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Aggression and Violent Behavior
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.238
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 445  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1359-1789
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • The association between attachment and psychopathic traits
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Marion van der Zouwen, Machteld Hoeve, Anne M. Hendriks, Jessica J. Asscher, Geert Jan J.M. StamsAbstractThe purpose of this study was to examine the association between attachment and psychopathic traits. A systematic search of relevant articles yielded 12 studies (11 independent samples), containing 133 effect sizes based on in total 1876 participants. Results from a three-level random-effects meta-analysis demonstrated a small-to-medium significant, overall association of r = 0.18, indicating that insecure attachment was positively related to psychopathic traits. We also tested moderator effects; six significant moderators were found. First, the magnitude of the effect size depended on which psychopathic trait was investigated; the largest effect size was found for callous-unemotional traits (r = 0.23), and no effect was found for antisocial behavior, narcissism and impulsivity. Second, parent- and caregiver reports on psychopathic traits resulted in stronger associations compared to self-reports and a composite of multiple sources. Third and fourth, the association varied across attachment and psychopathic traits instruments. Fifth, if both attachment and psychopathic traits were reported by the same informant, the association was stronger than when attachment and psychopathic traits were reported by different informants. Sixth, the association differed across sample setting, with the strongest association for a clinical setting followed by a secured setting and no association for both community or combined settings. No moderating effects were found for the attachment categories, attachment to whom and the informant of attachment, publication year, and sample characteristics, such as gender, age, and sample size. We discuss the implications of our findings for future research and clinical practice.
  • Self-control, differential association and the drug–crime link in
           Uruguay in the context of the legalization of marijuana
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Nicolas Trajtenberg, Pablo Menese
  • Bullying and cyberbullying: Protective factors and effective interventions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Izabela Zych, David P. Farrington, Maria M. Ttofi
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder in police, firefighters, and emergency
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Kristin E. Klimley, Vincent B. Van Hasselt, Ashley M. StriplingAbstractPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may develop after exposure to an event in which death, severe physical harm, or violence occurred or was threatened. First responders, including police, fire rescue personnel, and emergency dispatchers, have been viewed as populations at high risk for developing PTSD symptoms. Indeed, over 80% of first responders report experiencing traumatic events on the job, and it is estimated that 10–15% have been diagnosed with PTSD. However, to date, limited research has reviewed the impact and services available following these traumatic events across first responders. This review examines research regarding PTSD in police officers, firefighters, and emergency dispatchers with particular attention to the prevalence, comorbid diagnoses, risk and protective factors, and resources available to each group. A discussion of limitations of the available research in this area, and suggestions for directions that future work might take, are offered.
  • The folly of counting bodies: Using regression to transgress the state of
           serial murder classification systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Enzo YaksicAbstractObjectiveThis commentary addresses misconceptions present in Too Few Victims: Finding the Optimal Minimum Victim Threshold for Defining Serial Murder and seeks to limit the damaging effect that the authors' recommendation of reverting the victim threshold will have on researchers, practitioners and law enforcement.Key pointsTo classify serial homicide offenders by a metric such as deadliness unnecessarily segments a population of offenders that share similar pathologies. Upper level statistics that neglect to account for the narrative factors responsible for the offender's homicidality cannot elucidate the true differences between the groups of serial murderers identified by the authors.ImplicationsIn analyzing an offender's number of kills and motive the authors ignore the relationship between victim and attacker and the time period between murders. The authors discount thousands of serial homicide offenders due to the absence of information on formative events and disregard intent and markers associated with serial homicide, all to manufacture an inflection point and command the future direction of serial homicide offender research and apprehension efforts. This will curtail the foray of new researchers into an area rife with potential discoveries while also restricting efforts by law enforcement organizations to form task forces to intervene earlier in an offender's career.
  • Perceptions and responses towards cyberbullying: A systematic review of
           teachers in the education system
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 43Author(s): Peter J.R. Macaulay, Lucy R. Betts, James Stiller, Blerina KelleziAbstractThe rise and availability of digital technologies for young people have presented additional challenges for teachers in the school environment. One such challenge is cyberbullying, an escalating concern, associated with wide-reaching negative consequences for those involved and the surrounding community. The present systematic review explored teachers' perceptions and responses towards cyberbullying in the education system. Once the search strategy was applied across the six databases, 20 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the current review. The studies were reviewed and examined for common themes. Five themes were identified: (a) Cyberbullying characteristics and student involvement, (b) Cyberbullying training and guidance for teachers, (c) School commitment and strategies to manage cyberbullying, (d) The impact and extent of cyberbullying prevalence and consequences, and (e) Teachers' confidence and concern towards cyberbullying. The themes are discussed in a narrative synthesis with reference to implications for teachers and for the continued development and review of anti-cyberbullying initiatives.
  • Sex offender residence restrictions and sex crimes against children: A
           comprehensive review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Joanne Savage, Casey WindsorAbstractIn this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the empirical evidence related to the effectiveness of residence restrictions imposed on sex offenders for preventing sex crimes against children. This topic is important because such laws currently exist in many states and there is ongoing debate about changes in law in some jurisdictions. We build on previous reviews by narrowing our scope and applying a greater focus on important methodological features of the studies. In the absence of a body of direct tests, we examine a triangulation of empirical tests related to assumptions of residence restriction laws. The analysis suggests that residence restrictions have little potential for preventing sex offenses against children. Most importantly, the data indicate that very few sex crimes against children have been by the offender's residence near a school, daycare center, or park. Because only one direct test of this research question has been published, we make specific recommendations for future research to fill gaps and to provide more compelling evidence to policymakers.
  • Don't shoot the messengers: A response to Ellis and Hoskin's (2018)
           commentary on the prenatal androgen hypothesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Travis C. Pratt, Jillian J. Turanovic, Alex R. Piquero, Francis T. Cullen
  • Oedipism: When psychosis reaches the eyes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Wafa Chebbi, Amel Braham, Ahlem Mtiraoui, Jihenne Mannnai, Jaafar Nakhli, Selma Ben NasrAbstractOedipism is a rare but serious ophthalmologic and psychiatric emergency that usually occurs in patients with severe mental disorders such as schizophrenia and can be life-threatening. We report the case of bilateral oedipism in a 37 years old woman suffering from schizophrenia since the age of 16. Psychiatric exam revealed delusional syndrome whose main themes were erotomaniac, influence, possession, and persecution. She had auditory, visual hallucinations, and mental automatism syndrome. The patient was treated by clozapine and underwent twenty sessions of electroconvulsivotherapy. After three months of hospitalization, Miss I·F's condition has improved but she lost definitively her sight. This case illustrates a rare complication of a severe mental disorder. Advanced theories explaining this acting out are various. Its management should be multidisciplinary and should involve psychiatrists, ophthalmologists, and neurologists in order to detect any associated lesions.
  • The multidimensional peer victimization scale: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Stephen Joseph, Hannah StocktonAbstractDeveloping bullying interventions and testing their success depends on the valid and reliable measurement of peer victimization. The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Peer Victimization Scale (MPVS, Mynard & Joseph, 2000). This systematic review examined 34 published studies demonstrating that the MPVS is a reliable, valid, and psychometrically sound measure for capturing multiple facets of peer victimization across a variety of samples. Results also highlighted that there are relatively stable sex differences in the rates and pattern of peer victimization, with males experiencing more direct forms of victimization and females experiencing more indirect forms of victimization. Recommendations for further research are discussed, alongside new ways to further advance the assessment of peer victimization.
  • School-based anti-bullying interventions for adolescents in low- and
           middle-income countries: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Bhagya Sivaraman, Elizabeth Nye, Lucy BowesAbstractBullying is an international phenomenon that is increasingly becoming recognized as a public health issue and mental health concern. Systematic reviews suggest that complex, whole-school anti-bullying interventions are effective at reducing victimization and bullying in high-income countries (HICs). We report a systematic review evaluating the effectiveness of school-based interventions to reduce and prevent bullying among adolescents in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In addition to searching 31 databases, we also hand searched key journals and grey literature. We contacted experts in the field for input during the search process. After rigorously screening retrieved studies against predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria, only three studies were included in this review. One study used a cognitive and behavioral approach to target bullying among adolescents in Romania, one study adapted the international Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP) for use in Malaysia, and the other developed a model for use in South Africa. Results from all three studies were mixed and provided no overall evidence of effect for the interventions. The validity of the results for two of the studies was unclear due to substantial or unclear risks of bias. Given the well-established evidence base for anti-bullying interventions in HICs, there is an urgent need for more rigorously evaluated and reported studies in LMICs, adapted for contexts of considerable resource constraints.
  • Firearm-related violence in Sweden – A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2018Source: Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 42Author(s): Ardavan KhoshnoodAbstractRecent reports state that firearm-related violence is increasing in Sweden. In order to understand the trend of firearm-related violence in Sweden with regard to rate, modus operandi (MO) and homicide typology, and for which injuries and causes of death firearm-related violence is responsible, a systematic literature review was conducted. After a thorough search in different databases, a total of 25 studies published in Swedish and English peer-review journals were identified and thus analyzed. The results show that even though knives/sharp weapons continue to be the most common MO in a violent crime in Sweden, firearm-related violence is significantly increasing in the country and foremost when discussing gang-related crimes. Moreover, firearm-related homicides and attempted homicides are increasing in the country. The studies also show that a firearm is much more lethal than a knife/sharp weapon, and that the head, thorax and the abdomen are the most lethal and serious anatomical locations in which to be hit. It is principally the three largest cities of Sweden which are affected by the many shootings in recent years. The police have severe difficulties in solving firearm-related crimes such as homicide and attempted homicide, which is why the confidence and trust for the Swedish judicial system may be decreasing among the citizens. Several reforms have taken place in Sweden in the last few years, but their effect on firearm-related violence remains to be studied.
  • The use of women and children in suicide bombing by the Boko Haram
           terrorist Group in Nigeria
    • Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2018Source: Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 42Author(s): Macpherson U. Nnam, Mercy Chioma Arua, Mary Sorochi OtuAbstractTerrorism has taken a new and frightening dimension in Nigeria. The manifestation is the incessant use of women and children in suicide bombing by the Boko Haram terrorist group. Examining this operational shift provided further impetus and insights into understanding the core of the problem. It brought to light the fact that Nigeria is a society where patriarchy holds sway and certain salient socio-political structures (culture, religion, economy and polity) of the society are unjust and unbalanced, thus placing women and children on the receiving end, while men are at advantage. This was elucidated in the predictions of radical feminist and political economy theories, which we combined to explain why and how this particular group is now widely exploited in suicide missions. The rationale behind their used is to beat security networks and carry out their operations with ease and huge success. Because women and children possess and demonstrate less suspicious behaviour and covert criminogenic tendencies, they stand to escape the scrutiny of security personnel. These natural characteristics confound security operatives and thereby prolonging the war on terrorism. However, many women and children who indulge in terror campaigns do that out of ignorance and usually under extreme indoctrination, brainwashing and manipulations. To remedy the situation, effective and trusted intra and inter-border surveillance/patrol and intergovernmental security partnership using state-of-the-art crime combating appurtenances, and acquisition of analytical skills in counterintelligence and counterterrorism, are highly recommended. Co-ordinated efforts are needed in the area of psychosocial rehabilitation and consequent reintegration, aftercare and follow-up of released or escaped abducted victims who were once forcefully used by this group in attacking their family and community for their reacceptance and to guard against stigmatisation and rejection. Our cultural and national values should be revisited and overhauled by the government and significant others in society for enduring public safety.
  • Moral domain as a risk and protective factor against bullying. An
           integrating perspective review on the complexity of morality
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 July 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): E.M. Romera, J.A. Casas, O. Gómez-Ortiz, R. Ortega-RuizAbstractDevelopmental psychology has paid special research attention to explain how certain moral-nature factors influence behavior. Most research on morality and bullying has focused on studying moral disengagement as a risk factor for peer aggression. However, neuroscience has revealed that morality is a complex phenomenon composed of several factors. Thus, it requires the usage of holistic explanatory models that study the complexity of the moral functioning. The purpose of this review is to explore —from an integrative perspective— the moral elements that influence the transgressive behavior that damages other people, and its relation to bullying, a clear example of unjustified and immoral aggressiveness. This article reviews the state-of-the-art of morality including moral sensitivity, reasoning, emotion, motivation and identity, and group norms, analyzing its protective role against bullying. The need for a comprehensive theoretical approach to morality understood as a complex construct is discussed, starting from the articulated analysis of all its dimensions. This work advances knowledge useful for the design of educational interventions aimed to prevent bullying, to stimulate the socially desirable and prosocial behavior, as well as to improve peer relationships.
  • The usefulness of psychopathy in explaining and predicting violence:
           Discussing the utility of competing perspectives
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 July 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Henriette Bergstrøm, Simon R. Larmour, David P. FarringtonAbstractThe current study is a review of the utility of psychopathy in violence risk assessment. Psychopathy has long been considered one of the most important factors when assessing the risk for future violence in forensic samples. Concerns about tautology have however indicated a need to critically assess the utility of psychopathy measures in risk assessment. We argue that the focus should be as much on the psychopathic personality in the explanation of violent behavior as on the psychopathic personality in the prediction of violent behavior. The main aim of this article is to contrast and discuss the utility of two different ways of conceptualizing and measuring the psychopathic personality, namely through the PCL scales and the CAPP. Existing evidence suggests that the CAPP and PCL are comparably strong predictors of violent behavior, but the CAPP is more dynamic (compared with the static PCL) and aims to measure psychopathic personality rather than past behavior. It is proposed that the CAPP is more useful in explaining violence and should be utilized more in future risk assessments for violence. Implications for future practice are discussed.
  • Legislative response to family violence in South Africa: A family centered
    • Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2018Source: Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 42Author(s): Jill Ryan, Michelle V. Esau, Nicolette V. RomanAbstractSouth Africa has instituted many legislative and constitutional changes since 1994 to combat violence. Regardless of these legislative developments, South Africa has some of the most endemic rates of violence in the world with most of these high rates of violence located within family violence. In response, South African legislation drew from a number of international and regional commitments as well as constitutional amendments to facilitate an enhanced family environment which promoted family well-being and functioning. However, legislatively, family violence is still fragmented in its respective subsets of intimate partner violence, child abuse and elder abuse. Disregarding family violence in the holistic sense, fragmented sectors and efforts to comprehensively and adequately prevent or reduce the rates of family violence. Through a family centered perspective, this paper aimed to review the various legislation used to address family violence within the South African context.
  • Roots of sadistic terrorism crimes: Is it Islam or Arab culture'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Jilani ben Touhami MeftahAbstractThis research deals with the phenomenon of terrorism and attempts to ascertain the true roots of its sadistic crimes. The research considers two possible hypotheses to explain this phenomenon: The first hypothesis says that since most of the perpetrators of these crimes are Muslim, the roots of these sadistic crimes are religious and based on the texts of the Qur'an and Sunnah. The second hypothesis is that since most of the perpetrators of these crimes are mostly Arabs or some of their neighboring nations, the roots of these sadistic crimes are to be found in Bedouin culture. The methodology used in this research is a combination of a historical approach and a psychoanalytic approach. The most important finding of the research is that there is no link between sadistic terrorist acts and Islam. The true roots of these sadistic crimes are cultural, namely mythology of heroes and revenge. In fact, these crimes also contradict the principles and teachings of Islam. The changes made by Islam in the societies of this region are superficial and skin-deep changes while the deep structures of these societies have remained dominated by their local culture. Arab societies have often exploited religion to justify their cultures.
  • A literature review of protective factors associated with homophobic
           bullying and its consequences among children & adolescents
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Dorothy L. Espelage, Alberto Valido, Tyler Hatchel, Katherine M. Ingram, Yuanhong Huang, Cagil TorgalAbstractResearch has consistently linked homophobic bullying (e.g., teasing, name-calling, use of slurs) with an array of negative outcomes for children and adolescents. While most of the extant research covers risk factors related to homophobic bullying perpetration and victimization, there is a budding literature surrounding protective factors of these behaviors and their associated consequences. This article reviews 32 studies that focused on protective factors associated with homophobic bullying perpetration and victimization among children and adolescents. The review examines homophobic bullying as it applies to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth and their heterosexual and cisgender peers. Using the social-ecological framework, this paper highlights protections at the individual level (e.g., sexual identity, self-esteem), the family level (e.g., social support at home), the peer level (e.g., positive friendships) and the school level (e.g., school policies against homophobic bullying, positive school climate). With the aim of contributing to the development of the field, directions for future research are also discussed.
  • What we know, what we do not know, and what we should and could have known
           about workplace bullying: An overview of the literature and agenda for
           future research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Morten Birkeland Nielsen, Ståle EinarsenAbstractOver the last three decades, the scientific and social interest in workplace bullying has accelerated and our understanding of this pervasive and detrimental social problem has advanced considerably in a relatively short amount of time. Workplace bullying is now a phenomenon of global interest, new topics are steadily emerging within the field, and the methodological quality of the studies has become more sophisticated. Building on findings from the ever increasing number of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in this field, the aim of this literature overview was two-folded. In the first part, the aim was to provide a basic overview of what we already know with regard to the nature and content of the bullying phenomenon, its risk-factors and causes, its consequences, and its potential measures and interventions. In the second part, the aim was to address what we do not know and to put forward an agenda for future research within the field. Here, six major knowledge challenges are discussed: a) construct clarification, b) the need for theoretical models, c) causality, d) bullying as a process, e) mediators and moderators, and f) intervention and rehabilitation of victims, perpetrators, and work environments.
  • Animal abuse as an outcome of poor emotion regulation: A preliminary
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Charlotte Hannah Parfitt, Emma AlleyneAbstractAnimal abuse is an under-reported yet prevalent form of both passive and active forms of aggressive behavior. Its severe and upsetting consequences are not only experienced by the victims themselves, but also others in proximity (e.g., pet owners). Despite this, research and theory focusing on the motivations for such behavior appear to be sparse and limited in development when compared to other types of offending behavior, such as interpersonal violence. This article examines the motivations that underlie animal abuse and the maladaptive emotion regulation techniques that facilitate this type of behavior. We focus on two specific emotion regulation styles that have been implicated in existing literature; that is, the mis-regulation and under-regulation of emotions. Based on existing research and theories, we posit that the facilitative role emotion regulation plays in the perpetration of animal abuse is vital in our understanding of how and why this abuse occurs. In this article, we present a preliminary conceptualization of animal abuse behavior that depicts emotion regulation as a pivotal factor in key explanatory pathways.
  • Protective factors against bullying and cyberbullying: A systematic review
           of meta-analyses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Izabela Zych, David P. Farrington, Maria M. TtofiAbstractBullying and cyberbullying are damaging aggressive behaviors in which some children and adolescents intentionally inflict frequent and long term harm on peers who become victimized. The number of studies on bullying is high and a lot of knowledge has already been gathered. Nevertheless, there are still many gaps in knowledge that need to be addressed. Research on protective factors and effective interventions is still in its relatively early stages. This systematic review of meta-analyses on protective factors against bullying and cyberbullying was conducted to synthesize knowledge and discover the most important community, school, family, peer and individual protective factors. After systematic searches and the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 meta-analyses with 128 effect sizes were included and analyzed. Forest plots were constructed and median effect sizes were calculated for each group of protective factors. Self-oriented personal competencies were the strongest protector against victimization. Low frequency of technology use protected from involvement in cyberbullying. Good academic performance and other-oriented social competencies were the strongest protective factors against perpetration. Positive peer interaction was the strongest protective factor against being a bully/victim. These findings can be useful to improve anti-bullying programs, policy and practice.
  • Status of the prenatal androgen hypothesis after two meta-analyses
           reported little support: A commentary
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Lee Ellis, Anthony W. HoskinAbstractEvolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory asserts that the main underlying forces behind human criminality is evolutionary (in ultimate terms) and neuroandrogenic (in proximate terms). Neuroandrogenic factors primarily refer to the influence of sex hormones on brain functioning, especially both prenatal and post-pubertal testosterone. We recently reported evidence that supports the theory. Using a rather crude measure of prenatal testosterone exposure (known as the 2D:4D digit ratio), our two studies indicated that even within each sex, prenatal testosterone was significantly correlated with various forms of self-reported offending as theoretically predicted. Since these two studies were published, two meta-analyses have appeared that ostensibly provide little evidence that 2D:4D is actually predictive of criminality and associated behavior. However, we believe that both of these meta-analyses have deficiencies in terms of methodology and theory interpretation that can account for why some of their conclusions are subject to question. The present commentary identifies the deficiencies and shows how the meta-analytic findings most pertinent to criminality actually support the hypothesis that prenatal testosterone is a significant contributor to variations in criminal behavior.
  • Standing up to bullying: A social ecological review of peer defending in
           offline and online contexts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Laura J. Lambe, Victoria Della Cioppa, Irene K. Hong, Wendy M. CraigAbstractBullying is a relationship problem that most often occurs in the presence of peers. Peers who witness bullying play a critical role in intervening. Peer intervention, or defending, is a complex behavior. Defending a victimized peer can occur offline and online, with many similarities between the two contexts. This paper, guided by the Social Ecological Model, systematically reviewed the correlates associated with defending at different levels including: individual, peer, family, and school. Inclusion criteria retrieved a final sample of 130 original, peer-reviewed research articles on offline defending, and 25 articles for online defending.Consistent results across both contexts reveal that individuals who defend tend to be girls, have high empathy and low moral disengagement, are popular and well-liked by their peers, and perceive supportive relationships with their parents, teachers, and schools. More research is needed to understand interactions that may occur between levels of the model, as defending is a complex behavior that cannot be characterized by isolated correlates.
  • Cyberhate: A review and content analysis of intervention strategies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Catherine BlayaAbstractThis paper presents a review of intervention programmes against cyberhate. Over the last decade, the preoccupation over the use of electronic means of communication as a tool to convey hate, racist and xenophobic contents rose tremendously. NGOs, legal professionals, private companies, and civil society have developed interventions but little is known about their impact. For this review we followed the method and protocol from the guidelines from the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook for Systematic Reviews and the Campbell Collaboration Crime and Justice guidelines. The review identified three key intervention areas: law, technology and education through the empowerment of the individuals under the form of counter-speech. No specific intervention towards aggressors was found and most projects focus on prevention or victims through confidence building and skills learning to speak out, report and potentially react in an appropriate way. We did not find any rigorously assessed interventions, which highlights a gap in research and stresses the need for this type of studies. The evaluation of effectiveness of interventions needs to be included in the near future research agenda. Up to now, although intentions are good, we have no evidence that the steps that are undertaken are effective in preventing and reducing cyberhate.
  • Consistency of gender differences in bullying in cross-cultural surveys
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Peter K. Smith, Leticia López-Castro, Susanne Robinson, Anke GörzigAbstractMany studies have reported on gender differences in bully and victim rates, but with the majority of reports from a small number of countries. Here we report on such gender differences from five large cross-national data bases. We report on overall male:female (M:F) ratios, and variations in these by age (or grade), by survey time point, and by offline/online bullying. We also compare consistency of M:F ratios across countries, over the five surveys. The preponderance of male perpetrators of bullying is found consistently across surveys, and survey time point. It is also consistent by age, but HBSC data suggest a curvilinear trend in early adolescence. Males also tend to more frequently be victims of bullying, consistent across age and survey time point, but with variations by survey. There is some indication of a decrease in M:F ratio recently in mid-adolescence, possibly related to online bullying. At least relatively, females are more involved as victims of online than offline bullying. Comparing recent findings on M:F ratio across countries for the five surveys, correlations vary from high to near zero. Implications for the explanation of gender differences in different countries, the comparability of data from different surveys, and for gender-specific interventions, are discussed.
  • Are children involved in cyberbullying low on empathy' A systematic
           review and meta-analysis of research on empathy versus different
           cyberbullying roles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Izabela Zych, Anna C. Baldry, David P. Farrington, Vicente J. LlorentAbstractCyberbullying is a relatively new aggressive behavior in which young people repeatedly and intentionally inflict harm on peers, using electronic devices. Cyberbullying has very damaging consequences and studies on the topic are increasing. Nevertheless, there are still gaps in sound knowledge regarding factors that could protect children from being cyberbullies or cybervictims. The current systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to overcome limitations of previous studies on risk factors to establish if and how empathy is related to the different cyberbullying roles. After exhaustive searches with rigorous inclusion and exclusion criteria, 25 studies were included. Cyberbullying perpetration was found to be related to low empathy (OR = 1.5) and this relationship held also after controlling for covariates (OR = 1.3) but cybervictimization was not significantly related to empathy (OR = 0.94). There were some indications that cybervictims could have high affective empathy (OR = 0.83), but more research is needed to clarify this relationship. Results are presented also separately for the relationship between affective and cognitive empathy and different cyberbullying roles. There were not enough studies to draw conclusions about the relationship between empathy and being a cyberbully/victim or defender, but some tendencies were found and described. These results have important implications for policy and practice and might be very useful in designing specific tailored programs to prevent cyberbullying.
  • A developmental approach to cyberbullying: Prevalence and protective
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Robin M. Kowalski, Susan P. Limber, Annie McCordAbstractRecent years have witnessed a plethora of research on cyberbullying. However, many of the published studies have yielded mixed findings related to cyberbullying and its relation to demographic variables such as age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Review papers have been published on some of these topics, but comprehensive reviews of the relation between age and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration are lacking, particularly with regard to protective factors. Thus, the current paper takes a developmental approach to examine age and cyberbullying. The review focuses specifically on age variations in technology use, prevalence of cyberbullying involvement, risk and protective factors, and outcomes. Directions for future research, including implications for prevention and intervention, are discussed.
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