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Journal Cover Environment, Development and Sustainability
  [SJR: 0.438]   [H-I: 36]   [33 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-2975 - ISSN (Online) 1387-585X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2345 journals]
  • Using linear regression to measure bird abundance
    • Authors: Kua Rittiboon; Phattrawan Tongkumchum
      Pages: 1003 - 1013
      Abstract: This study investigated methods for identifying daily incidence rates for bird species. It focused on relationships between incidence rates, site and season. We used sightings of 23 common resident species routinely reported every month from January 2004 to December 2007 at seven wetland locations in the Thale Noi non-hunting area of southern Thailand. Our findings revealed that the log-linear model gives a quite satisfactory fit, so it appears a suitable type of model for bird abundance. On taking logarithms of the incidence rates though, the zero counts must be replaced by an appropriate constant. Our model suggests that Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis) was found at the Thale Noi non-hunting area with the highest incidence rate. In contrast, we found a low mean of model outputs for Lesser Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna javanica) relative to the mean in the data, and this species was not observed on at least 25 % or 3 days per year. These data had a low number of zeros and a large number of various species. Therefore, we recognize a remark on “what is being counted” that it is important to reasonably explain the species abundance in terms of statistical and ecological approaches.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9785-8
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Design, measurement and evaluation of photovoltaic pumping system for
           rural areas in Oman
    • Authors: Hussein A. Kazem; Ali H. A. Al-Waeli; Miqdam T. Chaichan; Asma S. Al-Mamari; Atma H. Al-Kabi
      Pages: 1041 - 1053
      Abstract: In the present paper, the optimum design of a PV system used to operate a water pumping system was determined for Oman. The system design focused on the environmental conditions of Sohar city. The implementation and measurement of the designed system are presented to prove the effectiveness of the proposed system. The results show that the system can provide the required power at peak hours, leading to a substantial reduction in the sizing of the PV system. Consequently, the investment capital costs 2400 USD, and the cost of energy is equal to 0.309 USD/kWh. Furthermore, the results indicate that the system annual yield factor is 2024.66 kWh/kWp and that the capacity factor is 23.05 %, which is encouraging since the latter is typically 21 %. The system capital cost and the cost of energy are worth comparing to a diesel generator. A comparison is made between the proposed system and several others in the literature. The comparison indicated that the system cost of energy is promising.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9773-z
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Sustainable sanitation, improved use of composting latrines through mixing
           and moisturizing: case study in Paraguay
    • Authors: Paul T. Pebler; Brian D. Barkdoll
      Pages: 1055 - 1066
      Abstract: Providing sanitation for water-starved areas is crucial to environmental sustainability. Composting latrines are a sustainable sanitation method since they do not require water. However, little analysis has been done on the decomposition process occurring inside the latrine, including what temperatures are reached and what variables most affect the composting process. Having better knowledge of how outside variables affect composting latrines can aid designers and users on the choice, design, and use. Detailed field measurements of pit temperature in a latrine for several months were taken with the compost being frequently mixed and moistened. Ambient temperatures and the mixing of liquid to the compost resulted in temperature increases 100 % of the time, with seasonal ambient temperatures determining the rate and duration of the temperature increases. However, compost only reached total pathogen destruction levels in 10 % of the measurements. Storage time recommendation outlined by the World Health Organization should be complied with. If these storage durations are obtainable, the use of composting latrines is an economical and sustainable solution to sanitation while conserving water resources.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9780-0
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • The use of green criteria in the public procurement of food products and
           catering services: a review of EU schemes
    • Authors: Belmira Neto; Miguel Gama Caldas
      Abstract: Green Public Procurement (GPP) is currently being used to influence the market to shift to a supply of goods and services to the public sector that have a reduced environmental impact. The food service sector plays a major role in the purchases made by the public sector and due to that relevance deserves attention. The GPP schemes reviewed were those that provide details of the specific environmental criteria used (or recommended) for public tendering of food products and catering services provision. The set of GPP schemes apply to distinct geographical zones within the EU, including national level (e.g. Italy), regional level (e.g. Barcelona) and also local level, as in the case of cities (e.g. Copenhagen) or schools (e.g. a school in Pisa, Italy). The criteria set covers services provision to schools, health and social care, higher education, government office canteens, sports and leisure arenas, prisons and defence services (e.g. army). European and worldwide GPP criteria were not covered by the review made. This exploratory study comprehends a total of 23 GPP schemes. This sample includes eight national schemes, three regional schemes and ten local schemes. The review focused on the scope, for the sector of applicability (e.g. education, healthcare) of the GPP set of criteria and for the type of food products covered. Moreover, this paper analyses the type of GPP criteria in use and how the environmental criteria cover the distinct life cycle stages of the whole food supply chain. Findings from the analysis show that for the majority of schemes the scope of criteria is simultaneously the provision of food products and catering services. Moreover, cities, municipalities and counties are the main public authorities reporting procurement activities for the education sector while national GPP activities are applicable for multiple sectors of activity. The main food products covered by the criteria are fruits and vegetables, dairy products, fish and seafood and meat. Finally, the findings show that the set of criteria from the schemes cover widely the life cycle stages of the food supply chain. The results allowed for a first identification of current practices in the use of GPP criteria within public purchasing of food products and catering services in Europe by national, regional or local governments.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-9992-y
       
  • A quantitative ethnobotanical approach toward biodiversity conservation of
           useful woody species in Wari-Maro forest reserve (Benin, West Africa)
    • Authors: Carlos C. Ahoyo; Thierry D. Houehanou; Alain S. Yaoitcha; Kathleen Prinz; Achille E. Assogbadjo; Christian S. G. Adjahossou; Frank Hellwig; Marcel R. B. Houinato
      Abstract: Quantitative ethnobotany researches can contribute much to guide biodiversity conservation, especially in developing countries. Our study presents a step-by-step approach to identify priority species for local conservation of useful woody species. The presented approach includes (1) an investigation of the popularity and versatility of woody species in the local people, (2) an estimation of the ecological availability of useful tree species in the forest and (3) identification of local priority species for conservation. We focused the study on the Wari-Maro forest reserve in the Sudanian zone of Benin as an example to implement such approach and identify useful priority species for sustainable conservation and management strategies development. Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted with people in surrounding villages of the forest composed by different sociocultural groups. Floristic vegetation surveys were performed within the forest to assess the local ecological availability of used woody species. A principal component analysis was performed to analyze the versatility, the popularity and the ecological availability of species. Spearman’s correlation test was used to assess relation between variables. In total, 79 woody species were reported for seven main types of uses: technology, construction, medicinal, veterinary, food, forage and energy. Among them, 35 were most popular and versatile, and 3 were characterized as priorities for conservation especially regarding their less availability and more versatility. We discussed the used approach by the underlining importance of integrating wood uses or multiples uses in conservation priorities setting and conservation decision-making of useful woody tree species.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-9990-0
       
  • Environment and sustainability of the Middle Route, South-to-North Water
           Transfer Project in China: a close look
    • Authors: Xiang-Zhou Xu; Guo-Dong Song; Tian-Min Dang; Jian-Wei Liu; Hong-Wu Zhang; Hang Gao; Ya-Kun Liu
      Abstract: In many arid and semiarid regions, water scarcity, population increase and frequent droughts are exerting great pressures on water resources. Presently, the Mid-route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (MRSN) was built to mitigate the water crisis in the north of China by long-distance transfer of water from the Yangtze River in southern China. This study investigated the running condition of the MRSN, including operation management, freezing situation and water quality. Water samples were also taken from different sites and then analyzed in laboratory. Results suggest that the project was reasonably designed and the project management was excellent. Closed management was adopted in the project to protect water quality. The sediment concentrations and water turbidities of the water samples were in the range of 0.2–0.8 kg/m3 and 0.8–1.7 NTU, respectively, which met or were close to the standards of drinking water in China. Water freezing is also not a problem, since the thickest ice was only 0.9 cm even in the coldest season as the authors measured the investigation, and at the same time, the ice booms worked well. In the future, it is promising that to effectively integrate the methods of self-rescuing and water importing could fundamentally conquer water shortage, reasonably allocate water resources and finally achieve the harmonious development of economics, ecology and society.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-9996-7
       
  • Boat automation and fishery livelihood: a case of Chilika Lake in Odisha
    • Authors: Soumen Ray; Rabindra Garada
      Abstract: Chilika Lake, situated in the eastern part of India is a biodiversity site and is blessed with distinct assemblage of oceanic and fresh water. The lake having extremely rich fishery resources helps in generating instant employments and livelihoods to a large number of fishers and non-fishers residing in and around it. However, during the past few years the augmented utilisation of modern fishing technology including mechanised boats has increased the vulnerability of the traditional fisher folks. Based on a field survey of 450 fishing households (selected through multistage purposive sampling method), this paper highlights the changing concerns and crisis of traditional fishing livelihood in the context of overuse of motorised boats. In the past, the lake seems to have invited free entry and competition for fishing venture, and thereby promoting economic efficiency but resulting exactly the opposite effects. The study also reveals that the boat motorisation and its related new regulations resulting in climate vulnerability are fast weakening the traditional fisheries in the Chilika Lake. It is high time to regulate the present day means and ways of fishing in the lake keeping in mind the fast depletion of fishery resources and rapid degradation of lake environment. Thus, the article argues that the effective management of motorised boats, strict regulation of user’s rights to fishing and promotion of alternate non-fishing livelihood options can be a number of key factors for maintaining the lake’s rich biodiversity as well as sustaining fishery and aquaculture in the lake.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-9995-8
       
  • Impact assessment of industrial wastewater discharge in a river basin
           using interval-valued fuzzy group decision-making and spatial approach
    • Authors: R. Srinivas; Ajit Pratap Singh
      Abstract: Sustainable and integrated river basin planning and management is a complex process involving uncertain data at different stages of decision-making process. Moreover, there are multiple decision makers at different institutions with contrasting interests and objectives, and thus, a collaborative decision making is required to resolve the conflicts. Although the formulation or modeling of such problems under fuzzy framework provides a very strong ground to deal with the uncertain and complex judgments, there is scope to model the problem more accurately. The present study develops a novel approach of dealing with uncertainty associated with group decision making in a river basin, by extending fuzzy Delphi process using interval-valued fuzzy sets. A case study of assessing the impact of industrial wastewaters on the Ganges River basin, India, has also been presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. A total of 33 industrial units, mainly paper pulp, tanneries and textiles, discharging massive quantities of wastewater in the Ganges River basin have been chosen for the analysis. These industries are rated by the expert decision makers to represent their objective judgments (and/or subjective preferences) on the basis of ten essential sets of criteria such as impact on river, impact on groundwater, critical pollutants level, impact on public health. The ratings are analyzed and aggregated using modified fuzzy decision-making approach, and industries are ranked accordingly. To enhance the decision-making process, the results are also represented spatially under GIS environment. Analysis of results clearly demonstrates the contribution of crucial indicators/criteria in ensuring the sustainable use of water resources with respect to environmental, social and economic dimensions. The results obtained are compared and validated with the recent research works and reports of pollution control boards. The study recommends several policy implementations, primarily revisal in prescribed effluent discharge standards of the industries. The model developed herein can be an efficient and productive tool for complex group decisions in water resources planning by facilitating participation and knowledge sharing among the experts.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-9994-9
       
  • A web-based multiple criteria decision support system for evaluation
           analysis of carpooling
    • Authors: Antonella Petrillo; Pasquale Carotenuto; Ilaria Baffo; Fabio De Felice
      Abstract: Several researches in the scientific, industrial and commercial fields are supporting the reduction of traditional combustion cars’ use. The main purpose is to increase the quality of life into the metropolitan cities through the reduction of CO2 emissions and global warming. Accordingly, one of the most successful models is the carpooling system. Currently, people are investigating the sustainability and durability of carpooling business model from both economic and organizational point of view. The present research aims to develop a Multicriteria Decision Support System (MDSS) in order to offer a carpooling system’s platform based on different criteria. The MDSS is developed from driver’s point of view and settled on two levels of optimization. Firstly, a genetic algorithm is proposed to solve an orienteering problem that optimizes the total revenue of driver based on the car’s capability and the time schedule. Secondly, the best optimization solutions are compared with multicriteria analysis respect to other criteria not included in the first optimization. The outcome of MDSS is a schedule for drivers, which gives maximum satisfaction in terms of profitability, punctuality and comfort of the travel.
      PubDate: 2017-06-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-9991-z
       
  • Determinants of households’ involvement in waste separation and
           collection for recycling in South Africa
    • Authors: Abayomi Samuel Oyekale
      Abstract: Urbanization and industrial development in many developing countries have brought along significant problem of waste management and other environmental concerns. Recycling is a veritable option already identified in the South Africa’s Waste Act of 2008 as a way of reducing negative externalities that are associated with waste accumulation and its improper disposal. This study analysed the factors influencing households’ involvement in waste separation/collection for recycling in South Africa within the modified framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The data were the General Household Survey of 2014, which were analysed with descriptive statistics and two-stage probit regression. The results showed that waste bins that were provided by municipalities were used for waste disposal by 43.36% of urban households as compared to 1.54% for those from rural households. More than half of rural households had no means of storing wastes, while payment for disposal was reported by 58.95% of urban households. Also, 8.13% of all households separated wastes for recycling, but urban households had higher involvement with 11.18%. The main reasons for not recycling among urban and rural households were disposal into available bins (68.50%) and notion that it is not important (52.19%), respectively. The two-stage probit regression results showed that monthly income, being married, race (white, Indian, coloured), paying and willing to pay for waste disposal, existence of waste recycling programmes and facilities positively and statistical significantly (p < 0.10) influenced recycling, while perception of financial benefits and perception of the importance of recycling reduced it. It was concluded that initiatives to resuscitate recycling behaviours should focus on creation of proper awareness, attitudinal change and ensuring availability of recycling facilities, among others.
      PubDate: 2017-06-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-9993-x
       
  • Micro-level social vulnerability assessment towards climate change
           adaptation in semi-arid Ghana, West Africa
    • Authors: Biola K. Badmos; Ademola A. Adenle; Sampson K. Agodzo; Grace B. Villamor; Daniel K. Asare-Kyei; Laouali M. Amadou; Samuel N. Odai
      Abstract: This study determined the social vulnerability index (SoVI) of households to climate change impacts for three identified locations (upper, mid and lower) in the Vea catchment, semi-arid Ghana. This study adapted the social, economic and demographic indicator approach. The data used were obtained from a survey of 186 randomly sampled farm households and direct field measurements of 738 farm plots belonging to the same sampled farm households. Information from the literature, expert judgement and principal component analysis were useful for computing and analysing the SoVI. The variables were normalized, weighted and subsequently recombined to determine the index of the three locations towards climate change. Although the SoVI to climate change was highest (0.77) for the upper part of the catchment, the mid- and lower parts of the catchment show a high SoVI of 0.72 each. The overall SoVI for the catchment is 0.73. The study re-emphasizes the high vulnerability level of dry areas to climate change. Moreover, it shows there is variability at micro-scale. There is a need to put appropriate measures to address the vulnerability of households to climate change in the semi-arid areas of West Africa. Factors aggravating dry land’s vulnerability towards climate change should be prevented with implementable policies. Furthermore, it is important to identify conditions that have made some areas less vulnerable to climate change, and then, we can work out the possibility of adapting such to the vulnerable places.
      PubDate: 2017-06-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-9988-7
       
  • A study on mountain front recharge by using integrated techniques in the
           hard rock aquifers of southern India
    • Authors: Banajarani Panda; S. Chidambaram; N. Ganesh; V. S. Adithya; K. Pradeep; U. Vasudevan; A. L. Ramanathan; Shyam Ranjan; M. V. Prasanna; K. Paramaguru
      Abstract: Mountain front recharge (MFR) is the contribution of mountains to recharge the aquifers in the adjacent basins. The estimation of MFR is essential to obtain a detailed investigation of recharge of the groundwater at the mountain front. This study summarises the current understanding of recharge processes by comparing daily groundwater fluctuation to daily rainfall and identifies the recharge rates. The recharge rates vary with time due to difference in water table depth and travel time. Thus to understand the MFR along the foothills of Courtallam, a total of 14 surface water, rainwater and groundwater samples were collected and measured for stable isotopes. The isotopic data were used to investigate the recharge process and to identify the elevations to recharge. The study findings also suggest that predominantly rainfall along the foothills contributes recharge to the riparian zone (basin block region), whereas foothill regions receive recharge from rainfall over mountain block.
      PubDate: 2017-06-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-9987-8
       
  • ‘Complex crisis’ and the rise of collaborative natural resource
           governance: institutional trajectory of a wildlife governance experience
           in Ghana
    • Authors: Emmanuel Yeboah-Assiamah; Kobus Muller; Kwame Ameyaw Domfeh
      Abstract: Natural resource governance is underpinned by institutions which evolve ‘circumstantially’ over time. An attempt at understanding the contemporary institutions and governance structure of a resource requires an in-depth ethnographic enquiry. Adapting a four-phase institutional analysis framework, this study discusses the evolution and adaptation of wildlife governance structures and institutions using the unique experience of Boabeng–Fiema Monkey Sanctuary in Ghana. The study adopted a transdisciplinary research approach which was participatory and consultative. The key observations are that: wildlife institutions have gone through three main evolutionary phases, a pre-collaborative phase, which was exclusively underpinned by informal institutions; a critical juncture stage, where contextual challenges led to an adaptive response; the third and contemporary phase is a collaborative governance regime, where the erstwhile informal institutions have been complemented by formal state structures and institutions to synergistically enhance viability of the wildlife species. In spite of the problems posed to community members by the monkeys (wildlife), the study still observes a cordial human–wildlife relationship. Based on the study outcomes, we derive four key conclusions which have implications for institutionalism and natural resource governance.
      PubDate: 2017-06-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-9985-x
       
  • Identifying land suitable for agricultural land reform using GIS-MCDA in
           South Africa
    • Authors: Walter Musakwa
      Abstract: Land reform is identified as a key tool in fostering development in South Africa. Twenty years after the advent of democracy in South Africa, the land question remains a critical issue for policy makers. Several frameworks have been put in place by the government to identify land that is strategically located for land reform. However, many of these frameworks are not well aligned and not objective in defining strategically located land for land reform and often lead to unsustainable land use management practices. This has hampered the government’s land reform initiative in promoting agricultural land reform and food security. Accordingly, there is a need to develop a decision support tool that facilitates the identification of strategically located land for land reform. This study proposes the use of geographic information systems (GIS) and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to develop a strategically located land index (SLLI) to identify land suitable for agricultural land reform. Participatory workshops and the group analytical hierarchy process were utilised to identify and weigh criteria used in computing the SLLI. The results indicate that land that is suitable for agricultural land reform is scarce, and there are also competing needs on the highly suitable land for agriculture. The study demonstrates that GIS and MCDA are invaluable tools in facilitating evidence-based decision-making for land reform and sustainable land use management practices. The SLLI is not the panacea to land identification; there is also need to appreciate the contested nature of land in South Africa.
      PubDate: 2017-06-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-9989-6
       
  • Communicating in the public sphere: effects of patriarchy on knowledge
           sharing among community-based organizations leaders in Botswana
    • Authors: Olekae T. Thakadu
      Abstract: Knowledge and knowledge sharing are widely regarded as important assets for the overall performance and competiveness of organizations. This study explored the effect of gender on selected predictors of knowledge sharing behaviors among community-based organizations leaders in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. The study, guided by the patriarchy theory, employed a quasi-experimental research approach, using a counterbalanced design. A sample of 120 subjects, drawn from a cluster sample of 13 villages’ Board of Trustees participating in community-based conservation projects, was used. Data were collected using a retrospective pretest instrument and analyzed using one-way mixed between-within doubly repeated measures ANCOVA. The results revealed that only behavioral intention showed significant effects, F(1, 107) = 6.60, p = .01, suggesting differential effects of gender on intention to share knowledge. The study concluded that females are less likely to share information acquired as part of their portfolio responsibility in the public sphere when compared to their male counterpart.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-9986-9
       
  • Understanding the paradox of rising consumption of alternative medicine in
           Kenya
    • Authors: Maurice Ochieng’ Ombok; Maurice Juma Ogada
      Abstract: Kenya has been expanding provision of healthcare services, taking health facilities closer to the people. While this would be expected to reduce dependence on complementary/alternative medicine, the consumption has continued to rise. This raises the question of whether alternative medicine is replacing conventional medicine or the two are jointly used to deal with diseases. Thus, this study sought to establish the relationship of the two remedies in household choice of healthcare and explored the determinants of such choices. The study used bivariate probit analysis on cross-sectional data. The study found that consumption of conventional medicine and alternative medicine was indeed interdependent. The two were, on average, substitutes although some groups still consumed them jointly. Gender, education and age of the household head, price of conventional medicine, distance to conventional medicine facilities and social networks were found to influence the decisions. Male household heads, price of conventional medicine and distance to conventional medical facilities had a positive relationship with the probability of using alternative remedies. Education and age of household head, and social capital were associated with lower likelihood of choosing alternative remedies. The results of this study have important ramifications for medical researchers, health policy makers and health insurance providers. For medical researchers, joint use of alternative and conventional medicines makes it important to understand the interactions between the two so as to avoid adverse reactions that may endanger the lives of patients. For the health policy makers, because patients have different preferences for healthcare services, it is useful to provide alternative medicine and conventional medicine in a joint and integrated health system for patients’ freedom of choice, and for safety and efficacy of treatment. Health insurance providers, on their part, need to explore the possibilities and modalities for bringing users of alternative medicine, and joint users of alternative and conventional medicines under their cover.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-9980-2
       
  • Channel migration zone mapping of the River Ganga in the Diara surrounding
           region of Eastern India
    • Authors: Kaustuv Mukherjee; Swades Pal
      Abstract: River channel migration is the universal phenomenon that is common in almost all alluvial rivers. The holy River Ganga, the heartbeat of India, is also not an exception in this case. It has shifted its course from time to time. After crossing the Rajmahal hills that is situated in the north-eastern corner of the Chota Nagpur plateau, this main river of India has started its lower course by flowing over the great low-lying flat plain of Bengal. In this flat plain area, the channel migration is a common phenomenon which is observed in the River Ganga also. The study is done in the segment of the Ganga River which is situated in the Diara surrounding area. Diara is a physical cum administrative region of the Malda district of the state of West Bengal of India which occupies an area of almost 900 km2. For the identification of channel migration zone, several methods are used like construction of historical migration zone (HMZ), erosion buffer (EB), avulsion potential zone (APZ), restricted and un-restricted migration area (RMA and UrMA) and retreating migration zone (RMZ). The impact of the channel migration over the villages of the Diara region has also been depicted in this study. Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (RS–GIS) is used to perform this study by taking the help of historical maps, Survey of India topographical sheets, LANDSAT imageries, etc. The results show that the river has a historical migration zone of 855.55 km2 during 1926–2016 period which is near the entire area of the Diara region (i.e. 900 km2). The construction of EB over the Ganga River for the next 100 years shows that more than half of the area of the Diara region will go under the river bed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-9984-y
       
  • Laboratory study on sustainable use of cement–fly ash–polypropylene
           fiber-stabilized dredged material
    • Authors: Rachit Sharma
      Abstract: The major problem associated with gravity dam was siltation of reservoir which reduced its effective water storage capacity. In order to maintain effective storage capacity of reservoir, dredging of deposits was required and dredged material was disposed of haphazardly causing damage to the sensitive environment. A better alternative could be the possibility of utilization of dredged deposits in construction works involving large quantities of material. The dredged material consisted of very fine sandy silt possessing poor geotechnical characteristics and was required to be stabilized with suitable additives before use as construction material. This laboratory investigation evaluated geotechnical properties of dredged reservoir material stabilized with cement, fly ash and fiber for its probable use as subbase in lightly trafficked roads. Compaction, unconfined compressive strength and tensile strength tests were performed on appropriate combinations of the constituent materials. The results of study revealed significant improvement in unconfined compressive strength and split tensile strength after stabilization with cement and fly ash. The unconfined compressive strength and split tensile strength of cement–fly ash-stabilized dredged reservoir material improved further upon addition of polypropylene fiber. The composite possessed the potential to be utilized as sustainable material in subbase of roads subject to further validation before application in the field. The dredging of sediments improved effective storage capacity of reservoir and increased its sustainable life period. The utilization of fly ash could diminish the environmental and economic concerns arising out of its haphazard disposal.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-9982-0
       
  • Mammals and birds as ethno-indicators of change: their importance to
           livestock farmers in Arid Patagonia (Argentina)
    • Authors: Lucía Castillo; Ana Ladio
      Abstract: This work focuses on the study of signs given to humans by domestic and wild vertebrates. These signs are interpreted culturally by settlers who live on the Central Patagonian Plateau and are taken into account in making decisions relating to their lives as subsistence livestock farmers. Open and in-depth interviews were carried out with 20 livestock farmers from 20 rural establishments of Sierra Rosada, Sierra Ventana and El Escorial. We found that locals’ body of knowledge is pervaded by dynamic events in a dialectical, bidirectional process that sustains their traditional way of life. In local discourses, we have distinguished two types of signs: biophysical (e.g. variations in vegetation and climate) and sociocultural (changes in family conformation or in the community, announcement of visit, etc.). We describe 30 signs given by 18 animal ethno-indicators (15 wild and 3 domestic animals, 9 belonging to the class Mammalia and 9 to the class Aves). These signs are used to interpret the natural surroundings and predict both short- and long-term environmental and social processes of change. Amongst the main results, it was found that domestic animals are important principally as ethno-indicators of long-term biophysical changes, whereas wild animals are mainly important in marking short-term biophysical changes and as sociocultural indicators. Finally, the importance of traditional ecological knowledge is discussed with regard to perception, through signs given by domestic animals, of desertification processes such as drought and lack of food on the land.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-9983-z
       
  • Determination of hierarchical relationships among sustainable development
           goals using interpretive structural modeling
    • Authors: Pravin Kumar; Faisal Ahmed; Rajesh Kumar Singh; Prerna Sinha
      Abstract: This paper analyses the complex interactions among the seventeen sustainable development goals (SDGs) and presents them in a hierarchical framework using interpretive structural modeling technique. The driving and dependence powers of each of these goals have been ascertained to help the developing and least developed countries improve their strategic orientation for a particular goal within a given time frame. This would also help them in prioritizing their resource allocations on a specific SDG by focusing on its hierarchical ranking on one hand and driving and dependence powers on the other.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-9981-1
       
 
 
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