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Aggression and Violent Behavior
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.238
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 463  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1359-1789
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Associations between individual-level characteristics and exposure to
           physically violent behavior among young people experiencing homelessness:
           A meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Jessica A. Heerde, Sheryl A. Hemphill Risk factor reduction approaches may decrease exposure to violence among young people experiencing homelessness. This study presents a meta-analysis exploring associations between characteristics of young people experiencing homelessness (individual-level factors) and exposure to physically violent behavior, both as perpetrators and as victims. A series of meta-analyses using random effects models were conducted, examining 426 effect sizes, calculated from findings across 26 studies. Data were analyzed from 8842 homeless young people, aged 13–26 years from North America. Individual-level factors were significantly associated with both perpetration of physically violent behavior (OR 4.87, p 
  • Versatility and exploratory psychometric properties of the
           Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale (IPAS): A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Ana Rita Cruz, Andreia de Castro-Rodrigues, Brian Rundle, Ioannisely Berrios-Torres, Rui Abrunhosa Gonçalves, Fernando Barbosa, Matthew S. Stanford Aggression has different conceptualizations and can be behaviorally expressed in diverse ways. Designed to evaluate impulsive and premeditated forms of aggression, the Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale (IPAS; Stanford et al., 2003) is a 30 item self-report questionnaire. The aim of the present study was to explore IPAS versatility in different psychological settings by reviewing and examining the exploratory psychometric properties of the IPAS impulsive and premeditated subscales, across different samples and cultural backgrounds. Fifty-two articles including demographic or psychometric information (internal consistency, factor analysis, validity, reliability) were retrieved. It is suggested that the IPAS is reliable across different cultures, samples and scoring techniques. The two subscales (Impulsive and Premeditated) show acceptable internal consistency. Also, IPAS factors seem to be constant both in clinical and non-clinical samples. The IPAS appears to be a clinically useful instrument for differentiating between subtypes of aggressive behavior, to support risk assessment evaluations, pretrial decisions and better treatment and rehabilitation strategies in offenders and clinical relevant samples.
  • Aggression among men: An integrated evolutionary explanation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): John Klasios This paper develops an integrated theoretical explanation of aggression among men, showing that much of that aggression is anchored in naturally-selected psychological adaptations—or, in the case of honor, importantly tied to cultural transmission—designed to solve the recurrent evolutionary problems of status and honor. Both of these problems are—or at least were—very crucial to the reproductive success of men. Maintaining and cultivating honor, engaging in theft, mating competition, war, and gangs are the main phenomena thereby explained in evolutionary terms. Drawing on theoretical and conceptual resources from the evolutionary sciences at large, and in particular evolutionary psychology, the explanation developed here also and importantly pulls together the psychological, developmental, cultural, and ecological dimensions of the phenomena at issue. Doing so allows the model to sketch the ways in which the psychological adaptations underlying aggression are sensitive to both external and individual contingencies and thereby open-ended and flexible. The evolutionary model developed here draws an additional strength from its ability to grapple with evolutionarily novel environments and individual differences. Finally, the integrated explanation is also synthesized with the evolutionary genetics and heritability of aggression.
  • Socially accepted violence by “agents of law”: Sublimation of
           aggression as a model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Efrat Even-tzur, Uri Hadar As part of their duty, police officers sometime use electro-shock weapons in order to restrain violent behaviors; prison guards use physical force to restrict convicted felons' freedom of movement; staff members of forensic psychiatric units sometime use physical restraining means on dangerous patients. Such actions are sometimes criticized, but in other instances, when they do not exceed reasonable use of power, they may be perceived as appropriate and expected of the aforementioned officials.Now would it be accurate to claim that even when following regulations, such acts involve expressions of aggression' Would it be an overstatement to ascribe the term “violence” to them, customary and accepted as they may be in their institutional and social context' These questions raise even additional difficulties regarding the use of force by law-enforcement agents: do their actions produce significant psychological implications' Could these uses of physical force potentially elicit unique anxieties that require unique coping mechanisms'The core of the difficulty, we suggest, lies in the intricacies of the topic of socially accepted violence. The intention of this paper is to propose a psychoanalytic exploration of this complicated problem, and to examine how the Freudian idea of sublimation of aggression contributes to its understanding.
  • The Connection's approach: A model for integrating criminal justice,
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Bandy Lee, David Sells, Jacob Hasson, Michele Klimczak, Charles Barber At a time when societal problems and systems are becoming increasingly complex, a state-wide human services agency in Connecticut, called “The Connection,” has adopted a human approach to care. Far from being impractical or irrelevant, we have found this philosophy to be at the core of its success, which has the potential to inform similar agencies worldwide. At a time in the U.S. when most agencies are reducing their services and trying merely to survive in a climate of little concern for disadvantaged populations, The Connection has been expanding and thriving while taking care of the sickest, the neediest, and the most high-risk populations. It addresses social challenges at the most basic level, “making connections” between criminal justice, mental health, and social support services through a simplification of principles that allows for their integration. In this article, we review the elements that have led to its efficacy, the scientific support for it, and potential pitfalls.
  • Government political structure and gender differences in violent death: A
           longitudinal analysis of forty-three countries, 1960–2008
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Morkeh Blay-Tofey, Bandy X. Lee, Phillip Marotta, Kelsey K. Schuder, James Gilligan ObjectivesLittle global and longitudinal scholarship exists on the relationship between regime type and mortality on a global level. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of democracy on violent death rates (homicide, suicide, and combined) by gender (men and women).MethodsThree measures of democracy were used to quantify regime type. Homicide and suicide rates were obtained from the World Health Organization. Multi-level regression analyses examined associations between regime characteristics and logged rates of homicide, suicide, and violent deaths. Models were adjusted for unemployment and economic inequality.ResultsNations that scored higher on democracy indices, especially emerging democracies, experienced increased mortality due to violence. Women possessed higher rates of homicide and suicide in democracies compared to men.ConclusionsViolent deaths appear to be more prevalent even in stable democracies, and women are more affected than men. This overturns the common assumption that democracies bring greater equality, and therefore lower death rates over long-term. Future analyses might examine the aspects of democracies that lead to higher rates of violent death so as to help mitigate them.
  • Biosocial studies of antisocial behavior: A systematic review of
           interactions between peri/prenatal complications, psychophysiological
           parameters, and social risk factors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Babette C.M. van Hazebroek, Hilde Wermink, Lieke van Domburgh, Jan W. de Keijser, Machteld Hoeve, Arne Popma In order to reduce antisocial behavior (ASB) and associated individual and societal problems, insight into determinants of ASB is warranted. Increasing efforts have been made to combine biological and social factors in explaining antisocial development. Two types of biological parameters have been studied vastly and provide the most compelling evidence for associations between biosocial interaction and ASB: peri/prenatal complications and psychophysiological parameters. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize empirical evidence on interactions between these biological measures and social risk factors in predicting ASB. In doing so, we aimed to (1) examine whether specific peri/prenatal and psychophysiological measures composite a vulnerability to social risk and increase risk for specific types of ASB, and (2) evaluate the application of divergent biosocial theoretical models. Based on a total of 50 studies (documented in 66 publications), associations between biological parameters and ASB were generally found to be stronger in the context of adverse social environments. In addition, associations between biosocial interaction and ASB were stronger for more severe and violent types of ASB. Further, in the context of social risk, under-arousal was associated with proactive aggression, while over-arousal was associated with reactive aggression. Empirical findings are discussed in terms of distinct biosocial theoretical perspectives that aim to explain ASB and important unresolved empirical issues are outlined.
  • A meta-analysis of the association between psychopathy and sadism in
           forensic samples
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Debra O'Connell, David K. Marcus This meta-analysis examined the association between psychopathic personality traits as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991), and sadism. The PCL-R yields a total score as well as two factor scores. Factor 1 encompasses the interpersonal/affective components of psychopathy such as glibness, and callousness. Factor 2 captures the antisocial behavior aspects of psychopathy including impulsivity, and poor planning abilities. The meta-analysis included 19 independent adult, male forensic samples from 16 articles that included a total of 5161 participants. The average r across all studies for PCL-R total score and sadism was 0.24 (p 
  • The use of pornography and the relationship between pornography exposure
           and sexual offending in males: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Emily Mellor, Simon Duff BackgroundExposure to pornography is common, although research examining the use of pornography, and the relationship between exposure to pornography and offending, is contradictory. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine whether there was an association between pornography exposure and sexual offending in males.MethodA comprehensive search of eight electronic databases was undertaken to systematically identify literature relating to pornography and offending. Reference lists of key journals were hand searched and contact was made with experts in the field to identify any unpublished work. A total of twenty-one studies were included in the review and all were assessed using a quality criteria tool adapted from the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP, 2018).ResultsFrom the twenty-one studies included in the review, studies explored pornography use either prior to or during offending. Studies exploring the effects of pornography assessed recidivism, seriousness of the sexual offence and deviant sexual fantasies. The data synthesis indicated that the impact of pornography on offending is not always negative but that it is complex, particularly due to issues related to defining pornography.ConclusionThe review yielded mixed findings largely due to variations in samples and a lack of agreed definitions for pornography. Recommendations are provided regarding the need for more recent longitudinal studies able to capture any possible changes within the pornography literature and its effect on sexual offenders, and the need for studies that provide specific definitions for pornography.
  • The intersection of violence, brain networks, and mindfulness practices
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 February 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Richard H. Morley, Paul B. Jantz, Cheryl Fulton This paper reviews and discusses the intersection of three brain networks, violence, and mindfulness practices. Research findings suggest that violence and predictors of violence are linked to neurological abnormalities in three interconnected brain networks including the salience network, the executive control network, and the default mode network. This paper also reviews findings which demonstrate that mindfulness practices and a related trait, self-compassion, lead to positive changes in the same brain systems and research results that discuss the use of mindfulness practices and self-compassion as interventions to violence. Future research directions and implications of mindfulness practices, brain networks, and violence are discussed.
  • The lack of social belonging: Reflections on violence against children in
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Nair Teles With the aim of reflecting on violence against children in Mozambique, the Health and Society Research Group (HSRG) at the Department of Sociology, Eduardo Mondlane University, held interviews and conducted focus groups with children and professionals in two cities. The hypothesis of the study is that the lack of social belonging carries within itself a kind of social behaviour that, in general, does not denounce the significant number of violent cases, especially those against the child. This reinforces such acts, allowing them to become normalized.
  • Effect of perceived parent child relations on adjustment of young women
           exposed to mutual intimate partner violence during childhood
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): P. Duval, M. Pietri, E. Bouteyre ObjectiveWe sought to show that the adjustment of young women who witnessed mutual intimate partner violence (IPV) as children is influenced by their current perceptions of relations with their parents.MethodOur sample comprised 793 young female French university students, 623 of whom had been exposed to IPV during childhood. Of these, 289 had witnessed severe violence and 334 minor violence. All participants completed an online battery assessing perceived IPV (CTS2-CA), perceived parent-child relations (QERPE), predisposition to aggression (Aggression Questionnaire), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (HADS).ResultsResults revealed that young women with IPV exposure exhibited a higher level of anxiety than those with no such exposure, and perceived their relations with their parents more negatively. Those who had witnessed severe, as opposed to minor, violence displayed higher levels of anxiety, depression and aggression. They also had more negative perceptions of their relations with their parents. More generally, perceived maternal rejection was a decisive factor for the presence of internalizing and/or externalizing problems among participants with IPV exposure.ConclusionWhere there is a history of mutual IPV, the quality of parent-child relations has a major impact on young women's adjustment. We discuss the study's limitations, as well as prospects for future research.
  • Direct verbal aggression in school settings: A review of the literature
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Daniel V. Poling, Stephen W. Smith, Gregory G. Taylor, Megan M. Worth Overt physical aggression in schools gains the most attention from educational professionals, yet researchers find that verbal aggression (VA) delivered directly is the most prevalent form. Perpetrators who engage in VA can experience a host of negative long-term outcomes and victims often experience anxiety, depression, and even suicide ideation. A review of the current literature about VA is essential to raise awareness of this form of aggression and to develop strategies to mollify its deleterious effects. Thus, the purpose of our review is to explore VA, specifically its prevalence and demographics, internalizing effects, and related risk and protective factors. We also examine student perspectives, school climate and safety, the relationship between academic performance and VA, and current interventions. We discuss future research, including the need to situate conceptually VA processes and cognitive events, mediators and moderators, proximal and distal outcomes of VA, and the need for efficient and effective interventions.
  • Public health problems associated with “boda boda” motorcycle Taxis in
           Kenya: The sting of inequality
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Kennedy Mkutu, Tessa Rhodes Mkutu
  • Capturing violence in the night-time economy: A review of established and
           emerging methodologies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Richard Philpot, Lasse Suonperä Liebst, Kim Kristian Møller, Marie Rosenkrantz Lindegaard, Mark Levine Night-time economy (NTE) leisure zones, while providing local economic growth and positive social experiences, are hotspots for urban public violence. Research aimed at better understanding and thus reducing this violence has employed a range of empirical methods: official records, self-reports, experiments, and observational techniques. In this paper, we review the applications of these methodologies for analyzing NTE violence on key research dimensions, including mapping incidents across time and space; interpreting the motivations and meaning of violence; identifying social psychological background variables and health consequences; and the ability to examine mid-violent interactions. Further, we assess each method in terms of reliability, validity, and the potential for establishing causal claims. We demonstrate that there are fewer and less established methodologies available for examining the interactional dynamics of NTE violence. Using real-life NTE bystander intervention as a case example, we argue that video-based behavioral analysis is a promising method to address this gap. Given the infancy and relative lack of exposure of the video observational method, we provide recommendations for scholars interested in adopting this technique.
  • Efficacy of different versions of Aggression Replacement Training (ART): A
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Faride Ensafdaran, Barbara Krahé, Soodabe Bassak Njad, Nasrin Arshadi Aggression Replacement Training (ART) is a multimodal intervention for chronically aggressive youth. The program has been frequently administered in a variety of samples in the original form or in modified versions. This review examines evaluations of the efficacy of ART on aggressive behaviors and secondary outcomes in young people and adults, including modifications of ART and evaluations of the original version not covered by earlier reviews.MethodScholarly databases were searched to identify 10 articles reporting 11 independent studies evaluating the efficacy ART in reducing aggressive behavior and improving anger control, social skills, and moral reasoning in children and youth.ResultsThe majority of studies found positive effects of ART on aggression and other outcomes related to anger control, social skills, and moral reasoning. However, most studies were based on small samples, and few included a control group to evaluate intervention success.ConclusionsThe studies reviewed in this paper tentatively suggest that ART is an efficacious intervention to reduce aggressive behavior and improve anger control, social skills, and moral reasoning in at-risk children and youth. However, this conclusion is qualified by a number of methodological limitations that highlight the need for further, more rigorous evaluation studies.
  • What role can cognitive neuroscience play in violence prevention'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): R.J.R. Blair A cognitive neuroscience perspective seeks to understand behavior in terms of dysfunction in cognitive processes underpinned by neural processes. There has been an explosion in cognitive neuroscience work, and neuro-scientific work more generally, on violence over the last 20 years, particularly over the last decade. The paper will articulate a position regarding several forms of functional process, and their neural substrates, that, when dysfunctional, increase the risk for different forms of violence. Implications of this work with respect to the development of individualized assessments and treatments will be briefly considered.
  • Ethical loneliness and the development of a victim-focused approach to
           rape cases in South Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Sheena Swemmer In this article, I focus on the rape trial of the former South African president, Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma. I have chosen this specific case as it was extensively documented, both in the media and academically, with the main focus being on how the court had relied on gender-stereotyping in coming to its conclusion that the accused was not guilty as well as the degrading onslaught the victim experienced by communities around her. I look at the court's reliance on evidence of previous sexual history in finding that the complainant (Khwezi) was, in fact, an unreliable witness. I endeavour to show how the reliance of the court on rape stereotypes can be humiliating, degrading and one of the causes of secondary victimisation. I argue that Khwezi's harmful experience of the criminal justice system is common to many victims in rape cases. I then proceed to argue that the experience of Khwezi (and many other rape survivors) can be described as what Stauffer calls, ‘ethical loneliness’. As one outlet for this loneliness, I suggest the development of the South African criminal law, which can be applied to criminal law universally, to shift the focus of rape trials from being accused-focused to victim-focused. Through this process, I argue, that law can begin to influence change in the reluctance of society to hear the story of rape survivors and help to create a safe space in communities for survivors to be heard.
  • Measuring relational aggression in children and adolescents: A systematic
           review of the available instruments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Ioanna Voulgaridou, Constantinos M. Kokkinos Research on relational aggression, defined as behaviors that are used to harm others' relationships, has shown that it is detrimental to children's and adolescents' emotional and social functioning. The main goal of this study is to review the extant relational aggression instruments and provide recommendations for future studies. Emphasis was placed on the measures' conceptual basis as well as on their psychometric properties, referring to reliability (i.e., internal consistency) and validity (i.e., construct and convergent). A systematic literature search between 2005 and May 2018 yielded 89 published studies which were coded on assessed behaviors and participants' as well as on measurement characteristics, such as number of items, information source, scales' reliability and validity. The review includes a variety of different measures that relied on distinct reporters to capture relationally aggressive behaviors. Regarding the conceptual clarification of the construct reflected in the corresponding measures, an inconsistency across studies was detected. Evidence of convergent validity is provided for the majority of the instruments, while very few of the studies investigated the measures' construct validity. Findings demonstrate great variability in measures used to assess relationally aggressive behavior and highlight the need for robust and psychometrically-sound instruments.
  • Hostile attribution bias and aggression in adults - a systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Stéphanie Klein Tuente, Stefan Bogaerts, Wim Veling Human aggression is highly prevalent and has a large impact on the lives of victims and society in general. Causes and mechanisms of aggression are manifold. One prominent component of aggression is the tendency to interpret ambiguous behavior of others as hostile, so called Hostile Attribution Bas (HAB). This systematic review investigated the association between HAB and aggression in adults. PsychInfo, Embase, PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched and 25 studies were included. These studies reported small to medium associations between HAB and aggression in adults. The association was present across different population samples, varying from students to forensic psychiatric patients. As most studies were cross-sectional and HAB measurements varied in quality, conclusions and implications for interventions are preliminary. This review provides an overview of existing research on HAB and aggression in adults, and highlights the importance of longitudinal studies and adequate HAB measurements for future research.
  • Homicide and indigenous peoples in North America: A structural analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Lisa Monchalin, Olga Marques, Charles Reasons, Simranjit Arora Indigenous peoples in Canada and the United States experience high levels of homicide and violence. In fact, the Indigenous homicide rate is the highest of any racial and ethnic group in either country. Of particular concern, is the amount of missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls. While such individual violence has been subject to research in Canada and, to a lesser extent, the United States, most of the literature focuses upon the micro factors to explain such violence. These types of explanations however, largely fail to provide the historical and structural framework for understanding this violence. For instance, the crisis of missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls must not be separated from the structural embeddedness of colonialism and the impacts of patriarchy. While the history of colonialism is usually evoked within the literature to provide context, this paper argues that colonialism is not only a contextual factor to situate individual violence, but rather that the embeddedness of colonialism within the political, economic, and social organization, or structure of society, leads to the continued precarity of Indigenous people to violence and victimization – particularly homicide.
  • To destroy a people: Sexual violence as a form of genocide in the
           conflicts of Bosnia, Rwanda, and Chile
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Rachel A. Sitkin, Bandy X. Lee, Grace Lee Throughout history, attacks on women have been common during armed conflict. Frequently military forces have viewed sexual violence as a spoil of war, a punishment to defeated populations, or as the deviance of rogue soldiers. However, conflicts in which sexual violence has been weaponized have been increasing. When a military force's command utilizes systematic and widespread sexual violence as a weapon of war against a specific group, in both intent and effect, it fulfills every condition of the Geneva Convention standards of genocide. In this article, we analyze three cases: Bosnia during the break-up of the former Yugoslavia, Rwanda during its genocide, and Chile under the Pinochet dictatorship. Motivations for each of the conflicts varied, from ethnic cleansing to the elimination of a competing political group, however, the constant in all three was the intended elimination of a specific group and a state sanctioned implementation of a policy of sexual violence in order to do so.Egregious acts of sexual violence were deliberately planned to murder, to incur permanent mental and physical harm, to demoralize and destroy the group's ability to procreate in the future, and to impose measures upon the group to bring about its end. Based on these examples, we argue that, irrespective of the cause of a conflict, systematic and widespread sexual violence used as a weapon of war must be classified as genocide. Our intention is not to expand the definition of genocide, but rather to more clearly specify the definition in light of advancements in the understanding of the impacts of sexual violence on societies.
  • Exploring intimate partner violence from the perspective of African men: A
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Philomina Okeke-Ihejirika, Bukola Salami, Oluwakemi Amodu Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a complex social problem, a major global concern, and an obstacle to social and economic progress in the developing regions of the world, including Africa. Generally, IPV occurs in the private sphere of the family and poses serious risks to women, children, families, and the broader society. This study was prompted by the paucity of data to address the growing problem of IPV in Africa, particularly the narrow focus on women's experiences in the current state of knowledge. The aim of this meta-synthesis was to explore African men's perceptions of IPV in order to gain an in-depth understanding of their involvement in IPV. Our findings indicate that instances of IPV in Africa are primarily linked to masculine hegemony, masculine intersubjectivity, and masculine defenses of non-violent identity. Furthermore, we find that their intimate female partners are seen as both active and passive actors in IPV. Constantly oscillating between love and abuse, the relationship between African men and women is paradoxical. Moreover, authorities make it impossible for both victims/survivors and perpetrators to break the cycle of abuse by continuously sanctifying and or justifying IPV. One step towards reducing IPV between men and women in Africa, our study suggests, is to educate community leaders, policy makers, and service providers about prevention strategies, including how to make gender relations more equitable. There is, however, a need for more studies that could inform culturally effective interventions to tackle IPV, even as we attend to hegemonic masculine forces that tend to reinforce or legitimize IPV in Africa.
  • The intersection of intimate partner violence and poverty in Black
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Tameka L. Gillum Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health concern that has profound impacts on women across the globe. Though it cuts across race, socioeconomic status, age, geography and sexual orientation, those communities plagued by poverty experience disproportionate rates. Poverty creates unique circumstances of vulnerability for individuals, families, and communities and is disproportionately experienced by Black communities in both developed and developing countries. The impact of poverty on Black communities is significant and pervasive, with deep historical roots. Both IPV and poverty have profound effects on women's physical and psychosocial health and well-being. Black women who live at the intersection of experiencing poverty and IPV are in an especially disadvantaged position. This paper will explore the impact of poverty on Black women's experiences of violence in the United States and on the African continent and present a call to action for necessary structural, community and individual level intervention to address this pervasive concern.
  • Mental health, empowerment, and violence against young women in
           lower-income countries: A review of reviews
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Rose Grace Grose, Katherine A. Roof, Daniel C. Semenza, Ximena Leroux, Kathryn M. Yount Gender-based violence (GBV) against women is a pervasive global human-rights violation. This systematic review of reviews synthesized research about the mental health and empowerment outcomes of GBV for adolescent girls and young women (ages 10–24) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). GBV exposures included child maltreatment, female genital mutilation/cutting, child marriage, intimate partner violence (IPV), and non-partner sexual violence. PubMed and PsycINFO searches were supplemented with expert consultations and searches of reference lists and key organizational websites. Sixteen systematic reviews were quality rated and summarized. Study-level data were extracted from the five highest quality reviews (N = 25 unique studies) and results from 41 samples were synthesized. Empowerment studies were too few to synthesize. Reviews and extracted studies were predominantly from Asia and Africa and addressed child maltreatment, IPV, and non-partner sexual violence. We included combined samples with adolescent girls and adult women (ages 9–60 years) and found consistent associations between GBV and composite measures of mental health, suicidal ideation and behavior, and symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress, and eating disorders. Findings suggest that GBV must be addressed to cultivate mental health for adolescent girls and young women globally.
  • A systematic literature review of early posttraumatic interventions for
           victims of violent crime
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Stéphane Guay, Dominic Beaulieu-Prévost, Josette Sader, André Marchand Criminal acts are the most common traumatic events to which the general population is exposed. Developing clinical guidelines for preventing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among victims of violent crime would help to reduce the mental health costs related to these events. The goal of the current article was to systematically review published studies on the efficacy of early interventions for victims of violent crime. Of the twelve selected studies, six evaluated the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), four evaluated psychological debriefing (PD) and two evaluated another type of intervention (i.e., video). Our review found modest and inconsistent effects of active early interventions. CBT appeared to be the most promising early intervention when compared to an assessment condition or a progressive relaxation group, but relatively equivalent to supportive counselling. No proof of efficacy was found for PD compared to other interventions or a control group. A psychoeducational video for rape victims appeared to help a subgroup of victims. The assessment conditions and PD led to similar reductions in posttraumatic symptoms, while CBT had a greater impact. Further research is needed in order to develop early interventions to prevent PTSD, improve quality of life, and reduce healthcare costs.
  • The application and adoption of four ‘third wave’ psychotherapies for
           mental health difficulties and aggression within correctional and forensic
           settings: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Gary Byrne, Áine Ní Ghrada ObjectiveThe prisoner population have substantially higher mental health needs than those reported in community samples. A number of third wave therapies have accrued varying levels of evidence in clinical and community samples for a range of psychological difficulties.MethodsThis review, using PRISMA guidelines, reviewed four third wave therapies, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT), Metacognitive Therapy (MCT) and Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) and their respective effectiveness in addressing psychological difficulties and aggression for those incarcerated in a number of forensic settings.ResultsA total of nine studies were included in the review, 8 studies for ACT, 1 for CFT and none for MCT or FAP. The study provides very tentative evidence for the use of ACT with addiction issues and anger/aggression with a prisoner population but that this is significantly tempered by methodological shortcomings and small sample sizes.ConclusionsACT shows some potential promise as a treatment with a prisoner population but the general lack of methodologically sound studies greatly limits any conclusions that can be made. At present other treatments such as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and other third wave therapies, most notably, Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) have accrued more evidence as a result of greater amount of research.
  • Immediate responses by service providers after a violent critical
           incident: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Philip Birch, Erin Cox
  • Examining ACTV: An argument for implementing neuroscience-based and
           trauma- informed treatment models in offender treatment programs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Eraina Schauss, Haley R. Zettler, Amanda Russell There is a well-established link between experiencing traumatic events in childhood such as witnessing violence and later perpetration of domestic violence. Within the United States, literature in the area of domestic violence has largely neglected the link between the neuroscience of trauma exposure in childhood and later instances of perpetration. Few research studies have explored the neurological impact of adverse childhood experiences on adult offending behavior. Additionally, the most common treatment models for these offenders do not focus on addressing prior trauma that may be related to offending behavior. Through the development of two theoretical models, this paper explores the relationship between childhood trauma and later perpetration of domestic violence. This paper argues that ACTV (Achieving Change Through Values-Based Behavior), a relatively new treatment model that incorporates elements of mindfulness, interoception, and experiential avoidance may be an effective treatment intervention for domestic violence offenders with a history of trauma.
  • Acknowledging the victim to perpetrator trajectory: Integrating a mental
           health focused trauma-based approach into global violence programs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Heidi L. Kar Violence prevention and intervention programming continues to overlook conclusive findings from biopsychosocial research that demonstrates the salience of early interpersonal trauma in subsequent perpetration of violent behavior. As a result, programs struggle to achieve significant and sustained behavior change in individuals whose past experiences of early interpersonal violence predispose them to use violence against others. A robust research literature unequivocally links early interpersonal trauma experience with future violence perpetration. Though legal consequences have demonstrated some success in curtailing future violence among those involved with the legal system and only in situation in which law enforcement and judicial processes protect victims, there is growing recognition that rehabilitation and treatment of perpetrators is necessary. Globally, studies demonstrate that exposure to early interpersonal violence negatively impacts brain development, interpersonal skills, and emotional resilience and escalates risk for future violence perpetration. Studies of youth and adult violence perpetrators consistently demonstrate that individuals who engage in violent behavior are much more likely to have experienced early interpersonal trauma. It is essential to integrate a mental health approach into public health frameworks to address the core of violence perpetration. Unaddressed early trauma greatly distorts the normal developmental trajectory of cognitive and psychological/emotional abilities. Unsurprisingly, many of the affected systems are also linked to violence perpetration. This position paper outlines the interconnections between early trauma and violence perpetration, and demonstrates the necessity of integrating a mental health, trauma-based framework into violence interventions.
  • Assault–related sharp force injury among adults in Scotland 2001–2013:
           Incidence, socio-demographic determinants and relationship to violence
           reduction measures
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Christine A. Goodall, Fiona MacFie, David I. Conway, Alex D. McMahon BackgroundThe number of patients with assault-related sharp force injury has declined in recent years in Scotland. This study aimed to determine the incidence of these injuries over time and to explore their key socio-demographic determinants.MethodsRoutinely collected coded hospital admission data for the time period 2001–2013 were used to calculate annual incidence rates by age-group, gender, geographical region, and area-based Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation using midyear population estimates. A Poisson regression analysis model was developed including the variables: age-group, gender, year, geographical region, and deprivation quintile. The data were compared with available published crime data.ResultsThe incidence of sharp force injury showed an ongoing decline between 2001 and 2013. The fall was greatest among young people and in the West of Scotland and mirrored the reduction in weapons and knife related offences. The relative risk of sustaining a sharp force injury was greatest for younger age-groups, among males, and in those resident in the West of Scotland and in areas of socioeconomic deprivation.ConclusionsThere already exist a range of violence prevention measures in Scotland, but in order to further reduce the inequality associated with sharp force injury, interventions should be further targeted to working with younger men from deprived communities of Scotland.
  • Self-control, differential association and the drug–crime link in
           Uruguay in the context of the legalization of marijuana
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Nicolas Trajtenberg, Pablo Menese
  • Bullying and cyberbullying: Protective factors and effective interventions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Izabela Zych, David P. Farrington, Maria M. Ttofi
  • School-based anti-bullying interventions for adolescents in low- and
           middle-income countries: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Bhagya Sivaraman, Elizabeth Nye, Lucy Bowes Bullying is an international phenomenon that is increasingly becoming recognized as a public health issue and mental health concern. Systematic reviews suggest that complex, whole-school anti-bullying interventions are effective at reducing victimization and bullying in high-income countries (HICs). We report a systematic review evaluating the effectiveness of school-based interventions to reduce and prevent bullying among adolescents in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In addition to searching 31 databases, we also hand searched key journals and grey literature. We contacted experts in the field for input during the search process. After rigorously screening retrieved studies against predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria, only three studies were included in this review. One study used a cognitive and behavioral approach to target bullying among adolescents in Romania, one study adapted the international Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP) for use in Malaysia, and the other developed a model for use in South Africa. Results from all three studies were mixed and provided no overall evidence of effect for the interventions. The validity of the results for two of the studies was unclear due to substantial or unclear risks of bias. Given the well-established evidence base for anti-bullying interventions in HICs, there is an urgent need for more rigorously evaluated and reported studies in LMICs, adapted for contexts of considerable resource constraints.
  • Moral domain as a risk and protective factor against bullying. An
           integrating perspective review on the complexity of morality
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 July 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): E.M. Romera, J.A. Casas, O. Gómez-Ortiz, R. Ortega-Ruiz Developmental psychology has paid special research attention to explain how certain moral-nature factors influence behavior. Most research on morality and bullying has focused on studying moral disengagement as a risk factor for peer aggression. However, neuroscience has revealed that morality is a complex phenomenon composed of several factors. Thus, it requires the usage of holistic explanatory models that study the complexity of the moral functioning. The purpose of this review is to explore —from an integrative perspective— the moral elements that influence the transgressive behavior that damages other people, and its relation to bullying, a clear example of unjustified and immoral aggressiveness. This article reviews the state-of-the-art of morality including moral sensitivity, reasoning, emotion, motivation and identity, and group norms, analyzing its protective role against bullying. The need for a comprehensive theoretical approach to morality understood as a complex construct is discussed, starting from the articulated analysis of all its dimensions. This work advances knowledge useful for the design of educational interventions aimed to prevent bullying, to stimulate the socially desirable and prosocial behavior, as well as to improve peer relationships.
  • A literature review of protective factors associated with homophobic
           bullying and its consequences among children & adolescents
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Dorothy L. Espelage, Alberto Valido, Tyler Hatchel, Katherine M. Ingram, Yuanhong Huang, Cagil Torgal Research has consistently linked homophobic bullying (e.g., teasing, name-calling, use of slurs) with an array of negative outcomes for children and adolescents. While most of the extant research covers risk factors related to homophobic bullying perpetration and victimization, there is a budding literature surrounding protective factors of these behaviors and their associated consequences. This article reviews 32 studies that focused on protective factors associated with homophobic bullying perpetration and victimization among children and adolescents. The review examines homophobic bullying as it applies to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth and their heterosexual and cisgender peers. Using the social-ecological framework, this paper highlights protections at the individual level (e.g., sexual identity, self-esteem), the family level (e.g., social support at home), the peer level (e.g., positive friendships) and the school level (e.g., school policies against homophobic bullying, positive school climate). With the aim of contributing to the development of the field, directions for future research are also discussed.
  • Protective factors against bullying and cyberbullying: A systematic review
           of meta-analyses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Izabela Zych, David P. Farrington, Maria M. Ttofi Bullying and cyberbullying are damaging aggressive behaviors in which some children and adolescents intentionally inflict frequent and long term harm on peers who become victimized. The number of studies on bullying is high and a lot of knowledge has already been gathered. Nevertheless, there are still many gaps in knowledge that need to be addressed. Research on protective factors and effective interventions is still in its relatively early stages. This systematic review of meta-analyses on protective factors against bullying and cyberbullying was conducted to synthesize knowledge and discover the most important community, school, family, peer and individual protective factors. After systematic searches and the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 meta-analyses with 128 effect sizes were included and analyzed. Forest plots were constructed and median effect sizes were calculated for each group of protective factors. Self-oriented personal competencies were the strongest protector against victimization. Low frequency of technology use protected from involvement in cyberbullying. Good academic performance and other-oriented social competencies were the strongest protective factors against perpetration. Positive peer interaction was the strongest protective factor against being a bully/victim. These findings can be useful to improve anti-bullying programs, policy and practice.
  • Standing up to bullying: A social ecological review of peer defending in
           offline and online contexts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Laura J. Lambe, Victoria Della Cioppa, Irene K. Hong, Wendy M. Craig Bullying is a relationship problem that most often occurs in the presence of peers. Peers who witness bullying play a critical role in intervening. Peer intervention, or defending, is a complex behavior. Defending a victimized peer can occur offline and online, with many similarities between the two contexts. This paper, guided by the Social Ecological Model, systematically reviewed the correlates associated with defending at different levels including: individual, peer, family, and school. Inclusion criteria retrieved a final sample of 130 original, peer-reviewed research articles on offline defending, and 25 articles for online defending.Consistent results across both contexts reveal that individuals who defend tend to be girls, have high empathy and low moral disengagement, are popular and well-liked by their peers, and perceive supportive relationships with their parents, teachers, and schools. More research is needed to understand interactions that may occur between levels of the model, as defending is a complex behavior that cannot be characterized by isolated correlates.
  • Cyberhate: A review and content analysis of intervention strategies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Catherine Blaya This paper presents a review of intervention programmes against cyberhate. Over the last decade, the preoccupation over the use of electronic means of communication as a tool to convey hate, racist and xenophobic contents rose tremendously. NGOs, legal professionals, private companies, and civil society have developed interventions but little is known about their impact. For this review we followed the method and protocol from the guidelines from the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook for Systematic Reviews and the Campbell Collaboration Crime and Justice guidelines. The review identified three key intervention areas: law, technology and education through the empowerment of the individuals under the form of counter-speech. No specific intervention towards aggressors was found and most projects focus on prevention or victims through confidence building and skills learning to speak out, report and potentially react in an appropriate way. We did not find any rigorously assessed interventions, which highlights a gap in research and stresses the need for this type of studies. The evaluation of effectiveness of interventions needs to be included in the near future research agenda. Up to now, although intentions are good, we have no evidence that the steps that are undertaken are effective in preventing and reducing cyberhate.
  • Consistency of gender differences in bullying in cross-cultural surveys
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Peter K. Smith, Leticia López-Castro, Susanne Robinson, Anke Görzig Many studies have reported on gender differences in bully and victim rates, but with the majority of reports from a small number of countries. Here we report on such gender differences from five large cross-national data bases. We report on overall male:female (M:F) ratios, and variations in these by age (or grade), by survey time point, and by offline/online bullying. We also compare consistency of M:F ratios across countries, over the five surveys. The preponderance of male perpetrators of bullying is found consistently across surveys, and survey time point. It is also consistent by age, but HBSC data suggest a curvilinear trend in early adolescence. Males also tend to more frequently be victims of bullying, consistent across age and survey time point, but with variations by survey. There is some indication of a decrease in M:F ratio recently in mid-adolescence, possibly related to online bullying. At least relatively, females are more involved as victims of online than offline bullying. Comparing recent findings on M:F ratio across countries for the five surveys, correlations vary from high to near zero. Implications for the explanation of gender differences in different countries, the comparability of data from different surveys, and for gender-specific interventions, are discussed.
  • Are children involved in cyberbullying low on empathy' A systematic
           review and meta-analysis of research on empathy versus different
           cyberbullying roles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Izabela Zych, Anna C. Baldry, David P. Farrington, Vicente J. Llorent Cyberbullying is a relatively new aggressive behavior in which young people repeatedly and intentionally inflict harm on peers, using electronic devices. Cyberbullying has very damaging consequences and studies on the topic are increasing. Nevertheless, there are still gaps in sound knowledge regarding factors that could protect children from being cyberbullies or cybervictims. The current systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to overcome limitations of previous studies on risk factors to establish if and how empathy is related to the different cyberbullying roles. After exhaustive searches with rigorous inclusion and exclusion criteria, 25 studies were included. Cyberbullying perpetration was found to be related to low empathy (OR = 1.5) and this relationship held also after controlling for covariates (OR = 1.3) but cybervictimization was not significantly related to empathy (OR = 0.94). There were some indications that cybervictims could have high affective empathy (OR = 0.83), but more research is needed to clarify this relationship. Results are presented also separately for the relationship between affective and cognitive empathy and different cyberbullying roles. There were not enough studies to draw conclusions about the relationship between empathy and being a cyberbully/victim or defender, but some tendencies were found and described. These results have important implications for policy and practice and might be very useful in designing specific tailored programs to prevent cyberbullying.
  • A developmental approach to cyberbullying: Prevalence and protective
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Robin M. Kowalski, Susan P. Limber, Annie McCord Recent years have witnessed a plethora of research on cyberbullying. However, many of the published studies have yielded mixed findings related to cyberbullying and its relation to demographic variables such as age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Review papers have been published on some of these topics, but comprehensive reviews of the relation between age and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration are lacking, particularly with regard to protective factors. Thus, the current paper takes a developmental approach to examine age and cyberbullying. The review focuses specifically on age variations in technology use, prevalence of cyberbullying involvement, risk and protective factors, and outcomes. Directions for future research, including implications for prevention and intervention, are discussed.
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