular interests
           in fire: A meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Danielle L.C. Perks, Bruce D. Watt, Katarina Fritzon, Rebekah Doley Juveniles are overrepresented among arson offenders, though previous research has been mixed in identifying key risk factors differentiating juvenile firesetters from youth who do not light unsanctioned fires. The current meta-analysis examined all published and available unpublished research over a 30-year period, examining risk and protective factors associated with youth firesetting. Control groups comprised youth living in the community, forensic samples, and clinic referred youth. Across 39 independent samples with 22,292 juveniles, fire specific variables yielded the strongest differentiation between firesetters and non-firesetters, particularly history of fire involvement and fire interest. Juvenile firesetters had significantly more extensive histories of problematic behaviours, experienced adverse familial events, elevated rates of emotional dysregulation, and greater prevalence of mental health disorders compared to youth not involved in firesetting. Protective factors were less often identified for firesetters compared to non-firesetters. The findings highlight juvenile firesetters often experience multiple problems, magnified by a history of interest and involvement in firesetting. Hence, interventions with juvenile firesetters need to target multiple problem areas while assisting youth to redirecting interests towards non-antisocial pursuits. Caution is noted in interpreting the findings, with significant heterogeneity identified for most effect sizes across studies.
       
  • Moving beyond prison rape: Assessing sexual victimization among youth in
           custody
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Eileen M. Ahlin This integrated literature review discusses the need to treat youth in custody distinctly from adult carceral populations when examining sexual victimization. Although the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) mandates correctional facilities address sexual assault in both populations, the lack of available information on risk factors among youth may lead to practitioners and policy-makers becoming reliant on the adult literature when making decisions on preventative and reactive care for juveniles. Such extrapolation may lead to an inadequate or even inappropriate response for youth in custody. A research agenda using an ecological framework to determine youth-specific individual and structural level risk factors is proposed. Findings demonstrate differences in sexual victimization risk factors for adults in jails and prisons compared to youth in custody. This review serves as a foundation for moving research on this topic to juvenile custody settings while also acknowledging the challenges associated with conducting such research among youth in custody.
       
  • Neurobiological findings of the psychopathic personality in adults: One
           century of history
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Diana Moreira, Andreia Azeredo, Fernando Barbosa This review intends to produce a historical overview of the psychobiological bases of psychopathy from the first studies using biological or neuropsychological measures up to the present state of knowledge. The reviewed studies were retrieved from multiple databases, following the procedures of the Cochrane Collaboration. Of the 205 documents obtained, 49 were selected for further analysis and 31 were considered eligible for inclusion. Furthermore, eight studies were included through manual search. The objectives, sample (age, percentage of male, type of sample), country of origin of the studies, language, design, instruments, and results and main conclusions were extracted from each study. Overall, the results reinforce the idea that psychopathic traits are associated with abnormalities in the way the brain processes environmental emotional information, and that the fundamental cognitive properties related to attention maintain or worsen these abnormalities. In some cases, changes in attention explain, by themselves, the abnormalities in emotional processing. Future studies using neurophysiological paradigms would be a great asset to help differentiate, at a neurocognitive level, the personality structures characterized by pronounced antisocial behavior, in order to improve the understanding of their heterogeneous etiologies.
       
  • Measures for evaluating sex trafficking aftercare and support services: A
           systematic review and resource compilation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Laurie M. Graham, Rebecca J. Macy, Amanda Eckhardt, Cynthia F. Rizo, Brooke L. Jordan Increasingly, organizations are providing services to promote the resilience and reintegration of persons trafficked for sexual exploitation. Unfortunately, services for survivors of trafficking have out-paced the evaluation of such services. However, formative studies exist on the needs and service outcomes of survivors of trafficking. We undertook a systematic summary of such studies with the aim of compiling the measures and constructs used in this literature. Of the 53 studies reviewed, 22 studies named 34 published measures used to collect data regarding survivors' coping; physical, mental, sexual, and reproductive health; substance use; social support; trafficking-related needs, strengths, and outcomes; and trauma and abuse experiences. Additionally, to gather information on constructs of interest, 18 of the 22 studies included supplemental questions that were not part of a specific measure. Results show sex trafficking research is strongly focused on the physical and mental health needs and service outcomes of survivors. Few studies incorporate holistic views of well-being. Moreover, measures used with this population often have not been tested with survivors of trafficking. We recommend testing measures with this population, conducting holistic assessment of the needs and outcomes of survivors of sex trafficking, and developing tailored measures for various subgroups within this diverse population.
       
  • Predicting domestic violence: A meta-analysis on the predictive validity
           of risk assessment tools
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Claudia E. van der Put, Jeanne Gubbels, Mark Assink Risk assessment tools are increasingly being used to guide decisions about supervision and treatment of domestic violence perpetrators. However, earlier review studies showed that the predictive validity of most of these tools is limited, and is reflected in small average effect sizes. The present study aimed to meta-analytically examine the predictive validity of domestic violence risk assessment tools, and to identify tool characteristics that positively moderate the predictive validity. A literature search yielded 50 independent studies (N = 68,855) examining the predictive validity of 39 different tools, of which 205 effect sizes could be extracted. Overall, a significant discriminative accuracy was found (AUC = 0.647), indicating a moderate predictive accuracy. Tools specifically developed for assessing the risk of domestic violence performed as well as risk predictions based on victim ratings and tools designed for predicting general/violent criminal recidivism. Actuarial instruments (AUC = 0.657) outperformed Structured Clinical Judgment (SCJ) tools (AUC = 0.580) in predicting domestic violence. The onset of domestic violence (AUC = 0.744) could be better predicted than recurrence of domestic violence (AUC = 0.643), which is a promising finding for early detection and prevention of domestic violence. Suggestions for the improvement of risk assessment strategies are presented.
       
  • The conceptualization of gangs: Changing the focus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 March 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Daniel Wegerhoff, Louise Dixon, Tony Ward Discussions about the gang construct and appropriate definitions have been pervasive throughout gang research. This paper seeks to shed light on these discussions by adopting a theoretical perspective to examine the suitability of ‘gangs’ as a target of explanation and the appropriateness of current definitional approaches. First, we examine the validity and utility of the gang construct. It is concluded that the gang label has poor construct validity and limited explanatory utility, thereby making it unsuitable for theoretical purposes. Instead, we suggest that researchers need to focus on what gangs are at a foundational level, namely groups, and that the group should be the target of explanation. Second, we consider the limitations of gang definitions for theory construction and instead offer a method known as three-tier analysis to comprehensively conceptualize groups without discussions of necessary and sufficient definitional boundaries. Finally, we produce a framework based on these findings and demonstrate how it facilitates understanding of a specific gang exemplar. In doing so, we bypass several theoretical roadblocks obstructing gang research and advance a way to explain the group and (by extension) gangs, thus improving our understanding of groups and gangs with the purpose of ultimately informing practice and policy initiatives.
       
  • The role of media exposure on relational aggression: A meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Nicole Martins, Andrew Weaver We conducted a meta-analysis of 33 studies that examined the effects of media exposure on relationally aggressive behaviors and cognitions (a total of 66 effect sizes, N = (20,990). Across all types of aggressive content, there was a small positive effect (r = 0.15) on relational aggression. However, a comparison of effects sizes demonstrate that exposure to relational aggression had the strongest effect (r = 0.21), whereas exposure to non-specific media content had the weakest effect (r = 0.08). Exposure to physical aggression fell in the middle of the two content types (r = 0.15). Potential explanations for these effects as well as moderators that could influence the results are considered, and the practical implications of these findings are discussed.
       
  • Associations between individual-level characteristics and exposure to
           physically violent behavior among young people experiencing homelessness:
           A meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Jessica A. Heerde, Sheryl A. Hemphill Risk factor reduction approaches may decrease exposure to violence among young people experiencing homelessness. This study presents a meta-analysis exploring associations between characteristics of young people experiencing homelessness (individual-level factors) and exposure to physically violent behavior, both as perpetrators and as victims. A series of meta-analyses using random effects models were conducted, examining 426 effect sizes, calculated from findings across 26 studies. Data were analyzed from 8842 homeless young people, aged 13–26 years from North America. Individual-level factors were significantly associated with both perpetration of physically violent behavior (OR 4.87, p 
       
  • Versatility and exploratory psychometric properties of the
           Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale (IPAS): A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Ana Rita Cruz, Andreia de Castro-Rodrigues, Brian Rundle, Ioannisely Berrios-Torres, Rui Abrunhosa Gonçalves, Fernando Barbosa, Matthew S. Stanford Aggression has different conceptualizations and can be behaviorally expressed in diverse ways. Designed to evaluate impulsive and premeditated forms of aggression, the Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale (IPAS; Stanford et al., 2003) is a 30 item self-report questionnaire. The aim of the present study was to explore IPAS versatility in different psychological settings by reviewing and examining the exploratory psychometric properties of the IPAS impulsive and premeditated subscales, across different samples and cultural backgrounds. Fifty-two articles including demographic or psychometric information (internal consistency, factor analysis, validity, reliability) were retrieved. It is suggested that the IPAS is reliable across different cultures, samples and scoring techniques. The two subscales (Impulsive and Premeditated) show acceptable internal consistency. Also, IPAS factors seem to be constant both in clinical and non-clinical samples. The IPAS appears to be a clinically useful instrument for differentiating between subtypes of aggressive behavior, to support risk assessment evaluations, pretrial decisions and better treatment and rehabilitation strategies in offenders and clinical relevant samples.
       
  • Aggression among men: An integrated evolutionary explanation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): John Klasios This paper develops an integrated theoretical explanation of aggression among men, showing that much of that aggression is anchored in naturally-selected psychological adaptations—or, in the case of honor, importantly tied to cultural transmission—designed to solve the recurrent evolutionary problems of status and honor. Both of these problems are—or at least were—very crucial to the reproductive success of men. Maintaining and cultivating honor, engaging in theft, mating competition, war, and gangs are the main phenomena thereby explained in evolutionary terms. Drawing on theoretical and conceptual resources from the evolutionary sciences at large, and in particular evolutionary psychology, the explanation developed here also and importantly pulls together the psychological, developmental, cultural, and ecological dimensions of the phenomena at issue. Doing so allows the model to sketch the ways in which the psychological adaptations underlying aggression are sensitive to both external and individual contingencies and thereby open-ended and flexible. The evolutionary model developed here draws an additional strength from its ability to grapple with evolutionarily novel environments and individual differences. Finally, the integrated explanation is also synthesized with the evolutionary genetics and heritability of aggression.
       
  • Socially accepted violence by “agents of law”: Sublimation of
           aggression as a model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Efrat Even-tzur, Uri Hadar As part of their duty, police officers sometime use electro-shock weapons in order to restrain violent behaviors; prison guards use physical force to restrict convicted felons' freedom of movement; staff members of forensic psychiatric units sometime use physical restraining means on dangerous patients. Such actions are sometimes criticized, but in other instances, when they do not exceed reasonable use of power, they may be perceived as appropriate and expected of the aforementioned officials.Now would it be accurate to claim that even when following regulations, such acts involve expressions of aggression' Would it be an overstatement to ascribe the term “violence” to them, customary and accepted as they may be in their institutional and social context' These questions raise even additional difficulties regarding the use of force by law-enforcement agents: do their actions produce significant psychological implications' Could these uses of physical force potentially elicit unique anxieties that require unique coping mechanisms'The core of the difficulty, we suggest, lies in the intricacies of the topic of socially accepted violence. The intention of this paper is to propose a psychoanalytic exploration of this complicated problem, and to examine how the Freudian idea of sublimation of aggression contributes to its understanding.
       
  • The Connection's approach: A model for integrating criminal justice,
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Bandy Lee, David Sells, Jacob Hasson, Michele Klimczak, Charles Barber At a time when societal problems and systems are becoming increasingly complex, a state-wide human services agency in Connecticut, called “The Connection,” has adopted a human approach to care. Far from being impractical or irrelevant, we have found this philosophy to be at the core of its success, which has the potential to inform similar agencies worldwide. At a time in the U.S. when most agencies are reducing their services and trying merely to survive in a climate of little concern for disadvantaged populations, The Connection has been expanding and thriving while taking care of the sickest, the neediest, and the most high-risk populations. It addresses social challenges at the most basic level, “making connections” between criminal justice, mental health, and social support services through a simplification of principles that allows for their integration. In this article, we review the elements that have led to its efficacy, the scientific support for it, and potential pitfalls.
       
  • Biosocial studies of antisocial behavior: A systematic review of
           interactions between peri/prenatal complications, psychophysiological
           parameters, and social risk factors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Babette C.M. van Hazebroek, Hilde Wermink, Lieke van Domburgh, Jan W. de Keijser, Machteld Hoeve, Arne Popma In order to reduce antisocial behavior (ASB) and associated individual and societal problems, insight into determinants of ASB is warranted. Increasing efforts have been made to combine biological and social factors in explaining antisocial development. Two types of biological parameters have been studied vastly and provide the most compelling evidence for associations between biosocial interaction and ASB: peri/prenatal complications and psychophysiological parameters. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize empirical evidence on interactions between these biological measures and social risk factors in predicting ASB. In doing so, we aimed to (1) examine whether specific peri/prenatal and psychophysiological measures composite a vulnerability to social risk and increase risk for specific types of ASB, and (2) evaluate the application of divergent biosocial theoretical models. Based on a total of 50 studies (documented in 66 publications), associations between biological parameters and ASB were generally found to be stronger in the context of adverse social environments. In addition, associations between biosocial interaction and ASB were stronger for more severe and violent types of ASB. Further, in the context of social risk, under-arousal was associated with proactive aggression, while over-arousal was associated with reactive aggression. Empirical findings are discussed in terms of distinct biosocial theoretical perspectives that aim to explain ASB and important unresolved empirical issues are outlined.
       
  • Effect of perceived parent child relations on adjustment of young women
           exposed to mutual intimate partner violence during childhood
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): P. Duval, M. Pietri, E. Bouteyre ObjectiveWe sought to show that the adjustment of young women who witnessed mutual intimate partner violence (IPV) as children is influenced by their current perceptions of relations with their parents.MethodOur sample comprised 793 young female French university students, 623 of whom had been exposed to IPV during childhood. Of these, 289 had witnessed severe violence and 334 minor violence. All participants completed an online battery assessing perceived IPV (CTS2-CA), perceived parent-child relations (QERPE), predisposition to aggression (Aggression Questionnaire), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (HADS).ResultsResults revealed that young women with IPV exposure exhibited a higher level of anxiety than those with no such exposure, and perceived their relations with their parents more negatively. Those who had witnessed severe, as opposed to minor, violence displayed higher levels of anxiety, depression and aggression. They also had more negative perceptions of their relations with their parents. More generally, perceived maternal rejection was a decisive factor for the presence of internalizing and/or externalizing problems among participants with IPV exposure.ConclusionWhere there is a history of mutual IPV, the quality of parent-child relations has a major impact on young women's adjustment. We discuss the study's limitations, as well as prospects for future research.
       
  • Public health problems associated with “boda boda” motorcycle Taxis in
           Kenya: The sting of inequality
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Kennedy Mkutu, Tessa Rhodes Mkutu
       
  • Efficacy of different versions of Aggression Replacement Training (ART): A
           review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Faride Ensafdaran, Barbara Krahé, Soodabe Bassak Njad, Nasrin Arshadi Aggression Replacement Training (ART) is a multimodal intervention for chronically aggressive youth. The program has been frequently administered in a variety of samples in the original form or in modified versions. This review examines evaluations of the efficacy of ART on aggressive behaviors and secondary outcomes in young people and adults, including modifications of ART and evaluations of the original version not covered by earlier reviews.MethodScholarly databases were searched to identify 10 articles reporting 11 independent studies evaluating the efficacy ART in reducing aggressive behavior and improving anger control, social skills, and moral reasoning in children and youth.ResultsThe majority of studies found positive effects of ART on aggression and other outcomes related to anger control, social skills, and moral reasoning. However, most studies were based on small samples, and few included a control group to evaluate intervention success.ConclusionsThe studies reviewed in this paper tentatively suggest that ART is an efficacious intervention to reduce aggressive behavior and improve anger control, social skills, and moral reasoning in at-risk children and youth. However, this conclusion is qualified by a number of methodological limitations that highlight the need for further, more rigorous evaluation studies.
       
  • Ethical loneliness and the development of a victim-focused approach to
           rape cases in South Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Sheena Swemmer In this article, I focus on the rape trial of the former South African president, Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma. I have chosen this specific case as it was extensively documented, both in the media and academically, with the main focus being on how the court had relied on gender-stereotyping in coming to its conclusion that the accused was not guilty as well as the degrading onslaught the victim experienced by communities around her. I look at the court's reliance on evidence of previous sexual history in finding that the complainant (Khwezi) was, in fact, an unreliable witness. I endeavour to show how the reliance of the court on rape stereotypes can be humiliating, degrading and one of the causes of secondary victimisation. I argue that Khwezi's harmful experience of the criminal justice system is common to many victims in rape cases. I then proceed to argue that the experience of Khwezi (and many other rape survivors) can be described as what Stauffer calls, ‘ethical loneliness’. As one outlet for this loneliness, I suggest the development of the South African criminal law, which can be applied to criminal law universally, to shift the focus of rape trials from being accused-focused to victim-focused. Through this process, I argue, that law can begin to influence change in the reluctance of society to hear the story of rape survivors and help to create a safe space in communities for survivors to be heard.
       
 
 
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