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Aggression and Violent Behavior
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.238
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 488  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1359-1789
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Seeing red' A systematic review of the evidence for attentional biases
           to threat-relevant stimuli in propensity to reactive aggression
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Katherine E. ManningAbstractPsychological models of aggression have suggested that propensity to aggressive behaviour, especially reactive aggression (RA), may be associated with attentional biases to threat or hostile stimuli. Findings to date are inconsistent, but have often treated aggression as a general construct. This review aimed to evaluate the evidence for a specific association of such attentional biases in propensity to RA, excluding populations with known attention processing abnormalities. A systematic search of the literature was undertaken and twelve eligible experiments, reported in nine studies, were identified. Data were combined and reviewed using narrative synthesis, assessing the presence of differences in attentional processing of threat-relevant stimuli in RA, and specificity of biases to threat-related stimuli and to RA. Preliminary and tentative evidence is presented suggesting that such biases are shown by individuals who exhibit high reactive aggression, which may be specific to this form of aggression. Most studies reporting positive findings reported an attentional bias towards interpersonal threat stimuli, with some evidence that this does not generalise to other types of emotional stimuli. However, positive findings were not reported by all studies, and the small number of studies and varied tasks prevented more nuanced analysis. The review also highlights sampling biases which affect generalisability of findings, particularly beyond the male population.
  • Elucidating the neurobiology of cyberbullying using functional Magnetic
           Resonance Imaging (fMRI): A hypothesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Larisa T. McLoughlin, Zack Shan, Kathryn M. Broadhouse, Jim Lagopoulos, Natalie Winks, Daniel F. HermensAbstractCyberbullying is a prevalent concern around the world. Research shows that interactions online are associated with similar structural correlates and patterns of brain activity to real-world (offline) relationships, and that the brain experiences peer victimisation (e.g., cyberbullying) in the same way that it experiences physical pain. Furthermore, these experiences can become biologically embedded in the physiology of the developing person, thereby increasing their risk of developing mental health problems. With the increasing prevalence of cyberbullying and youth internet usage, there is a pressing need to further understand the brain's response to cyberbullying.We hypothesise that a unique pattern of brain activation is associated with cyberbullying and can be identified using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (tbfMRI). However, there is a dearth of research regarding cyberbullying and no fMRI paradigm exists in a real-time situation such as observing a cyberbullying scenario. Here, we propose a tbfMRI protocol we have developed specifically for this purpose.This paper will describe a tbfMRI protocol that can be used to investigate the hypothesis. The overall aim of such a protocol is to elucidate the neurobiological underpinnings of cyberbullying by exploring the brain responses in passive cyber-bystanders (those who witness cyberbullying). This would be the first research to use fMRI to examine brain activation in cyberbystanders, and will bring us closer to understanding the various neurobiological underpinnings that may be associated with cyber-victim/bully status and outcomes.
  • The association between psychopathy and delinquency in juveniles: A
           three-level meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Yoni Geerlings, Jessica J. Asscher, Geert-Jan J.M. Stams, Mark AssinkAbstractBackgroundPsychopathy has repeatedly been linked with delinquency and criminal recidivism of adults. With the increase of studies examining psychopathic traits in juveniles, it is important to also study this association in juveniles to increase the effectiveness of preventive interventions for juvenile delinquency.PurposeThe primary aim of the present meta-analysis was to examine the association between psychopathic traits and delinquency in juveniles. The second aim was to examine which factors (i.e., type of delinquency, type of psychopathic trait, and other study- and participant characteristics) moderate the association between psychopathy and juvenile delinquent behavior.MethodThe data were analyzed in three-level meta-analytic models.ResultsIn total, 87 studies were included, which used 74 independent samples and reported on 358 effect sizes. Psychopathy was moderately and positively associated with juvenile delinquency (r = 0.24, p 
  • Life course persistent antisocial behavior silver anniversary
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Robert EmeAbstractIn 1993 Terrie Moffitt published a paper that proposed a dual developmental taxonomy of antisocial behavior. The paper triggered a cascade of research on types of criminal offending, thereby making it one of the most researched and most influential of all developmental theories of antisocial behavior. The silver anniversary of the paper's publication seems a fitting time to review the status of the life-course-persistent (LCP) group who Moffitt suggested would enable researchers to learn more about the etiology of severe, persistent antisocial behavior from studying this group than from studying the group that had its onset of antisocial behavior in adolescence. The LCP group was hypothesized to consist of a relatively few males whose early-onset of severe antisocial behavior would persist into adulthood and had its origins in neurodevelopmental deficits interacting with various environmental risk factors. This review assessed the evidence supporting these hypotheses and reviewed the findings for early identification of the LCP group—a topic that was only modestly addressed in 1993. Lastly, the paper discussed what is one of most significant impacts of the 1993 article, providing impetus to the early-years crime prevention movement.
  • Cyberbullying: Concepts, theories, and correlates informing evidence-based
           best practices for prevention
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Nadia S. AnsaryAbstractEmerging evidence has revealed that many characteristics of cyberbullying—its definition, prevalence rates, risk and protective factors, outcomes, and prevention strategies—are related and yet somewhat unique from traditional bullying. The ubiquity of technology in the lives of youth presents an opportunity for individuals to intentionally and repetitively harm others, 24 h per day, sometimes with complete anonymity, and often without consequence. This is concerning given the high rates of psychopathology associated with cybervictimization, over and above, traditional bullying. Given the current state of the field, this literature review provides a critical synthesis of the extant knowledge concerning (1) a definition of cyberbullying; (2) theories explaining cyberbullying; (3) prevalence rates; (4) a brief developmentally-focused overview of adolescents and their online use; (5) risk and protective factors; (6) negative psycho-social outcomes, over and above traditional bullying; and (7) a brief overview of prevention and intervention programming with information for key stakeholders. Implications and future directions are discussed.
  • Omega-3 fatty acids in cause, prevention and management of violence in
           schizophrenia: Conceptualization and application
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Wen-Chen Ouyang, Gwo-Ching Sun, Mei-Chi HsuAbstractSchizophrenia is a disabling neurological disorder. Patients with this disease are at higher risk to violence. This paper reviewed the recent literatures with respect to the heterogeneous nature of the abnormalities and pathophysiological and biological risk markers that link to violent behavior in patients with schizophrenia with a particular interest in lipid metabolism. We have focused on altered lipid profile including polyunsaturated fatty acids, which may have attributed to the development of aggressive behavior in patients with schizophrenia. We addressed questions on how aberrant lipid metabolism affects brain structure and function, and how lipids modulate neurotransmission activity during progression of this devastating disease. Many clinical studies have demonstrated that omega-3 fatty acids may reduce transition rate to psychosis and serve as additive to reduce the violence. We postulate that the beneficial effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on violence may act through modulating neuronal membrane lipid structure and neurotransmission. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms how these pathways modulate aggression may facilitate development of strategies to prevent, ameliorate or reduce the manifestation of violence.
  • Why we cannot explain cross-cultural differences in risk assessment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Stefanie Schmidt, Roxanne Heffernan, Tony WardAbstractThe prediction and explanation of crime currently relies predominantly upon the concept of dynamic risk factors (DRF). Evidence suggests that DRF vary across cultures with respect to their prevalence and their predictive validity (e.g., Olver, Stockdale, & Wormith, 2014). What remains unclear is whether the observed differences can be explained by real cultural differences in the causes of crime; and if this is the case, how does culture influence this' We suggest that confusion arises due to conceptual problems with DRF and their measurement. Because DRF are vague, composite, and value-laden constructs researchers are unable to minimize or control for the occurrence of construct or item bias when scores on risk measures are compared across cultures. This makes any further interpretation and adjustment to assessment or intervention unwarranted. If we do not know whether or how DRF cause violence within the cultural context of their development, we cannot possibly hope to explain this relationship in another culture. We suggest that there is a pressing need to provide coherent theories for research, risk assessment and treatment in the future. We will discuss possible ways forward in this paper.
  • Improving approaches in psychotherapy and domestic violence interventions
           for perpetrators from marginalized ethnic groups
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Zeynep TurhanAbstractThe major goal of this paper is to review the existing therapeutic approaches in domestic violence perpetrator interventions by illustrating their effectiveness in reducing and ending the violent behaviour of men from marginalized ethnic groups. The paper aims to discuss how services can efficiently respond to historically marginalized ethnic perpetrators' needs and circumstances based on their social and cultural contexts. This article reviews literature about the success of domestic violence intervention approaches among marginalized ethnic group perpetrators. While each intervention approach highlights key practices for revealing violent behaviour, the combination of integrative approaches and culturally-sensitive strategies appear to be more effective for perpetrators from diverse ethnic and religious backgrounds. This article contributes to debates about culturally-sensitive approaches by discussing the importance of professionals' skills for enhancing marginalized ethnic perpetrators' motivations to remain engaged in the intervention process. It recommends a number of key culturally-specific strategies for this purpose.
  • Racial and ethnic differences in bullying: Review and implications for
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Mariah Xu, Natalia Macrynikola, Muhammad Waseem, Regina MirandaAbstractDespite increased research on bullying over the past few decades, researchers still have little understanding of how bullying differentially affects racial and ethnic minority and immigrant youth. To facilitate efforts to better evaluate the impact of bullying among racial and ethnic minority youth and improve interventions, we integrated research from multiple disciplines and conducted a systematic search to review relevant cross-cultural research on the prevalence of bullying, risk and protective factors, and differences in behaviors and outcomes associated with bullying in these populations. Studies measuring differences in bullying prevalence by racial and ethnic groups are inconclusive, and discrepancies in findings may be explained by differences in how bullying is measured and the impact of school and social environments. Racial and ethnic minorities and immigrants are disproportionately affected by contextual-level risk factors associated with bullying (e.g., adverse community, home, and school environments), which may moderate the effects of individual-level predictors of bullying victimization or perpetration (e.g., depressive symptoms, empathy, hostility, etc.) on involvement and outcomes. Minority youth may be more likely to perpetrate bullying, and are at much higher risk for poor health and behavioral outcomes as a result of bias-based bullying. At the same time, racial and ethnic minorities and immigrants may be protected against bullying involvement and its negative consequences as a result of strong ethnic identity, positive cultural and family values, and other resilience factors. Considering these findings, we evaluate existing bullying interventions and prevention programs and propose directions for future research.
  • Risk factors for elder abuse and neglect: A review of the literature
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Jennifer E. StoreyAbstractElder abuse is a global problem gaining recognition due to its severe impact on victims and the ageing population. Increased recognition has led to the investigation of perpetrator and victim characteristics that increase the risk of elder abuse. The identification of such risk factors can assist practitioners in preventing abuse, determining the risk of continued elder abuse and, where factors are dynamic, can be targets for risk management. This literature review identifies and describes perpetrator and victim risk factors for elder abuse with the goal of informing professional practice and providing the basis for an empirically derived risk assessment instrument for elder abuse. Electronic searches identified 198 studies that met the eligibility criteria. The studies reviewed provide evidence supporting eight risk factors related to the perpetrator that increase their risk of continued elder abuse and eight victim vulnerability factors that place the victim at heightened risk of elder abuse. Hypotheses raised by researchers to account for the associations are outlined. The practical utility of the risk and vulnerability factors are described. The need for and approach to developing a structured method to assess and manage elder abuse risk based on the empirically supported risk and vulnerability factors is discussed.Public significance statementEmpirically supported dynamic risk factors for elder abuse are identifiable for perpetrators and victims of abuse in the existing research literature. These risk factors can be utilised by professionals to inform their practice and target risk management efforts.
  • Correlates of youth violence in low- and middle-income countries: A
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 September 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Olga Sánchez de Ribera, Nicolás Trajtenberg, Yulia Shenderovich, Joseph MurrayAbstractThe highest rates of serious interpersonal violence occur in low-and-middle income countries (LMICs) especially in Latin America, the Caribbean, and sub–Saharan Africa. However, previous reviews of risk factors for youth violence focused almost entirely on studies from high-income countries (HICs). Rigorous synthesis of evidence is needed for LMICs. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies of youth violence in LMICs, identified by extensive searches in seven languages. Studies reporting correlates of violence perpetration in samples of 100 or more 10–29 year-olds from the general population in LMICs were included in the review. Eighty-six studies including 480,898 individuals from 60 countries were eligible for meta-analysis. Violent outcomes included fighting, carrying a weapon and other interpersonal violent behaviors (e.g. assault). The strongest correlates of youth violence (OR ≥ 2.5) were: male sex, impulsivity, conduct problems, sexual intercourse at an early age, smoking, alcohol use, using illicit drugs, being bullied, suffering criminal victimization, having deviant/delinquent peers, and watching violent television. We conclude that many correlates of youth violence in LMICs are similar to those that have been identified in HICs, but other biological, psychological, and cultural predictors remain to be tested in LMICs. Implications for research and policy are discussed.
  • Persistent material hardship and childhood physical aggression
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Paul E. Bellair, Thomas L. McNulty, Alex R. PiqueroAbstractSome developmental models of childhood aggression deny any influence of socioeconomic status (SES), while others stress a more central role. We argue that greater attention to persistent material hardship (i.e., inability to provide for basic needs) may enhance the centrality of SES in developmental approaches. We analyze a longitudinal sample of children in the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study, and examine whether persistent material hardship shapes patterns of childhood aggression. We find that while the majority of children are insulated, some experience multiple, enduring hardships. More importantly, experiencing a single, persistent hardship during the period of childhood increases the likelihood of aggression by 4.8% among males and 6.4% among females, a magnitude that is comparable to the influence of impulsivity. Findings warrant greater attention to the consequences of material hardship in theoretical models and life course research that goes beyond the traditionally-examined indicators of SES.
  • Examining the relationships between impulsivity, aggression, and
           recidivism for prisoners with antisocial personality disorder
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Sylvia Martin, Carmen Zabala, Jonathan Del-Monte, Pierluigi Graziani, Eva Aizpurua, Tom J. Barry, Jorge RicarteAbstractImpulsivity impacts multiple life domains and is related to criminal and problematic behaviors. In forensic contexts, impulsivity and aggression are often associated with psychiatric issues. Personality disorders are related to worse prognosis, increased relapse, and damage to relationships. The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of psychopathy, impulsivity, and aggression on recidivism, and to investigate the relationships between these dimensions in prisoners with and without Antisocial Personality Disorder. The forensic sample included inmates with (n = 50) or without Antisocial Personality Disorder (n = 50). We measured psychopathic traits with the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM), impulsivity with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and aggression with the Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale (IPAS). There were significant between-group differences regarding premeditated aggression and attentional impulsivity. For inmates with antisocial personality disorder, impulsive aggression was related to recidivism (number of times in jail). Their level of psychopathy was related to premeditated aggression and motor impulsivity. Impulsive aggression, like attentional impulsivity, was related to recidivism only for inmates with antisocial personality disorder. In conclusion, psychopathy is associated with recidivism; moreover, impulsivity and aggression are central to recidivism for these individuals.
  • The role of infant socialization and self-control in understanding
           reactive-overt and relational aggression: A 15-year study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Alexander T. Vazsonyi, Magda JavakhishviliAbstractThe present study employed parallel analyses to develop a greater understanding of the relationships between infant socialization (maternal sensitivity and home quality), early childhood self-control (attentional focusing, inhibitory control, gratification delay, and self-control), and measures of reactive-overt and relational aggression, assessed from ages 8.5 to 15 years. Self-reported, mother reported, and observational data were employed from a national sample of N = 1364 children (the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care and Youth Development Study). Findings provided evidence that positive infant socialization during the first two years of life positively predicted self-control that in turn negatively predicted both reactive-overt and relational aggression at age 8.5 years. In addition, socialization effects also maintained positive direct effects on continued developmental changes in both measures of aggression at age 10.5 years (relational), 11.5 years (reactive-overt and relational), and 15 years (reactive-overt and relational). Self-control negatively predicted developmental changes in both measures of aggression at 11.5 years. These findings highlight the long-term developmental effects of positive infant socialization experiences for the developmental course of reactive-overt and relational aggression, but also the salience of self-regulatory capacities in understanding the etiology of and ongoing developmental changes of aggressive behaviors.
  • A life history approach to understanding juvenile offending and aggression
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Cortney Simmons, Zachary Rowan, Alissa Knowles, Laurence Steinberg, Paul J. Frick, Elizabeth CauffmanAbstractLife history theory has been used to understand how harsh and unpredictable environments contribute to risk behaviors. The theory suggests that exposure to negative environments leads individuals to adopt a “fast” life strategy, which is hypothesized to make individuals more likely to engage in risky behavior that is associated with immediate rewards. Using data from a sample of 1216 justice-involved male youth, we defined distinct groups of youth with a “fast” versus “slow” life strategy, based on their scores on measures of sensation seeking, impulse control, future orientation, consideration of others, and suppression of aggression. A logistic regression was used to test how different environmental factors predicted LH strategy group membership. Having a fast strategy was associated with greater victimization, higher parental hostility, and lower quality home environments. Growth curve models were used to examine group differences in offending and aggression over five years. Youth with a fast life strategy engaged in more violent and non-violent offending, as well as more relational and physical aggression. Although there were significant decreases in these behaviors within both groups over the five years, these group differences remained consistent over time.
  • Special issue introduction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Alex R. Piquero
  • Childhood risk factors for personality disorder symptoms related to
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Kim Reising, David P. Farrington, Maria M. Ttofi, Alex R. Piquero, Jeremy W. CoidAbstractObjectivesThis study investigated the relations between childhood risk factors, adult personality disorder symptoms, and violence convictions up to age 61.MethodData was used from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a prospective longitudinal study of 411 males from South London who were regularly interviewed between ages 8 and 48. In this sample, childhood risk factors were assessed, along with DSM-IV Axis-II personality disorders, and violence convictions.ResultsFindings confirm and extend previous results indicating associations between several different personality disorder symptoms and violence. Particularly, symptoms of cluster A and cluster B personality disorders at age 48 were most strongly associated with lifetime violent acts. Results also support the hypothesis that adult personality disorder symptoms are predicted by exposure to childhood traumatic experiences, including family breakdown, parental neglect, and physical as well as emotional abuse.ConclusionFamilies and schools seem to be particularly crucial environments which may influence the development of personality disorders and behavioral problems such as violence. More prospective longitudinal studies are needed to further disentangle the complex interactions between psychosocial family factors, personality disorders and violent behavior and to further explore their underlying mechanisms in order to inform more effective intervention programs.
  • Truancy intervention and violent offending: Evidence from a randomized
           controlled trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Stephanie M. Cardwell, Lorraine Mazerolle, Alex R. PiqueroAbstractViolent offending and violent offenders occupy a key policy issue and policy group for prevention and intervention efforts. Research has examined an array of risk factors implicated in predicting violent offending, but interventions aimed at reducing these risk factors and their effect on violence have been less investigated, especially those within a randomized trial. We use data from a truancy reduction experiment in Australia to examine whether participants in the program, relative to a control group, enjoyed ancillary benefits related to the relationship between risk factors and violence. Results provide partial support in that the program weakened the effects of some of the risk factors on violence over time, but not all of the risk factors. Findings also show that the probability of violence was higher in the control group relative to the experimental group when looking at the cumulative social risk factors. Implications and directions for future research are highlighted.
  • The propensity for aggressive behavior and lifetime incarceration risk: A
           test for gene-environment interaction (G × E) using whole-genome data
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 July 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): J.C. Barnes, Hexuan Liu, Ryan T. Motz, Peter T. Tanksley, Rachel Kail, Amber L. Beckley, Daniel W. Belsky, Benjamin W. Domingue, Terrie E. Moffitt, Travis C. Pratt, Jasmin WertzAbstractIncarceration is a disruptive event that is experienced by a considerable proportion of the United States population. Research has identified social factors that predict incarceration risk, but scholars have called for a focus on the ways that individual differences combine with social factors to affect incarceration risk. Our study is an initial attempt to heed this call using whole-genome data. We use data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (N = 6716) to construct a genome-wide measure of genetic propensity for aggressive behavior and use it to predict lifetime incarceration risk. We find that participants with a higher genetic propensity for aggression are more likely to experience incarceration, but the effect is stronger for males than females. Importantly, we identify a gene-environment interaction (G × E)—genetic propensity is reduced, substantively and statistically, to a non-significant predictor for males raised in homes where at least one parent graduated high school. We close by placing these findings in the broader context of concerns that have been raised about genetics research in criminology.
  • Assessing general strain theory and measures of victimization,
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 June 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Nina Barbieri, Stephen J. Clipper, Chelsey Narvey, Amanda Rude, Jessica M. Craig, Nicole Leeper PiqueroAbstractGeneral Strain Theory (GST) is one of the leading theories of crime and delinquency in the field of criminology, with victimization identified as a leading source of strain due to the frequency and prevalence of its experience. However, measures of victimization widely range from direct experiences of physical violence to vicarious or even anticipated victimization, making it difficult to isolate the explanatory contribution of GST on crime and delinquency. A systematic review was conducted of peer-reviewed articles to provide a concise understanding of the relationship between victimization and crime and delinquency. Particular attention was given to definitions and operationalization of victimization, as well as whether the studies used longitudinal or cross-sectional samples. Findings suggest a discernible correlation between physical victimization measures and engagement in substance use, bullying behaviors, and general delinquency. However, these findings may be conditioned by the exact operationalization of victimization and outcome measures utilized. More nuanced discussions of the findings, as well as theoretical and empirical implications, are included.
  • Continuity of the delinquent career behind bars: Predictors of violent
           misconduct among female delinquents
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2019Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Jessica M. Craig, Chad R. TrulsonAbstractWhile many scholars have investigated potential predictors of institutional misconduct among adult inmates, few have assessed the determinants of misconduct among incarcerated juvenile delinquents. This lack of research attention to the predictors of institutional misconduct is especially notable among female delinquents. As females have been theorized to have unique pathways to offending, it is pertinent to examine their pathways to institutional misconduct. The current study investigates potential predictors of violent misconduct among a large sample (n = 1061) of state-committed serious female delinquents in a large southern state. Using negative binomial regression models, a large number of variables were examined that describe the youths' background, delinquency history, and commitment offense. While only a few individual-level factors such as poor mental health predicted violent misconduct, a larger number of delinquent history measures such as committing a violent offense and being sentenced to a blended sentence emerged as important predictors of involvement in violent institutional misconduct. Policy implications and limitations of the study are also discussed.
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