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Aggression and Violent Behavior
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.238
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 471  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1359-1789
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3185 journals]
  • Risk factors for elder abuse and neglect: A review of the literature
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Jennifer E. Storey Elder abuse is a global problem gaining recognition due to its severe impact on victims and the ageing population. Increased recognition has led to the investigation of perpetrator and victim characteristics that increase the risk of elder abuse. The identification of such risk factors can assist practitioners in preventing abuse, determining the risk of continued elder abuse and, where factors are dynamic, can be targets for risk management. This literature review identifies and describes perpetrator and victim risk factors for elder abuse with the goal of informing professional practice and providing the basis for an empirically derived risk assessment instrument for elder abuse. Electronic searches identified 198 studies that met the eligibility criteria. The studies reviewed provide evidence supporting eight risk factors related to the perpetrator that increase their risk of continued elder abuse and eight victim vulnerability factors that place the victim at heightened risk of elder abuse. Hypotheses raised by researchers to account for the associations are outlined. The practical utility of the risk and vulnerability factors are described. The need for and approach to developing a structured method to assess and manage elder abuse risk based on the empirically supported risk and vulnerability factors is discussed.Public significance statementEmpirically supported dynamic risk factors for elder abuse are identifiable for perpetrators and victims of abuse in the existing research literature. These risk factors can be utilised by professionals to inform their practice and target risk management efforts.
  • Acknowledging the victim to perpetrator trajectory: Integrating a mental
           health focused trauma-based approach into global violence programs
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 47Author(s): Heidi L. Kar Violence prevention and intervention programming continues to overlook conclusive findings from biopsychosocial research that demonstrates the salience of early interpersonal trauma in subsequent perpetration of violent behavior. As a result, programs struggle to achieve significant and sustained behavior change in individuals whose past experiences of early interpersonal violence predispose them to use violence against others. A robust research literature unequivocally links early interpersonal trauma experience with future violence perpetration. Though legal consequences have demonstrated some success in curtailing future violence among those involved with the legal system and only in situation in which law enforcement and judicial processes protect victims, there is growing recognition that rehabilitation and treatment of perpetrators is necessary. Globally, studies demonstrate that exposure to early interpersonal violence negatively impacts brain development, interpersonal skills, and emotional resilience and escalates risk for future violence perpetration. Studies of youth and adult violence perpetrators consistently demonstrate that individuals who engage in violent behavior are much more likely to have experienced early interpersonal trauma. It is essential to integrate a mental health approach into public health frameworks to address the core of violence perpetration. Unaddressed early trauma greatly distorts the normal developmental trajectory of cognitive and psychological/emotional abilities. Unsurprisingly, many of the affected systems are also linked to violence perpetration. This position paper outlines the interconnections between early trauma and violence perpetration, and demonstrates the necessity of integrating a mental health, trauma-based framework into global violence interventions.
  • The grooming of children for sexual abuse in religious settings: Unique
           characteristics and select case studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Susan Raine, Stephen A. Kent This article examines the sexual grooming of children and their caregivers in a wide variety of religious settings. We argue that unique aspects of religion facilitate institutional and interpersonal grooming in ways that often differ from forms of manipulation in secular settings. Drawing from Christianity (Catholicism, Protestantism, and Seventh-day Adventism) and various sects (the Children of God, the Branch Davidians, the Fundamentalist Latter-day Saints, a Hindu ashram, and the Devadasis), we show how some religious institutions and leadership figures in them can slowly cultivate children and their caregivers into harmful and illegal sexual activity. A number of uniquely religious characteristics facilitate this cultivation, which includes: theodicies of legitimation; power, patriarchy, obedience, protection, and reverence towards authority figures; victims' fears about spiritual punishments; and scriptural uses to justify adult-child sex.
  • Correlates of youth violence in low- and middle-income countries: A
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 September 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Olga Sánchez de Ribera, Nicolás Trajtenberg, Yulia Shenderovich, Joseph Murray The highest rates of serious interpersonal violence occur in low-and-middle income countries (LMICs) especially in Latin America, the Caribbean, and sub–Saharan Africa. However, previous reviews of risk factors for youth violence focused almost entirely on studies from high-income countries (HICs). Rigorous synthesis of evidence is needed for LMICs. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies of youth violence in LMICs, identified by extensive searches in seven languages. Studies reporting correlates of violence perpetration in samples of 100 or more 10–29 year-olds from the general population in LMICs were included in the review. Eighty-six studies including 480,898 individuals from 60 countries were eligible for meta-analysis. Violent outcomes included fighting, carrying a weapon and other interpersonal violent behaviors (e.g. assault). The strongest correlates of youth violence (OR ≥ 2.5) were: male sex, impulsivity, conduct problems, sexual intercourse at an early age, smoking, alcohol use, using illicit drugs, being bullied, suffering criminal victimization, having deviant/delinquent peers, and watching violent television. We conclude that many correlates of youth violence in LMICs are similar to those that have been identified in HICs, but other biological, psychological, and cultural predictors remain to be tested in LMICs. Implications for research and policy are discussed.
  • Consistently inconsistent: A systematic review of the measurement of
           pornography use
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Ethan A. Marshall, Holly A. Miller Research indicates that pornography use is now practically ubiquitous among males and continually increasing among females. These statistics are concerning in light of decades of research signaling that pornography use may be associated with sexually coercive behavior. Though the relationship between pornography use and sexual coercion has been a focus of concern, the apparent inconsistency in methods used to assess pornography limits the field from approaching a consensus on the strength of this relationship, as well as developing a thorough understanding regarding which aspects of pornography use drive this relationship. The purpose of the current study is to systematically review the literature on pornography use over the last ten years. This review will provide an updated examination of the operationalization and assessment of pornography use in peer-reviewed studies, synthesize the assessment of pornography use from various disciplines, and provide suggestions for the assessment of pornography use moving forward. Results of this review will serve as a potential guideline for the improvement of methodologies used to assess pornography use, and to facilitate movement towards more consistent methodological approaches to strengthen research examining the relationship between pornography use and sexual coercion.
  • Cyber dating abuse (CDA): Evidence from a systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Sónia Caridade, Teresa Braga, Erika Borrajo Youth use a variety of digital tools to initiate, develop, and maintain a dating relationship. By doing so, youth become more accessible and vulnerable to interpersonal intrusiveness, which can promote certain forms of victimization, such as Cyber Dating Abuse (CDA). The present study provides a systematic review aimed to identify the studies that have been developed on youth CDA, describing their methodology, main objectives and findings, as well the constructs used. We identified 44 studies that met our inclusion criteria. Research on CDA has less than a decade and has mainly been developed in North America. Studies focused on the prevalence rates, the relation between CDA and other variables, and on developing and validating measures. Prevalence rates were variable, which was mainly due to the different methodological characteristics of the studies, such as the measure, participants' demographics, and the time lag of assessment. Nine tools were validated with, in general, diverse factor solutions. CDA was related to a wide range of individual variables and others types of interpersonal violence (e.g., offline dating violence, cyberbullying), but it is unknown if these variables are risk factors or consequences of CDA, since the majority of the studies used cross-sectional designs.
  • Why theory matters in correctional psychology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Tony Ward Effective and ethical psychological practice relies on good science, and good science takes theory construction very seriously, as seriously as data collection. There is little point in developing valid research designs and sophisticated data analytic techniques if the ideas driving research are mistaken or trivial. In this paper I explore the problem of theoretical illiteracy for correctional psychological research and practice. First, I discuss why theory is important in science and the dangers of ignoring it. Second, I review the role of theory in addressing the myriad of practical problems facing human beings. Third, I outline three strategies to increase researchers and practitioners' appreciation of theory construction and development: adopting a more comprehensive model of scientific method, epistemic iteration, and promoting model pluralism. Fourth, I take an example of a core concept from correctional psychology, that of dynamic risk factors, and demonstrate how the above strategies can be used to rectify problems with this construct. Finally, I discuss the research, practice and normative implications of my approach to addressing theoretical illiteracy.
  • The role of income inequality on factors associated with male physical
           Intimate Partner Violence perpetration: A meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Chelsea M. Spencer, Marcos Mendez, Sandra M. Stith This study examines the influence of income inequality on risk markers for Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) in countries with low and high income inequality measured by the GINI index. Examining male perpetration of IPV, we used meta-analytic procedures to learn if income inequality moderated the strength of the relationship between well-established risk markers and IPV. We found that young age, relationship dissatisfaction, violence towards non-family members, and emotional abuse perpetration were significantly stronger risk markers for countries with high income inequality than for countries with low income inequality. We also found that having experienced trauma was a significantly stronger risk marker for countries with low income inequality than for countries with high income inequality. We also ran additional analyses between high and low income inequality countries excluding research conducted in the United States. Here we found that perpetrating emotional abuse, relationship dissatisfaction, and witnessing IPV in family of origin were all significantly stronger risk markers in high income inequality countries compared to low income inequality countries Our findings suggest that income inequality impacts risk markers for male IPV perpetration.
  • The effect of mindfulness practice on aggression and violence levels in
           adults: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Anna Gillions, Rachael Cheang, Rui Duarte Violence and aggression represent a serious problem, with significant cost and impact at individual and societal level. There has been increasing interest in the potential of mindfulness interventions to decrease levels of violence and aggression. This paper systematically reviews the evidence to assess the effectiveness of mindfulness interventions for the reduction of violence and aggression levels. Five electronic databases were searched, and methods followed published guidance for systematic reviews. Studies that used a mindfulness intervention and measured outcomes of aggression and violence in adult populations were included. The Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies was utilised to evaluate the quality of included studies. Twenty-two studies met the eligibility criteria, including fourteen randomised studies, three non-randomised studies and five cohort studies. The interventions investigated included mindfulness, acceptance and commitment therapy, dialectical behaviour therapy and yoga with meditation.Overall, the results suggest that mindfulness-based interventions, with the possible exception of DBT, may be effective in reducing aggression and violence. They also suggest that mindfulness may relate to the processes of aggression through emotion regulation. However, papers were of variable quality, with weaknesses in both methodology and the reporting of data. Further good quality controlled studies with full and transparent reporting are needed to confirm these results, and to explore the elements of mindfulness which interact with mechanisms of aggression.
  • Do adult males with antisocial personality disorder (with and without
           co-morbid psychopathy) have deficits in emotion processing and
           empathy' A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Janet Marsden, Cris Glazebrook, Ruth Tully, Birgit Völlm BackgroundA lack of concern for the feelings, needs or suffering of others and lack of remorse after hurting or mistreating others are key characteristics of Antisocial Personality Disorder and suggest that impaired emotion processing and empathy may contribute to antisocial behaviour. Whilst psychopathy is more commonly associated with an absence of empathy and emotional affect, the nature of emotion processing and empathy deficits specific to adult male ASPD populations with and without co-morbid psychopathy has not been systematically reviewed.AimTo determine the nature of emotion processing and empathy deficits specific to adult male ASPD populations with and without co-morbid psychopathy.MethodWe conducted a literature search across seven electronic databases and a range of grey literature sites, hand-searched reference lists of relevant papers and contacted fourteen authors of published studies related to this topic. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied and quality assessments undertaken on eligible studies.ResultsSearches located 10,217 records and 205 were fully assessed. 22 were identified as suitable for inclusion in this review and 19 reported evidence of emotion processing deficits in ASPD groups with and without co-morbid psychopathy.ConclusionThis review found no evidence of empathy deficits in ASPD groups with or without co-morbid psychopathy and only limited evidence of diminished startle reactivity in those with ASPD alone. In contrast, ASPD groups with co-morbid psychopathy were found to exhibit aberrant patterns of affective reactivity and difficulty when processing negative/aversive stimuli which lends support to the notion that these groups may be differentiated in terms of emotional dysfunction. However, as the majority of reviewed studies employed ASPD groups that included participants with co-morbid psychopathy/psychopathic traits and did not delineate effects for ASPD groups with and without co-morbid psychopathy, the degree to which emotion processing deficits were mediated by co-morbid psychopathy or evident in ASPD alone could not be established and further research to compare emotion processing and empathy in both groups is required before firm conclusions can be drawn about the extent of overlap between these populations and/or the differences that exist between them.
  • Approaching the study of cyberbullying towards social workers from a
           systems perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Ravit Alfandari To date, cyberbullying research has been conducted without coherent, shared conceptual and operational definitions and with no clear, agreed theoretical ground. Hence, there is great confusion as to how to classify, measure and analyze this phenomenon. In response, this article proposes applying the systems approach developed in safety engineering, as a possible theoretical framework for investigation into cyberbullying. Central to the systems approach is the conceptualization of the relationship between people and technology as a joint system, with the focus of exploration being on how it interacts with the wider environment. Looking at cyberbullying through the systems lens dramatically broadens the analysis of the factors that influence behavior, with greater attention paid to the social arrangements. The current article illustrates how the core systems concepts of “socio-technical systems,” “emergent,” “multiple levels of analysis,” and “local rationality” can be transferred to the context of client cyberbullying towards professionals – specifically social workers – and contribute new knowledge and understanding to what seems to be developing into a serious problem.
  • Fight and flight: Examining putative links between social anxiety and
           youth aggression
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Laura A. Andrews, Shannon L. Brothers, Jennifer S. Sauvé, Douglas W. Nangle, Cynthia A. Erdley, Melissa K. Hord Somewhat surprisingly, social anxiety has been linked with aggressive behavior in adults. Among youth, this connection has been demonstrated with anxiety symptoms more broadly. This review extends previous work by evaluating this association specifically with social anxiety in the child and adolescent literature. Given the complexities of aggressive behavior, the review is organized by its various forms (relational and physical) and functions (reactive and proactive). Findings from sixteen identified studies are suggestive of links between social anxiety and reactive and relational forms of aggression. Albeit more tenuous, there appear to be associations with physical aggression as well. Overall, though suggestive of connections between social anxiety and aggression, confidence in the findings is attenuated by the relatively small number of relevant studies combined with inconsistent gender findings. Before suggesting directions for further study, we propose putative dysfunctional biological, emotional, and cognitive processes as factors that may underlie associations between social anxiety and these particular forms of aggression. Future research should target differences in age, gender, relationship type, and anxiety subtype. Determining the extent to which these associations may be attributable to comorbid pathology such as depression or a broader internalizing syndrome is also important.
  • Childhood and adolescent animal cruelty and subsequent interpersonal
           violence in adulthood: A review of the literature
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Heng Choon Chan, Rebecca W.Y. Wong Animal cruelty has been a growing concern worldwide, and is broadly defined as all socially unacceptable behaviors that are intentionally perpetrated to cause unnecessary pain, suffering, distress, and/or death to an animal. This review synthesizes more than 87 research studies identified through online databases and manual search of specific studies. Findings denote that beating, hitting, or kicking, shooting, strangling or smothering, stabbing, and sexual abusing are reported to be the commonly used methods in abusing animals. In addition, children and adolescents abused animals for different reasons; and those who exposed to domestic violence are likely to have higher rates of animal cruelty, which in turn increases their subsequent propensity to engage in delinquent behavior. Male children and adolescents are more likely than their female counterparts to commit acts of animal cruelty. It is noteworthy that early onset of animal cruelty acts is suggested to be predictive of subsequent violent or antisocial behavior. Arguably, bestiality is an act of animal abuse, or specifically as interspecies sexual abuse. More importantly, this review has noted a strong support for the increased risk of children and adolescents who commit animal cruelty to perpetrate interpersonal violence against human victims in later life. Five key theoretical models (i.e., social learning theory, frustration theory, deviance generalization hypothesis, graduation hypothesis, and sexual polymorphous theory) are discussed to explain the link between childhood and/or adolescent animal cruelty and subsequent violence against human victims in adulthood. Implications for research and future research are discussed.
  • A systematic review of comprehensive interventions for substance abuse:
           Focus on victimization
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Bushra Sabri, Claire Greene, Gregory M. Lucas Violence victimization is common among men and women who use substances and is associated with co-occurring health issues such as PTSD, depression and HIV. Substance use interventions, therefore, should include integrated components that are designed to address co-occurring health issues among victimized substance-using individuals. This systematic review synthesized the evidence on efficacy of comprehensive, integrated, multicomponent interventions for victimized substance-using individuals. The efficacy of integrated multicomponent intervention strategies was assessed for the following syndemic conditions: mental health, substance misuse, violence, and HIV risk. Seventeen studies were identified. Examples of effective components were empowerment strategies for violence, mindfulness-based stress reduction for mental health, social cognitive skill building for addressing HIV risk and psychoeducation for substance misuse. Although in this review, some components were found to be effective, we identified methodological limitations of included studies which calls for more rigorous research in this area. Further, there is lack of evidence base for multicomponent interventions for victimized substance-using individuals in developing countries. Additional studies are needed to establish rigorous evidence base for multicomponent interventions for victimized substance using individuals that help them cope effectively with their trauma of violence and address their needs.
  • Persistent material hardship and childhood physical aggression
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Paul E. Bellair, Thomas L. McNulty, Alex R. Piquero Some developmental models of childhood aggression deny any influence of socioeconomic status (SES), while others stress a more central role. We argue that greater attention to persistent material hardship (i.e., inability to provide for basic needs) may enhance the centrality of SES in developmental approaches. We analyze a longitudinal sample of children in the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study, and examine whether persistent material hardship shapes patterns of childhood aggression. We find that while the majority of children are insulated, some experience multiple, enduring hardships. More importantly, experiencing a single, persistent hardship during the period of childhood increases the likelihood of aggression by 4.8% among males and 6.4% among females, a magnitude that is comparable to the influence of impulsivity. Findings warrant greater attention to the consequences of material hardship in theoretical models and life course research that goes beyond the traditionally-examined indicators of SES.
  • Impulsivity and aggression: A meta-analysis using the UPPS model of
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Konrad Bresin Trait impulsivity has long been proposed to play a role in aggression, but the results across studies have been mixed. One possible explanation for the mixed results is that impulsivity is a multifaceted construct and some, but not all, facets are related to aggression. The goal of the current meta-analysis was to determine the relation between the different facets of impulsivity (i.e., negative urgency, positive urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking) and aggression. The results from 93 papers with 105 unique samples (N = 36, 215) showed significant and small-to-medium correlations between each facet of impulsivity and aggression across several different forms of aggression, with more impulsivity being associated with more aggression. Moreover, negative urgency (r = 0.24, 95% [0.18, 0.29]), positive urgency (r = 0.34, 95% [0.19, 0.44]), and lack of premeditation (r = 0.23, 95% [0.20, 0.26]) had significantly stronger associations with aggression than the other scales (rs 
  • Examining the relationships between impulsivity, aggression, and
           recidivism for prisoners with antisocial personality disorder
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Sylvia Martin, Carmen Zabala, Jonathan Del-Monte, Pierluigi Graziani, Eva Aizpurua, Tom J. Barry, Jorge Ricarte Impulsivity impacts multiple life domains and is related to criminal and problematic behaviors. In forensic contexts, impulsivity and aggression are often associated with psychiatric issues. Personality disorders are related to worse prognosis, increased relapse, and damage to relationships. The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of psychopathy, impulsivity, and aggression on recidivism, and to investigate the relationships between these dimensions in prisoners with and without Antisocial Personality Disorder. The forensic sample included inmates with (n = 50) or without Antisocial Personality Disorder (n = 50). We measured psychopathic traits with the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM), impulsivity with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and aggression with the Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale (IPAS). There were significant between-group differences regarding premeditated aggression and attentional impulsivity. For inmates with antisocial personality disorder, impulsive aggression was related to recidivism (number of times in jail). Their level of psychopathy was related to premeditated aggression and motor impulsivity. Impulsive aggression, like attentional impulsivity, was related to recidivism only for inmates with antisocial personality disorder. In conclusion, psychopathy is associated with recidivism; moreover, impulsivity and aggression are central to recidivism for these individuals.
  • Negotiating in the skies of Hong Kong: The efficacy of the Behavioral
           Influence Stairway Model (BISM) in suicidal crisis situations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Gregory M. Vecchi, Gilbert K.H. Wong, Paul W.C. Wong, Mary Ann Markey Law enforcement agencies often deal with dangerous, difficult, and disordered individuals by applying the theory and practice of tactical negotiation composed of a unique application of communication techniques aimed at obtaining voluntary compliance. Known as hostage or crisis negotiation, law enforcement tactical negotiation (LETN) has shown to be an effective technique for resolving barricaded hostage and crisis situations, kidnappings, and suicidal incidents. Over the years, there have been several models of LETN, however; most of them are based on the assumption that the person is rational and views the officer as credible; however, in situations where people are in crisis, emotions control their actions rather than reason. Therefore, being successful requires the officer to return the subject to a rational state of mind and establish trust. If either of these, elements are missing, then traditional negotiation will most likely fail in gaining voluntary compliance in a timely manner. This is especially true with suicidal persons who have exceeded their ability to cope with their situation and believe that no one will help them. The Behavioral Influence Stairway Model (BISM) operates on the premise that a state of personal crisis occurs when coping and social support mechanisms fail and that to end the crisis, at least one of these elements must be restored. In these situations, the BISM provides the method by which the officer re-establishes social support through effectively dealing with emotions (thus returning the individual to a rational state of mind) and demonstrating empathy (thus obtaining trust).In Hong Kong, the Police Negotiation Cadre (PNC) routinely deals with a unique form of suicide where persons in crisis frequently choose jumping off high-rise buildings as their preferred means of suicide. Unlike in the United States, where a significant number of suicides involve barricaded individuals with firearms, most LETN in Hong Kong is accomplished face-to-face, since officer safety relating to firearms is atypical. Despite these differences in structure, culture, and language, the BISM is routinely used to successfully resolve suicidal situations in Hong Kong, based on the theory that emotions and relationship needs are universal and not contingent on context. Therefore, this article will present an updated version of the BISM and extend the principles of the BISM cross-culturally by providing evidence of its efficacy in negotiating with suicidal persons who threaten to jump from multi-story buildings in Hong Kong.
  • The role of infant socialization and self-control in understanding
           reactive-overt and relational aggression: A 15-year study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Alexander T. Vazsonyi, Magda Javakhishvili The present study employed parallel analyses to develop a greater understanding of the relationships between infant socialization (maternal sensitivity and home quality), early childhood self-control (attentional focusing, inhibitory control, gratification delay, and self-control), and measures of reactive-overt and relational aggression, assessed from ages 8.5 to 15 years. Self-reported, mother reported, and observational data were employed from a national sample of N = 1364 children (the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care and Youth Development Study). Findings provided evidence that positive infant socialization during the first two years of life positively predicted self-control that in turn negatively predicted both reactive-overt and relational aggression at age 8.5 years. In addition, socialization effects also maintained positive direct effects on continued developmental changes in both measures of aggression at age 10.5 years (relational), 11.5 years (reactive-overt and relational), and 15 years (reactive-overt and relational). Self-control negatively predicted developmental changes in both measures of aggression at 11.5 years. These findings highlight the long-term developmental effects of positive infant socialization experiences for the developmental course of reactive-overt and relational aggression, but also the salience of self-regulatory capacities in understanding the etiology of and ongoing developmental changes of aggressive behaviors.
  • A life history approach to understanding juvenile offending and aggression
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Cortney Simmons, Zachary Rowan, Alissa Knowles, Laurence Steinberg, Paul J. Frick, Elizabeth Cauffman Life history theory has been used to understand how harsh and unpredictable environments contribute to risk behaviors. The theory suggests that exposure to negative environments leads individuals to adopt a “fast” life strategy, which is hypothesized to make individuals more likely to engage in risky behavior that is associated with immediate rewards. Using data from a sample of 1216 justice-involved male youth, we defined distinct groups of youth with a “fast” versus “slow” life strategy, based on their scores on measures of sensation seeking, impulse control, future orientation, consideration of others, and suppression of aggression. A logistic regression was used to test how different environmental factors predicted LH strategy group membership. Having a fast strategy was associated with greater victimization, higher parental hostility, and lower quality home environments. Growth curve models were used to examine group differences in offending and aggression over five years. Youth with a fast life strategy engaged in more violent and non-violent offending, as well as more relational and physical aggression. Although there were significant decreases in these behaviors within both groups over the five years, these group differences remained consistent over time.
  • Government political structure and violent death rates: A longitudinal
           analysis of forty-three countries, 1960–2008
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Phillip Marotta, Bandy X. Lee, Morkeh Blay-Tofey, Clara H. Kim, Kelsey K. Schuder, Grace Lee, James Gilligan ObjectivesCurrently, little is known regarding the effect of regime type on mortality on a global level. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of regime type on the rates of violent deaths (homicide, suicide, and combined rates).MethodsThree measures of democracy were used to quantify regime type, the independent variable. Homicide and suicide rates were obtained from the World Health Organization. Multivariate conditional fixed-effects models were run to examine associations between regime characteristics and logged rates of homicide, suicide, and violent deaths. Models were adjusted for unemployment and economic inequality.ResultsNations that scored higher on democracy indices, especially emerging democracies, experienced increased mortality due to violence. Homicide and suicide were divergent, showing a different time course and decreasing statistical power as a combined variable. Unemployment and inequality were associated with higher violence-related mortality.ConclusionsHomicide and suicide appear to be more prevalent in democracies. Future analyses should examine which aspects of democracies lead to higher rates of violent death and should seek to use independently collected mortality data.
  • Special issue introduction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Alex R. Piquero
  • Violence and health: Merging criminal justice, law, mental health, and
           public health - Part B: Policy and institutional actors as nexuses for
           criminal justice and public health
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Bandy X. Lee, Grace Lee, Paul Bryant, Morkeh Blay-Tofey, Erik Kramer
  • Childhood risk factors for personality disorder symptoms related to
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Kim Reising, David P. Farrington, Maria M. Ttofi, Alex R. Piquero, Jeremy W. Coid ObjectivesThis study investigated the relations between childhood risk factors, adult personality disorder symptoms, and violence convictions up to age 61.MethodData was used from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a prospective longitudinal study of 411 males from South London who were regularly interviewed between ages 8 and 48. In this sample, childhood risk factors were assessed, along with DSM-IV Axis-II personality disorders, and violence convictions.ResultsFindings confirm and extend previous results indicating associations between several different personality disorder symptoms and violence. Particularly, symptoms of cluster A and cluster B personality disorders at age 48 were most strongly associated with lifetime violent acts. Results also support the hypothesis that adult personality disorder symptoms are predicted by exposure to childhood traumatic experiences, including family breakdown, parental neglect, and physical as well as emotional abuse.ConclusionFamilies and schools seem to be particularly crucial environments which may influence the development of personality disorders and behavioral problems such as violence. More prospective longitudinal studies are needed to further disentangle the complex interactions between psychosocial family factors, personality disorders and violent behavior and to further explore their underlying mechanisms in order to inform more effective intervention programs.
  • Truancy intervention and violent offending: Evidence from a randomized
           controlled trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Stephanie M. Cardwell, Lorraine Mazerolle, Alex R. Piquero Violent offending and violent offenders occupy a key policy issue and policy group for prevention and intervention efforts. Research has examined an array of risk factors implicated in predicting violent offending, but interventions aimed at reducing these risk factors and their effect on violence have been less investigated, especially those within a randomized trial. We use data from a truancy reduction experiment in Australia to examine whether participants in the program, relative to a control group, enjoyed ancillary benefits related to the relationship between risk factors and violence. Results provide partial support in that the program weakened the effects of some of the risk factors on violence over time, but not all of the risk factors. Findings also show that the probability of violence was higher in the control group relative to the experimental group when looking at the cumulative social risk factors. Implications and directions for future research are highlighted.
  • The propensity for aggressive behavior and lifetime incarceration risk: A
           test for gene-environment interaction (G × E) using whole-genome data
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 July 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): J.C. Barnes, Hexuan Liu, Ryan T. Motz, Peter T. Tanksley, Rachel Kail, Amber L. Beckley, Daniel W. Belsky, Benjamin W. Domingue, Terrie E. Moffitt, Travis C. Pratt, Jasmin Wertz Incarceration is a disruptive event that is experienced by a considerable proportion of the United States population. Research has identified social factors that predict incarceration risk, but scholars have called for a focus on the ways that individual differences combine with social factors to affect incarceration risk. Our study is an initial attempt to heed this call using whole-genome data. We use data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (N = 6716) to construct a genome-wide measure of genetic propensity for aggressive behavior and use it to predict lifetime incarceration risk. We find that participants with a higher genetic propensity for aggression are more likely to experience incarceration, but the effect is stronger for males than females. Importantly, we identify a gene-environment interaction (G × E)—genetic propensity is reduced, substantively and statistically, to a non-significant predictor for males raised in homes where at least one parent graduated high school. We close by placing these findings in the broader context of concerns that have been raised about genetics research in criminology.
  • Assessing general strain theory and measures of victimization,
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 June 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Nina Barbieri, Stephen J. Clipper, Chelsey Narvey, Amanda Rude, Jessica M. Craig, Nicole Leeper Piquero General Strain Theory (GST) is one of the leading theories of crime and delinquency in the field of criminology, with victimization identified as a leading source of strain due to the frequency and prevalence of its experience. However, measures of victimization widely range from direct experiences of physical violence to vicarious or even anticipated victimization, making it difficult to isolate the explanatory contribution of GST on crime and delinquency. A systematic review was conducted of peer-reviewed articles to provide a concise understanding of the relationship between victimization and crime and delinquency. Particular attention was given to definitions and operationalization of victimization, as well as whether the studies used longitudinal or cross-sectional samples. Findings suggest a discernible correlation between physical victimization measures and engagement in substance use, bullying behaviors, and general delinquency. However, these findings may be conditioned by the exact operationalization of victimization and outcome measures utilized. More nuanced discussions of the findings, as well as theoretical and empirical implications, are included.
  • Dynamic risk factors: Conceptualization, measurement, and evidence
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Roxanne Heffernan, Daniel Wegerhoff, Tony Ward The concept of “criminogenic need” is firmly entrenched within forensic research and practice. So much so that its status is rarely questioned, and its central role in risk reduction and management is accepted at face value. However, the analogue concept of dynamic risk factor (DRF) has recently come under scrutiny, with criticisms centering upon its composite nature and lack of coherence. These criticisms challenge the presumed causality of these factors, and thus their role in practice. In order to test this assumption this paper addresses three questions: 1) how are DRF conceptualized within the recent literature' 2) How are they measured' 3) What is the evidence that they a) change, b) that these changes predict outcomes (i.e., reduced recidivism), and c) that treatment targeting DRF influences this process' The answers can provide support for or cast doubt upon the status of DRF in the prediction and explanation of offending.
  • Continuity of the delinquent career behind bars: Predictors of violent
           misconduct among female delinquents
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Jessica M. Craig, Chad R. Trulson While many scholars have investigated potential predictors of institutional misconduct among adult inmates, few have assessed the determinants of misconduct among incarcerated juvenile delinquents. This lack of research attention to the predictors of institutional misconduct is especially notable among female delinquents. As females have been theorized to have unique pathways to offending, it is pertinent to examine their pathways to institutional misconduct. The current study investigates potential predictors of violent misconduct among a large sample (n = 1061) of state-committed serious female delinquents in a large southern state. Using negative binomial regression models, a large number of variables were examined that describe the youths' background, delinquency history, and commitment offense. While only a few individual-level factors such as poor mental health predicted violent misconduct, a larger number of delinquent history measures such as committing a violent offense and being sentenced to a blended sentence emerged as important predictors of involvement in violent institutional misconduct. Policy implications and limitations of the study are also discussed.
  • Parental supervision and later offending: A systematic review of
           longitudinal studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): India M.L. Flanagan, Katherine M. Auty, David P. Farrington Parental supervision has been identified as an important influence on offending. This systematic review focuses specifically on parental supervision, compared to existing systematic reviews which tend to concentrate on a wider range of family factors. The main aim of this article is to assess the precise nature of the association between parental supervision and offending. Overall, 19 prospective longitudinal studies were identified (published since 1996) which met the inclusion criteria. The results show a weighted mean effect size (ES) of Cohen's d = 0.37 between parental supervision and later offending. This review discovered that studies use different types of behavior to define parental supervision. Interestingly, a larger weighted mean effect size (d = 0.45) was found for studies measuring ‘level of parental knowledge’ compared to studies measuring ‘child disclosure to parents’ (d = 0.33) or ‘parental rule setting’ (d = 0.14). The results suggest that the strength of social bonds is important for enabling parents to maintain high levels of knowledge. Prevention programs should aim to develop robust channels of communication that increase parental knowledge regarding the activities of their children. Future research should also clarify the definition of parental supervision, in order to make it possible to compare different studies of parenting.
  • A systematic literature review of intimate partner violence victimisation:
           An inclusive review across gender and sexuality
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 47Author(s): Philippa Laskey, Elizabeth A. Bates, Julie C. Taylor The traditional view of intimate partner violence (IPV) is that the perpetrator is male and the victim is female (Dobash, Dobash, Wilson & Daly, 1992). As a result of this, most research into victimisation experiences appears to be conducted with female victims of IPV (Morin, 2014), and research with male victims, and victims from the LGBTQ+ community is less common. The main aim of the current research was to conduct a systematic literature review to synthesise the literature base of IPV victimisation experiences to ascertain how abuse is experienced, and the effects of that abuse. The secondary aim was to investigate the prevalence of different victim groups, across gender and sexuality, in current research studies. The review highlighted that victims of IPV experience several different types of abuse and the negative mental and physical health outcomes associated with that abuse are significant. Additionally, it was found that the large majority of research studies included in the review were conducted with female victims in opposite-sex relationships, and were quantitative and cross-sectional in nature. The implications of these findings are discussed and suggestions for future research are put forward.
  • Peers as Law Enforcement Support (PALS): An early prevention program
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Vincent B. Van Hasselt, Kristin E. Klimley, Samantha Rodriguez, Maureen Themis-Fernandez, Sarah N. Henderson, Barry A. Schneider Police officers encounter a variety of stressors, most of which are unique to the profession. These can exact a toll on an officer's mental health, and leave them at increased risk for experiencing psychological problems. However, due to stigma surrounding mental health, as well as traditional law enforcement culture, many officers find it difficult to report, or seek help for, difficulties due to fear of repercussions and/or distrust. Consequently, the potential value of incorporating trained peers as a “first line of defense” has received increased attention. This article describes the Peers as Law Enforcement Support (PALS) program developed in a collaboration between a local police agency and University psychology department. Results of a pilot study evaluating participants' perspectives on course content and quality of instruction are presented. Finally, the need for a broad spectrum approach to prevention and intervention of mental health issues in officers is underscored.
  • Preventing violence against children at schools in resource-poor
           environments: Operational culture as an overarching entry point
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Dipak Naker This paper articulates a case for prioritizing prevention of violence against children (VAC) at schools in resource poor environments of developing countries. The first section makes a broad case for why it is important to focus on schools as an entry point for preventing VAC. The second section discusses how the whole school approaches prevalent in developed nations such as Positive Behavioral Intervention Support (PBIS) can be adapted and contextualized for resource poor environments. The paper delineates between school climate and the operational culture of a school and discusses why practical approaches tend to address the latter. The final section of the paper discusses an evidence-based example of such an approach; the Good School Toolkit for preventing VAC at schools in resource poor environments. The paper concludes by articulating strategic considerations to bear in mind when designing such interventions.
  • Tracking narrative change in the context of extremism and terrorism:
           Adapting the Innovative Moments Coding System
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Raquel da Silva, Pablo Fernández-Navarro, Miguel M. Gonçalves, Catarina Rosa, Joana Silva Existing models of deradicalisation, countering violent extremism (CVE), and counter-terrorism (CT) have lacked a clear theory of change, as well as robust empirical methodologies. This paper proposes an empirically-based systematic and transparent methodology – the Innovative Moments Coding System (IMCS) – which is empirically sensitive, ethically defensible, and can be of use in the context of research to inform practitioner contexts. Through a case study of former violent militants, we explore the adaptation and usage of this instrument to identify and track self-narrative change in the processes of engagement and disengagement, as well as radicalisation and deradicalisation in the context of violent extremism and terrorism. We illustrate how this methodology has the potential to bring benefits to the work of researchers involved in producing guidelines for disengagement, deradicalisation or risk-reduction interventions.
  • Juvenile Firesetters as multiple problem youth with particular interests
           in fire: A meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Danielle L.C. Perks, Bruce D. Watt, Katarina Fritzon, Rebekah Doley Juveniles are overrepresented among arson offenders, though previous research has been mixed in identifying key risk factors differentiating juvenile firesetters from youth who do not light unsanctioned fires. The current meta-analysis examined all published and available unpublished research over a 30-year period, examining risk and protective factors associated with youth firesetting. Control groups comprised youth living in the community, forensic samples, and clinic referred youth. Across 39 independent samples with 22,292 juveniles, fire specific variables yielded the strongest differentiation between firesetters and non-firesetters, particularly history of fire involvement and fire interest. Juvenile firesetters had significantly more extensive histories of problematic behaviours, experienced adverse familial events, elevated rates of emotional dysregulation, and greater prevalence of mental health disorders compared to youth not involved in firesetting. Protective factors were less often identified for firesetters compared to non-firesetters. The findings highlight juvenile firesetters often experience multiple problems, magnified by a history of interest and involvement in firesetting. Hence, interventions with juvenile firesetters need to target multiple problem areas while assisting youth to redirecting interests towards non-antisocial pursuits. Caution is noted in interpreting the findings, with significant heterogeneity identified for most effect sizes across studies.
  • Moving beyond prison rape: Assessing sexual victimization among youth in
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Eileen M. Ahlin This integrated literature review discusses the need to treat youth in custody distinctly from adult carceral populations when examining sexual victimization. Although the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) mandates correctional facilities address sexual assault in both populations, the lack of available information on risk factors among youth may lead to practitioners and policy-makers becoming reliant on the adult literature when making decisions on preventative and reactive care for juveniles. Such extrapolation may lead to an inadequate or even inappropriate response for youth in custody. A research agenda using an ecological framework to determine youth-specific individual and structural level risk factors is proposed. Findings demonstrate differences in sexual victimization risk factors for adults in jails and prisons compared to youth in custody. This review serves as a foundation for moving research on this topic to juvenile custody settings while also acknowledging the challenges associated with conducting such research among youth in custody.
  • Neurobiological findings of the psychopathic personality in adults: One
           century of history
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Diana Moreira, Andreia Azeredo, Fernando Barbosa This review intends to produce a historical overview of the psychobiological bases of psychopathy from the first studies using biological or neuropsychological measures up to the present state of knowledge. The reviewed studies were retrieved from multiple databases, following the procedures of the Cochrane Collaboration. Of the 205 documents obtained, 49 were selected for further analysis and 31 were considered eligible for inclusion. Furthermore, eight studies were included through manual search. The objectives, sample (age, percentage of male, type of sample), country of origin of the studies, language, design, instruments, and results and main conclusions were extracted from each study. Overall, the results reinforce the idea that psychopathic traits are associated with abnormalities in the way the brain processes environmental emotional information, and that the fundamental cognitive properties related to attention maintain or worsen these abnormalities. In some cases, changes in attention explain, by themselves, the abnormalities in emotional processing. Future studies using neurophysiological paradigms would be a great asset to help differentiate, at a neurocognitive level, the personality structures characterized by pronounced antisocial behavior, in order to improve the understanding of their heterogeneous etiologies.
  • Measures for evaluating sex trafficking aftercare and support services: A
           systematic review and resource compilation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Laurie M. Graham, Rebecca J. Macy, Amanda Eckhardt, Cynthia F. Rizo, Brooke L. Jordan Increasingly, organizations are providing services to promote the resilience and reintegration of persons trafficked for sexual exploitation. Unfortunately, services for survivors of trafficking have out-paced the evaluation of such services. However, formative studies exist on the needs and service outcomes of survivors of trafficking. We undertook a systematic summary of such studies with the aim of compiling the measures and constructs used in this literature. Of the 53 studies reviewed, 22 studies named 34 published measures used to collect data regarding survivors' coping; physical, mental, sexual, and reproductive health; substance use; social support; trafficking-related needs, strengths, and outcomes; and trauma and abuse experiences. Additionally, to gather information on constructs of interest, 18 of the 22 studies included supplemental questions that were not part of a specific measure. Results show sex trafficking research is strongly focused on the physical and mental health needs and service outcomes of survivors. Few studies incorporate holistic views of well-being. Moreover, measures used with this population often have not been tested with survivors of trafficking. We recommend testing measures with this population, conducting holistic assessment of the needs and outcomes of survivors of sex trafficking, and developing tailored measures for various subgroups within this diverse population.
  • Predicting domestic violence: A meta-analysis on the predictive validity
           of risk assessment tools
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Claudia E. van der Put, Jeanne Gubbels, Mark Assink Risk assessment tools are increasingly being used to guide decisions about supervision and treatment of domestic violence perpetrators. However, earlier review studies showed that the predictive validity of most of these tools is limited, and is reflected in small average effect sizes. The present study aimed to meta-analytically examine the predictive validity of domestic violence risk assessment tools, and to identify tool characteristics that positively moderate the predictive validity. A literature search yielded 50 independent studies (N = 68,855) examining the predictive validity of 39 different tools, of which 205 effect sizes could be extracted. Overall, a significant discriminative accuracy was found (AUC = 0.647), indicating a moderate predictive accuracy. Tools specifically developed for assessing the risk of domestic violence performed as well as risk predictions based on victim ratings and tools designed for predicting general/violent criminal recidivism. Actuarial instruments (AUC = 0.657) outperformed Structured Clinical Judgment (SCJ) tools (AUC = 0.580) in predicting domestic violence. The onset of domestic violence (AUC = 0.744) could be better predicted than recurrence of domestic violence (AUC = 0.643), which is a promising finding for early detection and prevention of domestic violence. Suggestions for the improvement of risk assessment strategies are presented.
  • The conceptualization of gangs: Changing the focus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 March 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Daniel Wegerhoff, Louise Dixon, Tony Ward Discussions about the gang construct and appropriate definitions have been pervasive throughout gang research. This paper seeks to shed light on these discussions by adopting a theoretical perspective to examine the suitability of ‘gangs’ as a target of explanation and the appropriateness of current definitional approaches. First, we examine the validity and utility of the gang construct. It is concluded that the gang label has poor construct validity and limited explanatory utility, thereby making it unsuitable for theoretical purposes. Instead, we suggest that researchers need to focus on what gangs are at a foundational level, namely groups, and that the group should be the target of explanation. Second, we consider the limitations of gang definitions for theory construction and instead offer a method known as three-tier analysis to comprehensively conceptualize groups without discussions of necessary and sufficient definitional boundaries. Finally, we produce a framework based on these findings and demonstrate how it facilitates understanding of a specific gang exemplar. In doing so, we bypass several theoretical roadblocks obstructing gang research and advance a way to explain the group and (by extension) gangs, thus improving our understanding of groups and gangs with the purpose of ultimately informing practice and policy initiatives.
  • The role of media exposure on relational aggression: A meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Nicole Martins, Andrew Weaver We conducted a meta-analysis of 33 studies that examined the effects of media exposure on relationally aggressive behaviors and cognitions (a total of 66 effect sizes, N = (20,990). Across all types of aggressive content, there was a small positive effect (r = 0.15) on relational aggression. However, a comparison of effects sizes demonstrate that exposure to relational aggression had the strongest effect (r = 0.21), whereas exposure to non-specific media content had the weakest effect (r = 0.08). Exposure to physical aggression fell in the middle of the two content types (r = 0.15). Potential explanations for these effects as well as moderators that could influence the results are considered, and the practical implications of these findings are discussed.
  • Associations between individual-level characteristics and exposure to
           physically violent behavior among young people experiencing homelessness:
           A meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Jessica A. Heerde, Sheryl A. Hemphill Risk factor reduction approaches may decrease exposure to violence among young people experiencing homelessness. This study presents a meta-analysis exploring associations between characteristics of young people experiencing homelessness (individual-level factors) and exposure to physically violent behavior, both as perpetrators and as victims. A series of meta-analyses using random effects models were conducted, examining 426 effect sizes, calculated from findings across 26 studies. Data were analyzed from 8842 homeless young people, aged 13–26 years from North America. Individual-level factors were significantly associated with both perpetration of physically violent behavior (OR 4.87, p 
  • Versatility and exploratory psychometric properties of the
           Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale (IPAS): A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Ana Rita Cruz, Andreia de Castro-Rodrigues, Brian Rundle, Ioannisely Berrios-Torres, Rui Abrunhosa Gonçalves, Fernando Barbosa, Matthew S. Stanford Aggression has different conceptualizations and can be behaviorally expressed in diverse ways. Designed to evaluate impulsive and premeditated forms of aggression, the Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale (IPAS; Stanford et al., 2003) is a 30 item self-report questionnaire. The aim of the present study was to explore IPAS versatility in different psychological settings by reviewing and examining the exploratory psychometric properties of the IPAS impulsive and premeditated subscales, across different samples and cultural backgrounds. Fifty-two articles including demographic or psychometric information (internal consistency, factor analysis, validity, reliability) were retrieved. It is suggested that the IPAS is reliable across different cultures, samples and scoring techniques. The two subscales (Impulsive and Premeditated) show acceptable internal consistency. Also, IPAS factors seem to be constant both in clinical and non-clinical samples. The IPAS appears to be a clinically useful instrument for differentiating between subtypes of aggressive behavior, to support risk assessment evaluations, pretrial decisions and better treatment and rehabilitation strategies in offenders and clinical relevant samples.
  • Aggression among men: An integrated evolutionary explanation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): John Klasios This paper develops an integrated theoretical explanation of aggression among men, showing that much of that aggression is anchored in naturally-selected psychological adaptations—or, in the case of honor, importantly tied to cultural transmission—designed to solve the recurrent evolutionary problems of status and honor. Both of these problems are—or at least were—very crucial to the reproductive success of men. Maintaining and cultivating honor, engaging in theft, mating competition, war, and gangs are the main phenomena thereby explained in evolutionary terms. Drawing on theoretical and conceptual resources from the evolutionary sciences at large, and in particular evolutionary psychology, the explanation developed here also and importantly pulls together the psychological, developmental, cultural, and ecological dimensions of the phenomena at issue. Doing so allows the model to sketch the ways in which the psychological adaptations underlying aggression are sensitive to both external and individual contingencies and thereby open-ended and flexible. The evolutionary model developed here draws an additional strength from its ability to grapple with evolutionarily novel environments and individual differences. Finally, the integrated explanation is also synthesized with the evolutionary genetics and heritability of aggression.
  • Socially accepted violence by “agents of law”: Sublimation of
           aggression as a model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Efrat Even-tzur, Uri Hadar As part of their duty, police officers sometime use electro-shock weapons in order to restrain violent behaviors; prison guards use physical force to restrict convicted felons' freedom of movement; staff members of forensic psychiatric units sometime use physical restraining means on dangerous patients. Such actions are sometimes criticized, but in other instances, when they do not exceed reasonable use of power, they may be perceived as appropriate and expected of the aforementioned officials.Now would it be accurate to claim that even when following regulations, such acts involve expressions of aggression' Would it be an overstatement to ascribe the term “violence” to them, customary and accepted as they may be in their institutional and social context' These questions raise even additional difficulties regarding the use of force by law-enforcement agents: do their actions produce significant psychological implications' Could these uses of physical force potentially elicit unique anxieties that require unique coping mechanisms'The core of the difficulty, we suggest, lies in the intricacies of the topic of socially accepted violence. The intention of this paper is to propose a psychoanalytic exploration of this complicated problem, and to examine how the Freudian idea of sublimation of aggression contributes to its understanding.
  • The Connection's approach: A model for integrating criminal justice,
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Bandy Lee, David Sells, Jacob Hasson, Michele Klimczak, Charles Barber At a time when societal problems and systems are becoming increasingly complex, a state-wide human services agency in Connecticut, called “The Connection,” has adopted a human approach to care. Far from being impractical or irrelevant, we have found this philosophy to be at the core of its success, which has the potential to inform similar agencies worldwide. At a time in the U.S. when most agencies are reducing their services and trying merely to survive in a climate of little concern for disadvantaged populations, The Connection has been expanding and thriving while taking care of the sickest, the neediest, and the most high-risk populations. It addresses social challenges at the most basic level, “making connections” between criminal justice, mental health, and social support services through a simplification of principles that allows for their integration. In this article, we review the elements that have led to its efficacy, the scientific support for it, and potential pitfalls.
  • Biosocial studies of antisocial behavior: A systematic review of
           interactions between peri/prenatal complications, psychophysiological
           parameters, and social risk factors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Babette C.M. van Hazebroek, Hilde Wermink, Lieke van Domburgh, Jan W. de Keijser, Machteld Hoeve, Arne Popma In order to reduce antisocial behavior (ASB) and associated individual and societal problems, insight into determinants of ASB is warranted. Increasing efforts have been made to combine biological and social factors in explaining antisocial development. Two types of biological parameters have been studied vastly and provide the most compelling evidence for associations between biosocial interaction and ASB: peri/prenatal complications and psychophysiological parameters. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize empirical evidence on interactions between these biological measures and social risk factors in predicting ASB. In doing so, we aimed to (1) examine whether specific peri/prenatal and psychophysiological measures composite a vulnerability to social risk and increase risk for specific types of ASB, and (2) evaluate the application of divergent biosocial theoretical models. Based on a total of 50 studies (documented in 66 publications), associations between biological parameters and ASB were generally found to be stronger in the context of adverse social environments. In addition, associations between biosocial interaction and ASB were stronger for more severe and violent types of ASB. Further, in the context of social risk, under-arousal was associated with proactive aggression, while over-arousal was associated with reactive aggression. Empirical findings are discussed in terms of distinct biosocial theoretical perspectives that aim to explain ASB and important unresolved empirical issues are outlined.
  • Effect of perceived parent child relations on adjustment of young women
           exposed to mutual intimate partner violence during childhood
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): P. Duval, M. Pietri, E. Bouteyre ObjectiveWe sought to show that the adjustment of young women who witnessed mutual intimate partner violence (IPV) as children is influenced by their current perceptions of relations with their parents.MethodOur sample comprised 793 young female French university students, 623 of whom had been exposed to IPV during childhood. Of these, 289 had witnessed severe violence and 334 minor violence. All participants completed an online battery assessing perceived IPV (CTS2-CA), perceived parent-child relations (QERPE), predisposition to aggression (Aggression Questionnaire), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (HADS).ResultsResults revealed that young women with IPV exposure exhibited a higher level of anxiety than those with no such exposure, and perceived their relations with their parents more negatively. Those who had witnessed severe, as opposed to minor, violence displayed higher levels of anxiety, depression and aggression. They also had more negative perceptions of their relations with their parents. More generally, perceived maternal rejection was a decisive factor for the presence of internalizing and/or externalizing problems among participants with IPV exposure.ConclusionWhere there is a history of mutual IPV, the quality of parent-child relations has a major impact on young women's adjustment. We discuss the study's limitations, as well as prospects for future research.
  • Public health problems associated with “boda boda” motorcycle Taxis in
           Kenya: The sting of inequality
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Kennedy Mkutu, Tessa Rhodes Mkutu
  • Efficacy of different versions of Aggression Replacement Training (ART): A
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Faride Ensafdaran, Barbara Krahé, Soodabe Bassak Njad, Nasrin Arshadi Aggression Replacement Training (ART) is a multimodal intervention for chronically aggressive youth. The program has been frequently administered in a variety of samples in the original form or in modified versions. This review examines evaluations of the efficacy of ART on aggressive behaviors and secondary outcomes in young people and adults, including modifications of ART and evaluations of the original version not covered by earlier reviews.MethodScholarly databases were searched to identify 10 articles reporting 11 independent studies evaluating the efficacy ART in reducing aggressive behavior and improving anger control, social skills, and moral reasoning in children and youth.ResultsThe majority of studies found positive effects of ART on aggression and other outcomes related to anger control, social skills, and moral reasoning. However, most studies were based on small samples, and few included a control group to evaluate intervention success.ConclusionsThe studies reviewed in this paper tentatively suggest that ART is an efficacious intervention to reduce aggressive behavior and improve anger control, social skills, and moral reasoning in at-risk children and youth. However, this conclusion is qualified by a number of methodological limitations that highlight the need for further, more rigorous evaluation studies.
  • Ethical loneliness and the development of a victim-focused approach to
           rape cases in South Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Sheena Swemmer In this article, I focus on the rape trial of the former South African president, Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma. I have chosen this specific case as it was extensively documented, both in the media and academically, with the main focus being on how the court had relied on gender-stereotyping in coming to its conclusion that the accused was not guilty as well as the degrading onslaught the victim experienced by communities around her. I look at the court's reliance on evidence of previous sexual history in finding that the complainant (Khwezi) was, in fact, an unreliable witness. I endeavour to show how the reliance of the court on rape stereotypes can be humiliating, degrading and one of the causes of secondary victimisation. I argue that Khwezi's harmful experience of the criminal justice system is common to many victims in rape cases. I then proceed to argue that the experience of Khwezi (and many other rape survivors) can be described as what Stauffer calls, ‘ethical loneliness’. As one outlet for this loneliness, I suggest the development of the South African criminal law, which can be applied to criminal law universally, to shift the focus of rape trials from being accused-focused to victim-focused. Through this process, I argue, that law can begin to influence change in the reluctance of society to hear the story of rape survivors and help to create a safe space in communities for survivors to be heard.
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