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Journal Cover Environment, Development and Sustainability
  [SJR: 0.438]   [H-I: 36]   [31 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-2975 - ISSN (Online) 1387-585X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Environmental pollution in Africa
    • Authors: Abioye O. Fayiga; Mabel O. Ipinmoroti; Tait Chirenje
      Abstract: Abstract Africa is blessed with natural and mineral resources, but exploitation of these resources has led to extreme pollution of the environment. Population growth and urbanization due to developments have also contributed immensely to the current pollution in Africa. Traffic emissions, transported dust and open burning are all significant contributors to air pollution in Africa. The Sahara desert is a major source of transported dust, especially during the harmattan season in West Africa. Mercury emissions are very high in South Africa due to coal combustion and gold mining. Air pollutants may contaminate water and soil through atmospheric deposition. However, the major pollution sources for surface waters are the urban and industrial discharges of untreated effluents into the water. A few African countries have standards for effluent discharge into surface waters, but it is unknown whether these standards are being enforced. Though groundwater sources in wells and boreholes are the major sources of drinking water for the African populace, the biological water quality of these groundwater sources is mostly low in the region due to close proximity to sanitary facilities. Identified sources of soil pollution in Africa include agricultural activities, mining, roadside emissions, auto-mechanic workshops, refuse dumps and e-waste. Oil spills are a major problem in oil-rich African countries such as Nigeria and Angola. Agricultural activities are the lowest impacting the soil in Africa, while e-waste recycling was the highest with Pb, Cu and Zn at extremely high concentrations (>1%). There is a need for proper regulation of environmental pollutants in Africa.
      PubDate: 2017-01-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9894-4
  • Climate change and crop diversity: farmers’ perceptions and adaptation
           on the Bolivian Altiplano
    • Authors: Gennifer Meldrum; Dunja Mijatović; Wilfredo Rojas; Juana Flores; Milton Pinto; Grover Mamani; Eleuterio Condori; David Hilaquita; Helga Gruberg; Stefano Padulosi
      Abstract: Abstract Crop diversity is central to traditional risk management practices on the Andean Altiplano and may find renewed importance in adapting to climate change. This study explored the role of crop diversity in farmers’ adaptation actions in eight Aymara communities on the northern Bolivian Altiplano. Using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, including multifactor analysis and a community resilience self-assessment, we investigated how farmers’ use of diversity in adaptation is related to their perceptions of crop and variety tolerances and other environmental, social, and economic factors. Few crops and varieties were perceived as tolerant to increasingly intense and unpredictable drought, frost, hail, and pest and disease outbreaks. Some local crops and varieties were perceived as vulnerable to emerging conditions (e.g. oca, papalisa, isaño), whereas bitter potatoes and wild relatives of quinoa and cañahua were perceived as highly stress tolerant and provide food in harsh periods. A total 19% of households surveyed (N = 193) had introduced new crops or varieties—often disease resistant or early maturing—as an adaptive action. Introduction of commercial crops was a common adaptation action, reflecting farmers’ response to warming temperatures and changing economic opportunities, but greater sensitivity of the introduced crops may cause maladaptation. Despite intensification of cropping systems, households continue to maintain a median four potato varieties with different tolerance traits, yet this risk management practice was not perceived as adaptation. Strengthening resilience will require a combination of actions, including maintaining and expanding crop portfolios and restoring soil and ecosystem health, using both traditional and innovative approaches.
      PubDate: 2017-01-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9906-4
  • Scenarios and story lines: drivers of land use change in southern Mexico
    • Authors: Melanie Kolb; Leopoldo Galicia
      Abstract: Abstract The study presents three scenarios of land use and cover change (LUCC), the most important factor for environmental degradation in southern Mexico. We developed story lines and quantitative projections for regional scenarios based on historic LUCC processes, environmental policies, socioeconomic drivers, stakeholder consultations and official planning documents to gain a better understanding of drivers of LUCC, and quantitative scenarios were modeled with DINAMICA-EGO. Regionally specific interactions between social and natural systems are recognized, and detrimental policies and policy options for landscape conservation and management for sustainability are acknowledged in a base line, variant and alternative scenario. Incongruent policies and ineffective ground implementation of conservation actions were identified as the critical underlying drivers of deforestation and forest degradation that could lead to a severe reduction in natural forests, while the local socioeconomic situation stays precarious. The baseline scenario parts from an analysis of historic LUCC processes and shows the consequences of LUCC tendencies: 73% of temperate forests and 50% of tropical forests would get deforested until 2030. In the variant scenario, these tendencies are adjusted to planning goals extracted from official documents and recent changes in public policies. The alternative scenario further addresses policy options for fostering conservation and sustainable development, but because of the time lag of implementation, still 59% of temperate forests and 36% of tropical forest would get lost until 2030. Nevertheless, this represents a reduction of 13% of forest loss and 11% less pastureland due to the proposed measures of conservation, and sustainable management, including strategies for reforming agricultural systems, agricultural and forestry policies and trade, land tenure and livelihood risk management.
      PubDate: 2017-01-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9905-5
  • Stand-alone hybrid energy system for sustainable development in rural
    • Authors: Renu Sharma; Sonali Goel
      Pages: 1601 - 1614
      Abstract: Abstract Renewable energy system such as solar, wind, small hydro and biogas generators can be used successfully in rural off-grid locations where grid connection is not possible. The main objectives of this study are to examine which configuration is the most cost-effective for the village. One renewable energy model has been developed for supplying electric power for 124 rural households of an off-grid rural village in eastern India. The load demand of the village was determined by the survey work, and the loads were divided into three sub-heads such as primary load I, primary load II and deferred load. Locally available energy sources such as solar radiation and biogas derived from cow dung and kitchen wastes were used as sensitivity variables. This study is unique as it has not considered any diesel generator for supplying unmet electricity to the households; rather it completely depends on locally available renewable resources. Here in this paper, two different models were taken and their cost and environmental benefit were discussed and compared. The net present cost, levelised cost of energy and operating cost for various configurations of models were determined. The minimum cost of energy of $0.476/kWh with lowest net present cost of $386,971 and lowest operating cost ($21,025/year) was found with stand-alone solar–biogas hybrid system.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-015-9705-3
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
  • Contribution of the sugar cane industry to reduce carbon dioxide emissions
           in the energy sector: the case of Mauritius
    • Authors: A. Khoodaruth
      Pages: 1719 - 1731
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this paper was to present the contribution of the sugar cane industry to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the energy sector. Mauritius is taken as a case study. Sugar cane was introduced in Mauritius during the seventeenth century and production of sugar started around 60 years later. Since then, the cane industry has been one of the economic pillars of the country. Bagasse, a by-product of sugar cane, is used as fuel in cogeneration power plants to produce process heat and electricity. This process heat and the generated electricity are used by an annexed sugar mills for the production of sugar, while the remaining electricity is exported to the national grid. In fact, Mauritius is a pioneer in the field of bagasse-based cogeneration power plant; the first bagasse-based cogeneration power plant that was commissioned in the world was in Mauritius in 1957. The contribution of the cane industry in the electricity sector has been vital for the economic development of Mauritius and also in terms of mitigating carbon dioxide emissions by displacing fossil fuels in electricity generation, as bagasse is classified as a renewable source. Data obtained from Statistics Mauritius on electricity production for the past 45 years were analysed, and carbon dioxide emissions were calculated based on international norms. It is estimated that savings on heavy fuel oil importation were by 1.5 million tons of oil—representing a value of 2.9 billion dollars—thus avoiding 4.5 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions. This figure can be further increased if molasses, a by-product of sugar cane juice, is used to produce bio-ethanol to be used as fuel in vehicles.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-015-9713-3
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
  • Karen Chapple: Planning sustainable cities and regions: towards more
           equitable sustainable development
    • Authors: Luc Hens
      Pages: 1815 - 1816
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-015-9753-8
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
  • Tran Dinh Lan, Luc Hens, Cao Thi Thu Trang, and Do Thi Thu Huong:
           Environmental management of seaports in Vietnam
    • Authors: Nguyen Van Thanh
      Pages: 1817 - 1818
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-015-9752-9
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
  • Catherine MCNeuer: Taming Manhattan: environmental battles in the
           antebellum city
    • Authors: Dirk Van Melkebeke
      Pages: 1819 - 1821
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-015-9748-5
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
  • Retraction Note to: Perspectives for the long-term penetration of new
           renewables in complex energy systems: the Italian scenario
    • Authors: Alessandro Franco; Pasquale Salza
      Pages: 1823 - 1823
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-015-9726-y
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
  • Spatial analysis of soil resources in the Mewat district in the semiarid
           regions of Haryana, India
    • Authors: Mamta Mehra; Chander Kumar Singh
      Abstract: Abstract The soil characteristics are critical for crop health and its yield and therefore for agriculture. The soil properties are spatially variable and therefore soil resources should be managed as per location-specific requirements. An integrated spatial analysis of the soil resources of Mewat district was conducted to identify the soil resource management zones to develop site-specific soil management plan which might lead to sustained and enhanced crop yield. Spatial analysis of soil resources was conducted by modeling soil fertility and erosion which determines the crop productivity in the region. Soil fertility of the region was modeled using weighted overlay approach using 10 soil parameters, namely nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, iron, zinc, manganese, organic carbon, electrical conductivity, and pH. Each parameter was assigned weights based on their relative importance to agricultural productivity. The modeled soil fertility was classified into three fertility zones, low, medium, and high. Soil fertility was found to be low to moderate in 65% of the area, largely because of the low nitrogen, soil organic carbon, phosphorus concentration, and excessive salinity. Soil erosion was modeled using the universal soil loss equation (USLE) model by estimating rainfall erosivity factor (R), the soil erodibility factor (K), the topographic factors (L and S), cropping factor (C), and the conservation practice factor (P). Soil erosion problems were limited to areas having high elevation with barren land and areas with minimal management practices. The severity of soil erosion was found high in 15% of the region, while the remaining 85% showed low to moderate erosion. Soil fertility and erosion were integrated using the multivariate clustering method to identify soil management zones. The region was delineated into three soil management zones. Zone I (29%) which covers majorly Tarou block, was characterized by high soil fertility and low soil erosion. Zone II (18%) with medium soil fertility and high erosion covers villages of Taoru, Nuh, Nagina, FP Jhirka, and Punhana, which are located in the foothills of Aravalli ranges. Zone III represents the major part of the region, covering Nuh, Nagina, and FP Jhirka blocks (54%) with low soil fertility and erosion conditions. Thus, within the study area, the soil management domains are spatially variable in terms of fertility and soil erosion, and thus zone-specific soil management measures are required to improve the soil condition in order to sustain and improve agriculture production. The study would help the policy makers to design site-specific planning for identified soil resource management zones.
      PubDate: 2016-12-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9904-6
  • Energy–growth nexus revisited: an empirical application on
           transition countries
    • Authors: Mahmut Zortuk; Semih Karacan
      Abstract: Abstract This study investigates the energy–growth nexus for transition countries analysing Granger causality between GDP growth per capita and energy use per capita. For this purpose, 17 countries located at Central and Eastern Europe and Caucasian region are chosen and a panel dataset consisting of these countries for the available period of 1990–2011 is studied. In the study, Granger causality is investigated using bootstrapped panel causality approach proposed by Konya (Econ Modell 23(6):978–992, 2006). The approach gives consistent results in case of cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity of slope coefficients between countries. Causality is examined for two scenarios: one with a trend and one without a trend. The results reveal that, in general, there is no causality running between energy consumption and economic growth, yet there is causality running from energy consumption to economic growth for some countries and sign of the relationship is always negative. Therefore, increases in energy consumption harm economic growth.
      PubDate: 2016-12-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9901-9
  • Exploring paradoxes in the search for sustainable livelihoods: a case
           study from Tanzania
    • Authors: B. K. Downie; P. Dearden; L. King
      Abstract: Abstract Many aspects of the relationship between conservation and livelihoods are well documented in the literature both the positive synergies and the negative implications of pursuing one priority over the other. This paper describes research that explored the specific influences in household decision-making in park adjacent communities in Tanzania to determine whether conservation and sustainable resource utilization was an influencing factor. While conservation did not appear to be a significant influence, productivity of the natural resource base to maintain livelihood activity and well-being was a prime driver of household decisions. However, in articulating the challenges faced by households a number of paradoxes became apparent. This paper highlights four paradoxes from the research relating to: the need for capital to support productivity improvement; the approaches for perceived needed intensification of resource utilization; the dependence on government for solutions; and the assessment process of the range of livelihood options. We present the research findings related to these four paradoxes and present potential actions for resolving these dilemmas.
      PubDate: 2016-12-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9896-2
  • Traffic and outdoor air pollution levels near highways in Baghdad, Iraq
    • Authors: Miqdam T. Chaichan; Hussien A. Kazem; Talib A. Abed
      Abstract: Abstract In Iraq, the number of passenger cars, trucks and buses, local generators, and heavy construction equipment rose to a considerable extent since 2003, causing high environmental problems. Many types of pollutants were monitored and recorded for 24 h during March 2016. The study attempts to explore and establish a relationship between the volume of activity and the movement of motor vehicles of various compounds and contaminants resulting from their exhaust pipes, such as sulfur dioxide, particulate matters, oxides of nitrogen, VOCs, and unburned hydrocarbons. The study focused in and around Mohammad Al-Qasim highway adjacent to the University of Technology, Baghdad. The results showed the need for urgent treatments addressed by the environmental authorities in the city. The study results demonstrated that these contaminants are increased during periods of the beginning and end of working hours for government departments. Some types of sulfur compounds (H2S and SO2) concentrations were at serious health-threatening levels, which is a result of the high sulfur content in the Iraqi fuel. The concentrations of NOx and VOC were high, also, which could make the studied area vulnerable to the risk of smog formation. The Iraqi government should make greater efforts to protect the environment and human in this country from the transportation pollution risks.
      PubDate: 2016-12-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9900-x
  • Modeling of agricultural drought risk pattern using Markov chain and GIS
           in the western part of Bangladesh
    • Authors: Md. Kamruzzaman; Md. Enamul Kabir; A. T. M. Sakiur Rahman; Chowdhury Sarwar Jahan; Quamrul Hasan Mazumder; M. Sayedur Rahman
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of the study is to assess the agricultural drought risk condition in the context of global climate change in the western part of Bangladesh that covers about 45% area of the country for the period of 1960–2011. Drought Index (DI) and Drought Hazard Index (DHI) have been calculated by Markov Chain analysis and that of Drought Vulnerability Index (DVI) from socioeconomic and physical indicators. The DI values show that the northern part in general is more drought-prone, having less crops prospect, whereas the southern part is less drought-prone with high crop potentiality. The probability of extreme drought occurrence increases in recent decades in some parts as a result the drought events become more frequent in the areas. The DHI ranges from 15 to 32, and northern part suffers from more extreme drought hazards than that of southern part. DVI also indicates that northern part is exposed to high to very high drought vulnerability as higher percentage of illiterate people are involved in agricultural practices and high percentage of irrigation to cultivable land, but southern part exposed to moderate to low vulnerability because of low values of vulnerability indicators. Finally, agricultural drought exists at high risk condition in northern part and low in southern parts and 21.63, 26.54 and 29.68% of the area poses very high, high and moderate risk, respectively. So, immediate adaptation measures are needed keeping in mind climate features like rainfall and temperature variability, drought risk and risk ranking to make viable adaptation measures.
      PubDate: 2016-12-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9898-0
  • Delineation of potential ground water-bearing zones in the Barind tract of
           West Bengal, India
    • Authors: Rajib Tarani Das; Swades Pal
      Abstract: Abstract The Barind tract of West Bengal is an area of tropical sub-humid region composed of old alluvial soil. The area has high water demand due to growing population pressure and intensification in agricultural activity. These create huge stress on surface and ground water availability. Continuous withdrawal of ground water has become an alternative source of irrigation water which has also again made the condition critical. Ground water level has been lowered down drastically in many parts in this region. Under this circumstance, it is necessary to delineate potential ground water-bearing layers. Therefore, the present study attempts to identify potential ground water-bearing zones to manage ground water effectively. Instead of usually used parameters for ground water potentiality delineation here only some particular litholog parameters like breadth of water-bearing layer, depth of water-bearing layer, presence of clay layer above or below major water-bearing layer have been considered for delimiting the same. The result shows that out of total area, 60% area (405,382.2 ha) falls under very low to low potential ground water-bearing zone and only 8.19% area (55,634.97 ha) is potential. Considering this spatial pattern of ground water availability, harvesting structure and magnitude of water withdrawing should be designed.
      PubDate: 2016-12-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9897-1
  • Environmental impact of mining liabilities in water resources of Parac
           micro-watershed, San Mateo Huanchor district, Peru
    • Authors: Amelia Corzo; Nadia Gamboa
      Abstract: Abstract Before environmental legislation was enforced, worldwide historical mines abandoned their operations without properly remediation and closure affecting the ecosystems. Because of its geological richness, Peru has attracted mining activities since colonial times and more than 8571 mining liabilities have been left. Pacococha and Millotingo mining liabilities are located on the banks of Aruri River, above Parac micro-watershed, from where communities of San Jose de Parac and San Antonio (San Mateo Huanchor district, Lima) take water for irrigating crops in low-flow periods. This paper reports for the first time in Peru the use of an interdisciplinary approach to examine the environmental effects of mining liabilities and small-scale mining on peasant communities. Physical and chemical methods, such as microscopy and spectrometry, were used to verify the presence of sulfides and to measure critical water quality parameters of Aruri and Rimac rivers. The ecosystem approach was applied to collect socioeconomic information from both communities; social actors and their statements regarding tailing problems were identified by social multi-criteria evaluation. It was found that the tailings contained sulfides that provide arsenic, cadmium, copper, zinc and manganese to Aruri and Rimac rivers in levels that exceed State of Oregon (USA) standard limits. It was also observed that both communities use this water to irrigate potato and alfalfa crops, well-known bioaccumulators. The tailings were classified as high risk to the environment by the Peruvian General Direction of Mining; however, future remediation remains uncertain due to a judicial dispute.
      PubDate: 2016-12-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9899-z
  • Incentives for low-quality water irrigation of food crops in Morogoro,
    • Authors: Suzana Samson; Robinson H. Mdegela; Anders Permin; Christopher P. Mahonge; James E. D. Mlangwa
      Abstract: Abstract This article highlights the link between low-quality water and food crops irrigation. A cross-sectional research was conducted to assess factors motivating farmers to use low-quality water from the waste stabilisation ponds for food crops irrigation in urban and peri-urban areas in Morogoro Urban and Mvomero, in Morogoro Region, Tanzania, from October 2013 to March 2015. Data were collected through farmers’ survey (n = 80), in-depth interviews with key informants (n = 7) and focus group discussions (n = 4). Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in results presentation. The findings indicated alternative way of earning income during dry seasons, lack of alternative sources of irrigation water, alternative source of employment, the need to produce food, land availability near the low-quality water, plant nutrients in the water and limited awareness of the health problems associated with low-quality water irrigation as incentives for farmers to irrigate food crops using low-quality water. The results further showed that farming using low-quality water has been their livelihood strategy; farmers meet their family needs such as school fees, health and food by using the income generated from the sale of vegetables and paddy. Regardless of all these benefits, the existing use of low-quality water in farming activities is informal. Besides, there are no regulations guiding its use with no declaration to whether the resource is suitable for food crops irrigation. However, banning the practice on the ground of health risks might be devastating to farmers. This practice should therefore be regulated in such a way that low-quality water disposed from the ponds is considered as a potential source of water for food crops irrigation.
      PubDate: 2016-12-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9895-3
  • Analytical comparisons in a three-echelon closed-loop supply chain with
           price and marketing effort-dependent demand: game theory approaches
    • Authors: Emad Sane Zerang; Ata Allah Taleizadeh; Jafar Razmi
      Abstract: Abstract Over the last few decades, closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) has received increasing attention due to concerns over the environment and social liability. Moreover, recycling and remanufacturing of the used products have been examined because of various factors such as concerns over the environment, lack of resources, government legislations. In this research, we consider a three-echelon closed-loop supply chain consisting of a manufacturer, a third party and a retailer. The manufacturer manipulates both manufacturing from raw materials and remanufacturing from the second hands products collected by third party simultaneously. We assume that the market demand depends on selling price and marketing efforts. First, we modeled the supply chain under centralized and decentralized policies and compared their performances using numerical examples. Then we compared and analyzed the optimal decisions under different scenarios by studying the impacts of marketing efforts and collection rate on the decision variables and concluded that the supply chain profit in centralized scenario is larger than decentralized one. Using a comprehensive sensitivity analysis, managerial insights are provided. Moreover, based on the derived results, from the perspective of remanufacturing process and consumers’ welfare, one can conclude that the manufacture-Stackelberg case is often the most effective scenario in CLSC.
      PubDate: 2016-12-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9893-5
  • Sanitation situations in selected Southeast Asian countries and
           application of innovative technologies
    • Authors: Thammarat Koottatep; Saroj Kumar Chapagain; Chongrak Polprasert; Atitaya Panuvatvanich; Kyu-Hong Ahn
      Abstract: Abstract Sanitation coverages in selected Southeast Asian countries, namely Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam, were increased from 1990 to 2015. The toilet coverage of 96, 100 and 99% was reported in Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam, respectively. On contrary, incidences of waterborne disease and water pollution are still in existence. This situation is due mainly to poor design, performance and maintenance of the dominantly used on-site sanitation systems (OSS) such as septic tanks, cesspools. In addition, fecal sludge (FS), which has to be emptied from these OSS, is not properly managed. There are lacks in rules and regulation on FS management (FSM). Recent research conducted at the Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand, involved the development of innovative OSS, namely solar septic tanks, Zyclone cube toilet and septic tank effluent treatment units. The operation of solar septic tanks with increased temperatures of 40–50 °C could inactive E. coli by 4–6 logs in the effluent. The solar septic tanks enhanced the microbial degradability with increased methane gas production and reducing fecal sludge accumulation by 50%. The Zyclone cube toilet separated the toilet wastewater into solid and liquid portions, which were treated by heating and electrochemical disinfection, respectively. The septic tank effluent was further treated by a unit consisting of granular activated carbon coated with nano-silver resulting in E. coli reduction of 5–6 logs. These technologies should be applied for OSS in Southeast Asian and other developing regions for environmental improvement and public health protection.
      PubDate: 2016-12-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9892-6
  • Critical factor of large township building and its relevance in
           environmental audit: a critical evaluation
    • Authors: P. D. Hiwase; N. S. Raman; H. V. Hajare
      Abstract: Abstract Environmental sustainability has become significantly rapid in recent years. Moreover, the finite space and high demand of constructions are also putting pressure on the environmental compartments. At the outset, it is necessary that robust environmental audits should be developed, especially for large township projects to achieve environmental sustainability. Negligence on traditional construction processes involved in short or small projects affects the environment on a higher scale, restriction of cheap quality construction material, environment-friendly practice needs to be followed at construction sites to avoid environmental issues. The objective of this study is to show a range of environmental issues in India allied to material and technologies (methods) requires to be considered in assessing the environmental impacts of construction projects. A critical study was carried out for undertaking environmental audits in the township projects. The results indicated that the environmental sustainability (which can be achieved through environmental audits) is a function of optimum utilization of construction material, adoption of advance construction methods, use of ready-to-use material, innovative construction practices and use of eco-friendly material.
      PubDate: 2016-12-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9890-8
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