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Journal Cover Environment, Development and Sustainability
  [SJR: 0.419]   [H-I: 29]   [28 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-2975 - ISSN (Online) 1387-585X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Assessment of the hunting of mammals using local ecological knowledge: an
           example from the Brazilian semiarid region
    • Abstract: Abstract The hunting of wild animals remains a common activity in various parts of the world, especially in rural communities with poor socioeconomic conditions. To investigate patterns of mammal hunting, this study adopted a rural community located in semiarid Brazil as a model to test whether variables such as perceived abundance, activity period (day or night) and animal biomass could influence the consumption potential of mammal taxa. For this study, a checklist/interview technique using 32 photographs of mammals recorded in the region and two photographs of species that did not occur in the region, which acted as “control” species, was used, in addition to other visual stimuli and free lists. All species presented in the photographs, with the exception of the “control” species, were recognized as occurring in the region. Fourteen species were cited as being those most hunted locally. The species cited as most hunted had an average perceived abundance higher than the group of the least-hunted species. However, there was no significant relationship between hunting of a species and its locally perceived abundance. No significant difference in hunting pressure between diurnal and nocturnal species was found, nor was a relationship between animal biomass and hunting pressure observed. Our findings suggest that perceived abundance is an important factor for choosing a resource fauna, but other factors such as intended use, meat flavor and vulnerability to hunting, among others, may influence the potential use of a species.
      PubDate: 2016-06-22
       
  • Dividivi tannins: an ecological product for water-based drilling fluids
    • Abstract: Abstract Modified tannins are used as deflocculant additives in the formulation of water-based drilling fluids (WBDF) for drilling operations in any scenario. Due to their high heavy metals content, these additives are toxic and hazardous for any environmental scenario. Deflocculant efficiency of unmodified tannins (UDT) extracted from fruit pods of “dividivi” (Caesalpinia coriaria) as an additive for WBDF was assessed. Raw materials for UDT elaboration come from the rural and sustainable exploitation of natural occurring dividivi trees, growing in dry tropical forests in Anzoátegui state (Orinoco Oil Belt, eastern Venezuela). The tannins extract, in the form of dividivi fruit powder, contains 47.0 % of total tannins (hydrolyzable tannins plus condensed tannins), of which 67.4 % corresponds to hydrolyzable tannins. Dividivi tannins in WBDF showed nine (9) times deflocculant efficiency than heavy metals commercial modified tannins. Moreover, commercial modified tannins do not improve their deflocculant efficiency with increased tannin content. Ecotoxicological studies were carried out for WBDF formulations with UDT, using freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus dimorphus as chronic toxicity bioindicator. Toxicity bioassays performed with these microalgae did not show significant effects on its population growth. The EC50 values resulted in over 100,000 mg L−1, and these formulations were therefore considered non-toxic. Values of LC50 obtained this time with Poecilia reticulata, as acute toxicity bioindicator are around 100,000 mg L−1, with no significant effects on population mortality. Thus, WBDF formulated with UDT can be considered non-toxic formulations for populations of this freshwater fish. From the social perspective, the use of UDT in WBDF fosters organized communities economical activities based on the maintenance of a sustainable supply chain for processing fruits in a quantity enough to obtain three thousand seven hundred fifty kilograms (3750 Kg). The UDT so obtained was used as deflocculant in four (4) oil wells producing excellent performance and relevant savings compared with commercial modified tannin.
      PubDate: 2016-06-18
       
  • The impact of the expansion of shrimp aquaculture on livelihoods in
           coastal Bangladesh
    • Abstract: Abstract The area used for shrimp aquaculture in Bangladesh has increased about tenfold since 1980. This study examines how shrimp aquaculture has affected the livelihoods of people living beside the Sundarbans mangrove forest in Bangladesh. Using household survey data from 264 households in six villages in Mongla, we found that shrimp income represents 46 % of the total household income for the higher-income households, but just 26 and 8 % for middle- and lower-income households, respectively. Higher-income households were able to derive both larger absolute and relative income from the shrimp sector than the lower-income households, mainly because they had more land initially and used that to acquire ownership or access to most remaining land. This has exacerbated existing inequities so they are greater for shrimp aquaculture than for other livelihoods such as fishing or farming. The expansion of shrimp aquaculture has largely happened by converting agricultural land into shrimp farms. Often this agricultural land was acquired from the poorest people, leaving them even more vulnerable because they have been forced into poorly paid labour or the collection of wild resources from the mangrove forest (often illegal).
      PubDate: 2016-06-16
       
  • Potential impacts on local quality of life due to sugarcane expansion: a
           case study based on panel data analysis
    • Abstract: Abstract Agribusiness participation in Brazil generates investments in rural infrastructure and employment, with direct effects on local quality of life. In this sense, government policies to support the production of ethanol from sugarcane and to promote bioelectricity from bagasse production have made Brazil a country of world leadership in this field. This paper reports an assessment of socioeconomic impacts due to sugarcane production in three regions in Brazil (Piracicaba, Presidente Prudente and Southwest Goiás). Local quality of life is defined as five dimensions: income and inequality, education, infrastructure, health and general development, analysed using panel data modelling, with variables that could explain differences in development due to local characteristics, including sugarcane activity. Presidente Prudente has the highest levels of progress in education, poverty, infrastructure and general development indicators. The models indicate that participation of sugarcane has positive impacts on the indicators of the microregion. In case of Piracicaba microregion, in two models (“L-Theil” and “Illiteracy rate”) indicators related with sugarcane sector are significant explanatory variables, contributing for better indicators. Finally, Southwest Goias—where sugarcane activity develops later—is the single microregion in which the adjusted models have no significant explanatory variables related to sugarcane sector.
      PubDate: 2016-06-14
       
  • Assessing and selecting interventions for river water quality improvement
           within the context of population growth and urbanization: a case study of
           the Cau River basin in Vietnam
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, a multi-criteria methodology is proposed to identify and prioritize interventions for water quality improvement with the aid of computer simulation models. The methodology can be used to elaborate and compare future socio-economic development scenarios to select the best interventions based on three criteria: (1) ideas of experts and stakeholders about the importance of scenarios, (2) impacts of each scenario on surface water quality in watershed, and (3) benefit–cost analysis for each scenario. A score is computed for each scenario based on a weighted sum technique which enables to take into consideration different level of importance for the three criteria. The methodology is applied to Cau River basin in Vietnam, with the aid of a computer tool, to assess interventions for river water quality improvement within the context of population growth and urbanization. The results show that fast future population growth in upstream has significant impacts. In 2020, an increase of 116 % of the population in Bac Kan town can lead to an increase of 120 and 135 % in BOD5 and NH4 + median concentrations, respectively, with the implementation of a treatment plant for 10,000 people in Bac Kan town. Therefore, the increase of the domestic wastewater treatment plant’s capacity in Bac Kan town, at least twice as the projection of local government, is necessary. These results will help decision makers to select the best interventions for Cau River basin management.
      PubDate: 2016-06-14
       
  • The perception of households about solid waste management issues in
           Malaysia
    • Abstract: Abstract With the aim being to have an integrated and efficient management system, Malaysia is currently facing a remarkable waste issue with a massive increase in waste generated per day. This study collected 400 survey responses to assess the satisfaction and awareness of households about various issues of solid waste management. This study revealed that the majority of the respondents were satisfied with their waste management services. However, there was concern about providing a more diverse waste management facility. This study found a strong positive relationship between age and waste reduction behaviours. The majority of the respondents agreed that their lifestyle affected waste minimisation. Almost half of the respondents indicated that they lacked knowledge to practise waste sorting. Age and education were positively correlated to reuse and recycling behaviours. Overall, a holistic waste management education is vital for Malaysia to build an efficient waste management system.
      PubDate: 2016-06-09
       
  • Bridging the Maghreb’s water gap: from rationalizing the virtual
           water trade to enhancing the renewable energy desalination
    • Abstract: Abstract The debate about the water resources shortages and finding appropriate solutions to close the water gap in many regions is still not finished. The Mediterranean region is among the most arid regions in the world and hosts more than the half of the world’s water-poor population. The situation is more severe in the southern shore of the Mediterranean, in particular, the Maghreb countries. In this region, water resources are very limited and polluted and most countries rely on groundwater yet overexploited. On the other hand, several factors, including rapid economic growth, expanding populations and changing climate, are driving up demand for water. This pushes forward the Maghreb countries to more and more rely on non-conventional and costly water resources such as wastewater treatment and desalination. Obviously, this bears a heavy burden on the economic growth within these countries. In this paper, rationalizing the virtual water trade and enhancing desalination using renewable energy are presented as two promising options to bridging the Maghreb’s water gap.
      PubDate: 2016-06-09
       
  • Investigating soils retention ratios and modelling geochemical factors
           affecting heavy metals retention in soils in a tropical urban watershed
    • Abstract: Abstract This study aimed at investigating the retention of Pb and Cd in soils and the geochemical factors influencing the adsorption of these pollutants. Soil samples were air-dried and ground to pass through a 2-mm sieve, and different soil extracts were prepared for chemical analysis (organic matter, cation exchange capacity and pH). Total Pb and Cd were extracted with diacid using digestion method and determined by atomic adsorption spectrophotometer (AAS) after filtration. Results revealed that the heavy metals retention ratio (RR) of the Rhodic ferralsol, Xanthic ferralsol and Mollic gleysol (2) were very high for Cd (>80 %) and was relatively low (generally < 60 %) for Pb. In contrast, RRs for the Plinthic gleysol and the Mollic gleysol (1) were relatively low (<60 %), regardless of the heavy metal concerned. Multiple regression equations indicated for Pb and Cd concentrations different linear relationships over simple linear regression, when pH, organic matter, clay percentage and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were used as independent variables. Results indicate that organic matter exerts major influences on the retention of Pb and Cd in soils, while CEC, clay content and pH have a minor influence in this process in the Ntem watershed. From these observations, the application of soil organic matter could be a solution in protecting shallow aquifers from heavy metal pollution and thus insuring that they are not a hazard to public health.
      PubDate: 2016-06-08
       
  • The challenge of sustainability in informal settlements of Iran (case
           study: Sanandaj city)
    • Abstract: Abstract Informal settlements in cities require wider and more comprehensive planning. Lack of attention toward inequalities in the entire city and to the conditions of accommodation in informal settlements has caused unsustainability in these settlements. Accordingly, for the purpose of identifying indicators of urban unsustainability in informal settlements in Iran and planning for the improvement of these indicators, this paper first studied the sustainability indicators of urban informal settlements in Sanandaj and then analyzed the sustainability of these settlements using SWOT. According to the results, the informal settlements in Iran were unsustainable in terms of such indicators as employment, housing, housing cooperative companies, participation in projects, promotion of local culture, public services, transportation, environmental attributes, health services, etc. Planning for the sustainability of these settlements should focus on aspects such as renewable energy, housing, economic planning, urban spaces, land management, upgrading plans, employment and transportation planning.
      PubDate: 2016-06-03
       
  • Local communities’ belief in climate change in a rural region of
           Sub-Saharan Africa
    • Abstract: Abstract A survey among adult residents (n = 416) was designed to understand their belief in and concern for climate change (CC) across three rural community groups in Osun State, Nigeria. This was with a view to understand their perspectives and to assist in Sub-Saharan Africa CC policy formulation. Over half (52.6 %) of the residents who did not believe in CC were illiterate (55.3 %) but were aware, especially through radio (43.0 %). Awareness through government agents, newspaper and information from weather stations were poorly reported. The residents observed variability in their local climate conditions over the decades and were highly concerned (69.2 %) of the effects of this on their farming activities. Residents’ belief in and concern for CC in hamlet (r = 0.303) and compact (r = 0.406) rural communities were significant (P < 0.001), though below moderate and weak in dispersed (r = 0.058, P = 0.000) areas. Despite the weak relationship in the latter settlement category, its regression coefficient of determination (R 2) showed that the level of awareness was responsible for just 0.3 % of the variation in the concern for it but increased by 9.8 % when adjusted by education. Scientific opinions on farm chemicals (2.64), automobile exhaust (2.35), fuel-based generator fumes (2.56) and burning of logs (2.38) were rated below CC causal mean index (3.0), while traditional belief that CC occurs as a natural phenomenon (4.37) was highly rated. The Sub-Saharan African governments must raise policies that can address rural adult education to increase their level of awareness and positively influence local residents’ belief about CC in their local communities.
      PubDate: 2016-06-02
       
  • Climate change impacts on rainfed cropping production systems in the
           tropics and the case of smallholder farms in North-west Cambodia
    • Abstract: Abstract The consequences of climate change on smallholder farms are locally specific and difficult to quantify because of variations in farming systems, complexity of agricultural and non-agricultural livelihood activities and climate-related vulnerability. One way to better understand the issues is to learn from the experiences of farmers themselves. Thus, this study aimed to better understand rainfed upland cropping systems in NW Cambodia and to identify practical, social and economic constraints to adoption of known climate adaptation options applicable to local agro-ecosystems. The study also sought to document the climate change perceptions and adaptation options employed by farmers to mitigate the climate risks. A household survey was conducted in the districts of Sala Krau and Samlout in North-west Cambodia in 2013 where 390 representatives of households were randomly selected for interviews, group discussions and field observations. The majority of respondents perceived that changes had occurred in the rainfall pattern such as a later start to the monsoon season, decreasing annual rainfall, increasing frequencies of drought and dry spells, and warmer temperatures. Farmers reported reductions in crop yields of 16–27 % over the five-year period of 2008–2012. However, these reductions were not evident in provincial data for the same period. Farmers claimed climate impacts resulted in significant yield reductions, but they appear not to have an effective strategy to adapt to the changes in climate. Further regional research is required to refine climate change adaptation strategies for rainfed upland cropping systems in Cambodia.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
       
  • Indoor air pollution and women’s health in India: an exploratory
           analysis
    • Abstract: Abstract Cooking and heating with solid fuels (wood, charcoal, crop waste, dung, coal etc) generates high levels health damaging pollutants in the home. This study is designed to test whether easy availability of cheap harmful fuels, income stratificatiom within society and awareness regarding negative health impact, causes tuberculosis and asthma, among adult married female respondents, along with profiles of their fuel selection. An empirical exercise, by applying binary logistic model and multivariate regression model, has been carried out using Third National Family Health Survey data conducted in India during 2005–2006. The results of binary logistic model indicate that with easy availability of biomass fuels, respondents are more prone to their usage. Therefore, availability/supply of least polluting cooking fuel may be ensured in reducing the level of IAP to eradicate IAP-related disease affecting most adversely the women. So easy availability and low cost of cleaner cooking fuel should get the priority in the policy criteria of the government.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
       
  • Emily Monosson: Unnatural selection: How we are changing life, gene by
           gene?
    • PubDate: 2016-06-01
       
  • Ulrich Volz, Judith Bönke, Vanessa Eidt, Laura Knierim, Katharina
           Richert and Greta-Maria Röber: Financing the green transformation:
           How to make green finance work in Indonesia
    • PubDate: 2016-06-01
       
  • Andy Dyer: Chasing the red queen: the evolutionary race between
           agricultural pests and poisons
    • PubDate: 2016-06-01
       
  • Is the Clean Development Mechanism delivering benefits to the poorest
           communities in the developing world? A critical evaluation and
           proposals for reform
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper explores whether the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), a flexibility mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol, has contributed to poverty alleviation in countries that host CDM projects. We argue that the CDM should deliver pro-poor benefits to the communities in which projects are established, since poverty alleviation is integral to sustainable development, which is one of the main purposes of the CDM. After briefly discussing the background of the CDM, we discuss assessment difficulties to which research is prone when evaluating CDM projects for alleged sustainable development contributions. Section 4 brings together and analyses available empirical research on the pro-poor benefits the CDM purportedly delivers to host country communities, concluding that the CDM has failed to deliver poverty alleviation. Therefore, without attempting to be exhaustive, we suggest policy reforms that aim to redirect the CDM to those most in need of assistance.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
       
  • The importance of achieving a high customer satisfaction with recycling
           services in communities
    • Abstract: Abstract Some studies show that there are external, infrastructural, and economic factors that enable individuals and communities to act ecologically. A variable associated with sustainable behavior is the level of satisfaction with infrastructural and economic factors, which in turn relates to recycling behavior. The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the customer satisfaction with recycling scale and to analyze its relationship with sociodemographic variables (age and gender), house location (in the center or the suburbs, population size of), and psychological variables (self-reported individual recycling behaviors, general satisfaction with recycling service companies, and the perception of costs and the quality of service). A total of 1498 individuals responded to the in-home questionnaire related to these variables. Exploratory and confirmatory factorial analyses confirm a good fit for a four-dimensional model: assurance, tangibles, empathy, and communication. Results show that those individuals who live in town centers tend to self-report higher levels of satisfaction with tangibles than those living in the suburbs. Population sizes correlate significantly and negatively with the four dimensions of service satisfaction, while age seems to relate significantly and negatively to all the studied variables. Finally, we discuss the implications regarding the importance of customer satisfaction in facilitating the environmentally responsible behavior.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
       
  • Payments for ecosystem services (PES): a flexible, participatory, and
           integrated approach for improved conservation and equity outcomes
    • Abstract: Abstract Over the past 20 years, payments for ecosystem services (PES) has become increasingly popular as a mechanism to promote environmentally sustainable land-use practices, and a burgeoning literature has been produced on this policy approach. The goal of this paper is to offer a comprehensive review of this literature, and to focus on four major aspects of PES: (1) its efficiency in delivering environmental conservation, (2) its impacts on the well-being of local land users, (3) its interaction with local norms of distributive justice and environmental stewardship, and (4) its interplay with broader national policies and socio-economic trends. Two major insights are drawn from this review of the literature. First, the conceptualisation of PES according to the neoclassical economic theory of efficient market transactions and utilitarian human behaviour may be unrealistic and counterproductive. In terms of efficient financial transactions, the physical properties of public ecosystem services obstruct the voluntary establishment of PES schemes by direct beneficiaries, practical constraints exist on the enforcement of outcome-based conditionality, and efficiency goals may need to be partly sacrificed to prevent the exacerbation of social inequalities. In terms of human behaviour, land users’ actions are shaped not only by personal utility calculations, but also by intrinsic norms of distributive justice and environmental stewardship; the interaction of PES with these intrinsic norms can negatively impact on its local legitimacy and even ‘crowd out’ existing motivations for the conservation of nature. The second insight is that land users’ capacity to shift to sustainable land practices, while influenced by the direct payments, remains strongly determined by broader socio-economic trends and by national strategies for rural development and institutional reform. On the basis of these insights, a flexible, participatory, and integrated conceptualisation of PES that can better account for this range of physical, socio-economic, and normative factors is proposed here as more capable of delivering efficient, equitable, and resilient conservation outcomes.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
       
  • Analysis of different nutrient status of liquid bio-fertilizer of
           different combinations of buffalo dung with gram bran and water hyacinth
           through vermicomposting by Eisenia fetida
    • Abstract: Abstract The animal, agro-wastes and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) are a serious problem for the society and ecosystem. The present study carried out the management of water hyacinth and observation of nutritional status like pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total organic carbon (TOC), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), C/N ratio, total phosphorus and total calcium (TCa) of liquid bio-fertilizer (vermiwash) before and after vermicomposting of feed materials of different combinations of buffalo dung (BD) with water hyacinth (WH) and gram bran (GB). After vermicomposting of different combinations of BD with WH and agro-wastes, significant decrease in level of pH, EC, TOC and C/N ratio was observed, whereas significant increase in TKN, TK, TAP and TCa level in vermiwash of final vermicompost with respect to initial feed material was observed. The pH of initial mixture in all combinations has tended to basic in nature, while in final vermicompost, it becomes neutral/basic. The significant increase was observed in the level of TKN, TK, TAP in BD + GB + WH (1:2:1) and TCa in BD + GB + WH (1:1:2) vermiwash of final vermicompost of combination, whereas decrease was observed in TOC, C/N ratio, pH and EC in BD + WH (1:1), BD + GB + WH (1:1:1), BD + GB + WH (1:2:1) and BD + GB (1:1), respectively.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
       
  • Awareness on usage of contaminated groundwater around Perungudi dumpsite,
           Tamil Nadu, India
    • Abstract: Abstract Groundwater is the major drinking water source both in urban and rural area. Mostly in urban and peri-urban areas of developing countries, groundwater is more susceptible to contamination due to urbanization. Therefore, the awareness of usage of groundwater has to be analysed to frame the policy measures and to suggest proper intervention programs. The community residing around Perungudi dumpsite, Tamil Nadu, India, has been chosen to assess the awareness on usage of groundwater using regression model. The groundwater flow and quality analysis assessed technically is in line with people’s perception on groundwater quality. The model results clearly indicate that the socio-economic status (β = 0.167) and distance (β = 0.305) play a major role in groundwater usage. Though 31.2 % of respondents reported that the water quality is bad within 1 km in the contaminated area, 45 % of low socio-economic categories depend on well water. This shows the unawareness of health issues due to the usage of contaminated water. Proper policies have to be framed, especially for the contaminated site to get rid of adverse health impacts due to long-term exposure of contaminated water.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
       
 
 
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