Journal Cover
Environment, Development and Sustainability
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.392
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 37  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-2975 - ISSN (Online) 1387-585X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Environmental mainstreaming and policy coherence: essential policy tools
           to link international agreements with national development—a case study
           of the Caribbean region
    • Authors: Livia Bizikova; Graciela Metternicht; Therese Yarde
      Pages: 975 - 995
      Abstract: The 2030 agenda for sustainable development adopted in September 2015 advocates for a balanced integration of the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. Existing multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) can provide guidance for policy-makers to promote inclusive and sustainable economic growth, within safe ecological limits. This paper presents a practical approach to mainstream international obligations of MEAs with national development priorities and strategies. It identifies pathways of policy coherence from national strategies to specific instruments and indicators to advance implementation of MEAs and help counties to fulfill agreed obligations. The approach is grounded in the driving forces–pressure–state–impact–response (DPSIR) framework, and it was applied in two national and two regional case studies in the Caribbean. The outcomes from the case studies show that mainstreaming rate of MEAs is low, and linkages across multiple MEAs are rarely considered. The DPSIR framework was useful for addressing national development priorities and those of MEAs in tandem, through adopting a cross-sectoral, multistakeholder perspective. The research shows that addressing environmental degradation and improving MEAs’ implementation requires that international and regional agencies identify linkages among MEAs to assist in creating policy coherence to ensure their integration into national strategies by connecting with policies and strategies in tandem implementation of MEAs for national policy-makers to work with.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-9924-x
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Environmental sustainability in post-conflict countries: insights for
           rural Colombia
    • Authors: Andres Suarez; Paola Andrea Árias-Arévalo; Eliana Martínez-Mera
      Pages: 997 - 1015
      Abstract: Post-conflict countries (PCC) guide their priorities toward restoration of socioeconomic conditions and relegate sustainability objectives to the background. With the aim to provide insights for the current discussion on rural environmental sustainability in today’s post-conflict Colombia, we analyzed the environmental dynamics of seven PCC. We found that (1) deforestation and land use conflicts were frequent impacts in both conflict and post-conflict scenarios, that (2) return of displaced population, the infectiveness of land use planning, and the dependence on the primary sector were frequent drivers of environmental change; and that (3) natural resources extraction tends to be intensified in post-conflict period. We discuss these findings in light of the current environmental problems of Colombia and the post-conflict environmental challenges. We conclude that in order to ensure environmental sustainability in post-conflict scenario, Colombia should act on structural aspects that go beyond the environmental objectives proposed in the peace agreement between the government and FARC: strengthening environmental institutions, integrating long-term environmental objectives across all sectors, and deintensifying the dependence of the economy in the extractive sector.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-9925-9
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • A test of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for carbon emission and
           potential of renewable energy to reduce green house gases (GHG) in
           Malaysia
    • Authors: Abid Rashid Gill; Kuperan K. Viswanathan; Sallahuddin Hassan
      Pages: 1103 - 1114
      Abstract: This study investigates the presence of environmental kuznets curve (EKC) for green house gases (GHG) measured by CO2 emission in Malaysia for the period 1970 to 2011. The study also examines the potential of the renewable source of energy to contain GHG. The long-run significant positive coefficient of GDP indicates that the GHG are increasing with economic growth while the insignificant coefficient on GDP square rejects the EKC transition. These results indicate a high GDP level for the EKC turning point for Malaysia. Therefore, it can be stated that only economic growth cannot reverse the environmental degradation in Malaysia. The government should have to come up with some policy measures to achieve CO2 emission reduction targets that Malaysia has pledged to achieve in Paris Submit (2015). The renewable energy production is found to have significant negative effect on CO2 emission. So government should focus on the renewable source of energy production and should frame a special policy for renewable energy production.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-9929-5
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Salinization of shallow aquifer in the Karamaniyar river basin, Southern
           India
    • Authors: S. Selvakumar; N. Chandrasekar; S. Kaliraj; N. S. Magesh
      Pages: 1255 - 1273
      Abstract: Groundwater pollution from anthropogenic sources is a serious concern affecting several river basins and coastal aquifer environment. It is very important to acquire the impacts of the enhanced anthropogenic pressure and climatic changes on the evolution of groundwater characteristics in this study. The present study aims to concentrate on the hydrogeochemical characteristics by evaluating the groundwater quality through geographical information system (GIS) and multivariate statistical approach. Fifty groundwater samples were collected from the river basin and analyzed for major physicochemical parameters. The analytical results were interpreted in GIS and multivariate statistical techniques and demarcated the spatial variation of groundwater quality and their site-specific influencing factors over time. The presence of Na–Cl facies reflects the saline nature in groundwater in and around salt pan area. Factor analysis reveals the characteristics of four factors, and it accounted for 88.7% total variability. Significant correlation between TDS with major components of Na+, Mg2+, Cl− ions indicate the presence of saline influence on the groundwater. Cluster I and Cluster II represent fresh to slightly saline in nature, Cluster III mainly indicates the average concentration of EC (8615 µS/cm), chloride (2738 mg/l), and salinity (4.67 mg/l) is mainly due to small-scale industrial effluents, salt pan, agricultural activities, and rock–water interaction with related minerals in evaporite deposits.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-9937-5
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Making spatial development scenario for south of Bushehr province, Iran,
           based on strategic foresight
    • Authors: Sheida Abdoli; Farah Habib; Mohammad Babazadeh
      Pages: 1293 - 1309
      Abstract: In recent years, the science of foresight has been entered into planning activities by urban and regional planners and this science has impacted on planning activities. This study discusses spatial development in the south of Bushehr province using the foresight approach. The general aim of this research is to compile scenarios for the development of the mentioned study area which comprises the southern part of Bushehr province including four counties of Dayyer, Jam, Kangan and Asaluyeh. The main reason for selecting this region is their direct impressibility by major changes in the country’s oil and gas industry. This research has extremely made use of the Delphi and cross-impact analysis methods to develop foresight scenarios. Using the Delphi method, 30 initial factors were identified in the economic, political-security, linkages, science and technology, manufacturing, natural, social, infrastructural and residential issues and then the cross-impact matrix was used to investigate the impact of factors on each other. In the next step, the ranking of direct and indirect factors was determined by Micmac software and on this basis, the final refining in the selection of drivers was done. In the final stage, axes of future scenarios were presented and then the future scenarios were drawn. Results of this research indicate that two main drivers namely Iran’s international relations and energy resources are the main axes of scenarios. These two drivers have more uncertainty and higher importance than other factors and the results in four scenarios showing the possibility of each situation’s occurrence.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-9940-x
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Sustainability and customers’ hotel choice behaviour: a choice-based
           conjoint analysis approach
    • Authors: Vivek Kumar Verma; Bibhas Chandra
      Pages: 1347 - 1363
      Abstract: Due to rising environmental concern and awareness amongst consumers, efforts to make hotel operations sustainable are becoming increasingly important. The study here is designed to investigate the contributions of sustainability in consumers’ overall hotel choice decision, particularly which attributes of sustainability is relatively more important amongst others. Data were collected using both qualitative (word association test) and quantitative (orthogonal choice design survey) measures from the sample of 168 and 405 hotel customers, respectively, through purposive sampling technique. The qualitative research identified that customers perceive energy conservation, recycling, and greenscaping as key sustainable practices pertaining to the hotel industry. The findings of choice-based conjoint analysis confirm that sustainability is the most preferred attribute in the hotel choice decision in the present milieu. Moreover, consumers strongly associate greenscaping with the sustainable practices most in the hotel industry. The study significantly contributes to the measurement of sustainability in theory and practice in hospitality and tourism industry.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-9944-6
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Who is the bigger culprit' Studying impacts of traffic and land use on
           noise levels in CBD area of Karachi, Pakistan
    • Authors: Mohammed Raza Mehdi; Mudassar Hassan Arsalan; Uneb Gazder; Minho Kim; Jeong Chang Seong; Anil Namdeo; Seo Il Chang
      Pages: 1421 - 1438
      Abstract: The trend of urbanization has attracted increased attention towards urban areas around the world. Central business districts (CBDs) serve as the core of commercial activities of urban areas and are often associated with high-density population. Noise pollution in urban areas, especially CBDs, is considered as an important issue for planners and policy makers especially with regard to human health. Noise prediction models for CBD area of Karachi, Pakistan, have been developed in this study using land use and traffic parameters. These models show that traffic and built-up space (especially residential land use) contribute positively and vacant space contributes negatively to the noise levels. However, it was found that traffic volume has higher impact, than land use, in terms of on noise levels in CBD area. The models of this research are anticipated to be used for planning of urban CBD areas in other cities where noise levels do not meet international health standards. In addition, they would be useful in calculating the rate of traffic volume associated with residential land use.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-9941-9
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Study of aerosol optical depth using satellite data (MODIS Aqua) over
           Indian Territory and its relation to particulate matter concentration
    • Abstract: Air quality all over India has been deteriorated significantly over the last few decades, posing a significant risk to health-related issues like asthma and cardiorespiratory illness. Ground-based monitoring of particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) in India is limited to few particular sites only; hence, health-related studies are restricted to regional scale only. Thus, the major aim of the present study is to estimate the local PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentration from the aerosol optical depth (AOD) level. AOD levels are determined from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Earth Observing System Aqua satellites. Moreover, the annual, seasonal, and diurnal trend of AOD over India was also studied. Single and multiple linear regression models for estimating the concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were also conducted. Multiple regression analyses were performed considering MODIS-based AOD with meteorological parameters like temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, and precipitation. The results indicated that both the PM2.5 and PM10 had a weak correlation with MODIS-based AOD for simple linear regression model, whereas the regression coefficients improved significantly for multiple linear regression analyses. Thus, the proposed multiple linear regression models can be used in the estimation of PM2.5 and PM10 concentration in different parts of the country using MODIS image without ground monitoring. Therefore, the predicted results can help to perform the air pollution-related health impact studies all over the country.
      PubDate: 2018-06-11
       
  • Quantifying and modelling industrial and commercial land-use demand in
           France
    • Abstract: Determinants of industrial/commercial land uses are controversial, and few studies have so far considered the factors influencing industrial and commercial developments. The understanding of such dynamics is important to simulate future land-use demand, which is an essential input for land-use modelling applications. The rigorous estimation of demand for industrial and commercial land is also important to support planning policies and decisions, which aim at allocating scarce land resources efficiently. This study uses regional data from 1990 and 2000 to investigate potential driving factors of industrial/commercial land demand for France, and 2012 data for model validation concerning the projections of land demand. A static model and a change model are specified based on the supply and demand relationship of the regional industrial/commercial land market in France. The estimated models indicate that regional characteristics of location and area, mineral resources and infrastructure, and socio-economic factors are critical to understanding industrial/commercial land developments. From regression analysis, static models show better performance over land-use change models in both the estimation and model validation stages. The change models are biased towards unobserved variables and time-lag effects of the changes in explanatory variables. The use of regression approaches is a valuable tool to explore the factors underlying industrial and commercial expansion at regional level, but their usage for long-term projections is subject to high uncertainties.
      PubDate: 2018-06-11
       
  • Enhancing sustainable sanitation through capacity building and rural
           sanitation marketing in Malawi
    • Abstract: The Sustainable Development Goals on water and sanitation offer an opportunity for Malawi to examine new approaches to improving and sustaining rural household sanitation coverage by the year 2030. This paper assessed the impact of training rural pit latrine masons as sanitation entrepreneurs and the role of sanitation marketing. The paper used a tracer study of 76 masons from 15 districts in Malawi trained by Mzuzu University under a United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Malawi programme promoting the corbelled pit latrine design. The results from the study showed that pit latrines were being built by some masons, but that not all programme trainees had used their new knowledge. Masons were part-time and informal providers. Our results indicate a need to scale-up and train more pit latrine masons and the necessity to enhance the sanitation marketing programme component of the training. The registration of masons as sanitation providers, the identification of novel financing mechanisms appropriate for the masons and improved collaboration are also recommended.
      PubDate: 2018-06-09
       
  • Techno-economic evaluation of anatase and p25 TiO 2 for treatment basic
           yellow 28 dye solution through heterogeneous photocatalysis
    • Authors: Pankaj Chawla; S. K. Sharma; A. P. Toor
      Abstract: The photodegradation and mineralization efficiency (technical evaluation) and process economics (economic evaluation) are important in selection of a particular type of TiO2 for large-scale commercial applications involving heterogeneous photocatalysis. In this paper, techno-economic evaluation of indigenous anatase TiO2 (ana-TiO2) and aeroxide p25 TiO2 (p25-TiO2) photocatalyst for heterogeneous photocatalysis of basic yellow 28 (BY28) dye solution is studied. The characterization of photocatalysts was done through X-ray diffraction, Tauc’s plot, and point of zero charge. The important parameters related to heterogeneous photocatalytic process like photocatalyst loading, UV intensity, and A/V (area-to-volume) ratio were studied and optimized as per ability of photocatalyst for the full utilization of light illumination. BY28 dye degradation depicted pseudo-first-order kinetics under UV radiations and solar light. Electric energy per order and collector area per order was also evaluated for the two systems. Finally, economic evaluation of these two types of TiO2 was done in terms of total material and energy cost involved for 90% removal of BY28 dye from 1 m3 solution under UV radiations and solar light. Ana-TiO2 found to be more economical than p25-TiO2 in terms of operating cost involved for photocatalytic degradation of BY28 dye. Alternatively, photocatalytic unit using p25-TiO2 showed higher treatment capacity as compared to ana-TiO2 due to higher photodegradation and mineralization efficiency of the former. Finally, a method for selection of particular type of TiO2 (p25-TiO2 or ana-TiO2) for a photocatalytic unit is suggested by considering volumetric capacity of photocatlytic unit, volume of effluent generated per day by the dyeing unit, photodegradation efficiency of TiO2, and process economics. This study would be useful for the decision making authorities in profitable selection of particular type of TiO2 for treating given volume of effluent.
      PubDate: 2018-06-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-018-0194-z
       
  • Circular economy model of gold recovery from cell phones using system
           dynamics approach: a case study of India
    • Authors: Karishma Chaudhary; Prem Vrat
      Abstract: Cell phones waste is the fastest growing electronics waste across the globe. Still in developing nations like India, most of this waste is routed to the unorganized sector causing irreparable damage to environment and health. This study has highlighted the economic, environmental and social benefits that India can gain by recycling the gold contained in discarded cell phones in an environmentally sound manner. In this work, system dynamics (SD) approach has been employed to develop a model of circular flow of gold in cell phones from manufacturing stage to recycling stage. Using the SD model developed, nine scenarios have been simulated and behavior trends of various variables under consideration are studied which provide very useful insights to facilitate policy decisions to promote cell phones recycling in India.
      PubDate: 2018-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-018-0189-9
       
  • Pollutant versus non-pollutant generation technologies: a CML-analogous
           analysis
    • Authors: Paulino Martinez-Fernandez; Fernando deLlano-Paz; Anxo Calvo-Silvosa; Isabel Soares
      Abstract: In this work, we apply the Modern Portfolio Theory and the Capital Assets Pricing Model financial tools to a portfolio of CO2-emitting generation technologies under diverse scenarios. We will calculate the efficient—in the sense of having the minimum risk for a given level of emissions—portfolios frontier. The Capital Market Line (CML) is the place where all the possible combinations of a specific efficient portfolio and a pollution-free portfolio—made up with nuclear and renewable generation technologies—lie. In Finance, that specific efficient portfolio is called the market portfolio but we will see that in our case it lacks an evident meaning. Therefore, we will explain which should be the reference portfolio for power generation planning analysis. Anyway, the fact is that those combinations are less pollutant than the portfolios in the efficient frontier. Thus, a policy-maker can analyse which is their effect on emissions reduction. We will start analysing the efficient pollutant generation portfolios. Then, we will introduce the CML-analogous lines (CML-A) to allow the possibility of reducing emissions by combining an efficient portfolio with a non-pollutant portfolio—this non-pollutant portfolio is free of both emissions and risk. Results support the necessity of considering the carbon capture and storage technology to achieve a less risky generation mix, with less emissions and allowing a higher diversification due to the presence of cleaner fossil fuel technologies. All of that leads to better levels of energy security.
      PubDate: 2018-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-018-0195-y
       
  • Visualization of 2002 storm surge along the coast of Dhofar, case study of
           Oman
    • Authors: Amna Al Ruheili; John Radke
      Abstract: One of the greatest concerns for the Omani coastal infrastructure and developmental planning is the impacts of sea level rise (SLR) flooding in association with the extreme storm events. This paper argues that if coastal infrastructure in Oman is to be resilient, it is necessary to measure the extent of storm surge inundation effects to provide a better understanding for future coastal infrastructural development and planning. A hydrodynamic model, 3Di, developed by TU-Delft, the Netherlands, is used to simulate the May 9–11, 2002 storm surge inundation of Dhofar’s coast in Oman. The model simulation is based on 60-min-interval water-level data for a 72-h, extreme storm event, coupled with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.41 m SLR for different inundation scenarios. 3Di’s results included a series of inundated areas with 1-h-interval time steps that provided spatial inundation extents and water depth at every hour of an event. The study reveals that with SLR at 1.0 m and at 1.41 m, in terms of coastal development and infrastructure, it is largely roads that are vulnerable. This study provides a database to allow planners and decision makers to make informed decisions regarding the location of future infrastructure as a path toward resiliency in future coastal developmental and infrastructural planning in Oman.
      PubDate: 2018-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-018-0186-z
       
  • The quality of imported coal and its impact on environmental degradation
    • Authors: M. Farhad Howladar; Mahamudul Hashan; Md. Mustafizur Rahman; Md. Abdullah Al Numanbakth; Md. Azad Sohail; Fazal Md. Mohi Shine
      Abstract: The term “quality of coal” specifies the properties and characteristics which influence its behavior and uses. In view of this point, this study conducted a comprehensive investigation on the major and minor properties of imported coal in the Tamabil area of Bangladesh through laboratory analysis. The major properties include sulfur content, moisture content, ash content, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and calorific value, whereas the minor properties include arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and lead (Pb). A detailed comparison was made between the obtained results and the standard values of the coal properties. A description of statistical correlations among the analyzed qualitative properties is also offered in this research. In addition, analysis of leaching and the combustion of coal revealed the possible modes of environmental degradation by imported coal. From the results, it can be observed that the imported coal contains a medium to high levels of ash content (23.38%), volatile matter (38.61%), and sulfur content (3.73%), whereas it contains a low level of fixed carbon (34.73%), and it has a low calorific value (5597.34 kcal/kg). The results also show a significant concentration of trace/minor elements, e.g., chromium—17.5 ppm, cobalt—2 ppm, copper—5 ppm, zinc—152 ppm, manganese—189.5 ppm, arsenic—52 ppm, and lead—4 ppm; this suggests that the imported coal is poor-grade lignite coal. The comparison of the obtained results with the standard values of coal properties also indicates the poor-grade and rank of the imported coal. It is obvious from the comparison that the concentrations of trace elements in this imported coal are much higher than the allowable standard limit for the environment. In conclusion, this research recommends that more attention should be paid to avoid the utilization of poor-grade coal and necessary steps must be taken to import good quality coal for safe and sustainable environment in the country.
      PubDate: 2018-06-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-018-0197-9
       
  • Implications of demographic changes and land transformations on surface
           water quality of rural and urban subbasins of Upper Bhima River basin,
           Maharashtra, India
    • Authors: Satyavati Shukla; Shirishkumar Gedam; M. V. Khire
      Abstract: For sustainable development in a river basin, it is crucial to understand population growth–land use/land cover (LU/LC) transformations–water quality nexus. This study investigates the effects of demographic changes and LU/LC transformations on surface water quality of rural (Ghod) and urban (Mula-Mutha) subbasins of Upper Bhima River basin. Population data (1981–2011) and LU/LC data {October 2002 [Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data] and October/November 2009 (Indian Remote Sensing 1C Linear Imaging Self Scanner III data]} were analysed using statistical, remote sensing and geographic information system techniques to study demographic and LU/LC changes, respectively. Further, overall indices of pollution (OIPs) developed specifically for rural subbasin (OIPr: Hardness CaCO3 and Total Dissolved Solids), urban subbasin (OIPu: Biological Oxygen Demand, Chlorides, Coliform Total, Colour, Dissolved Oxygen%, pH and Turbidity) and single OIP considering all parameters (OIPa) were used for spatio-temporal water quality assessment of pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods. Results revealed that from 1981 to 2011, population increase was higher in urban subbasin than in rural subbasin. Subsequently, from 2002 to 2009 mainly increase in built-up lands (3.82%) and agricultural lands (15.35%) in urban and rural subbasins respectively, affected their water quality. From 2002 to 2009, the highest increase in OIPr and OIPu was observed at Kashti (3.37–6.52 due to fertilizers) and Bundgarden Bridge (3.03–7.83 due to municipal and industrial wastes) stations of rural and urban subbasins, respectively. With significant increase in OIPa of 2.74–6.70, Bundgarden Bridge station affected by urbanization had the most polluted water quality.
      PubDate: 2018-06-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-018-0187-y
       
  • Electric vehicles: solution or new problem'
    • Abstract: Since electric vehicles (EVs) have been recognized as a technology that reduces local air pollution while improving transport energy security, they have been promoted in many countries. Yet, mainly due to their high costs, especially in the case of pure battery electric vehicles, and a lack of proper infrastructure, the use of EVs is still very limited. In this paper, some of the major barriers and the future challenges are discussed. The current problems are mainly attributed to two categories: (1) the battery performances and costs, as well as battery production including issue of material availability and (2) environmental benefits of EVs depending on the sources used for the electricity generation and their carbon intensity. The major conclusions are that (1) research and development with respect to batteries has by far the highest priority and (2) it has to be ensured that the electricity used in EVs is generated largely from renewable energy sources.
      PubDate: 2018-06-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-018-0190-3
       
  • Contributions for the use of qualitative indicators: an analysis of Itaipu
           Power Plant’s Sustainability Program
    • Abstract: In recent years, we have been witnessing a change in the impact and repercussions sustainability issues have on society. For governments and corporations alike, sustainability is a high priority theme connected to strategy. Biodiversity conservation is considered a national security matter by many countries. In this perspective and due to its complexity, the concern with the evaluation of sustainability programs becomes increasingly implicit. There is a growing trend toward the advocacy of participative governance, which takes into account the perceptions of people affected by programs and actions, including that of communities, in decision-making. In this context, the objective of this study is to analyze some environmental programs based on Itaipu Hydroelectric Plant’s strategic sustainability plan, considering existing quantitative indicators, and proposing complementary qualitative ones. This program was analyzed using a qualitative research approach, including interviews, analysis of reports, and technical visits (in situ observation). It was observed that the program includes permanent and integrated actions for the protection of regional biodiversity, operating based on a participatory management system, involving both governmental bodies and civil society. From the point of view of results, we could identify separable tangible results and proposed qualitative indicators which will contribute to a more complete evaluation of the program, such as: involvement of local population, improvement of the ecosystem and biodiversity, and empowerment of aforementioned population.
      PubDate: 2018-06-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-018-0196-x
       
  • Understanding the divergences between farmer’s perception and
           meteorological records regarding climate change: a review
    • Abstract: How farmers perceive climate change is linked to whether they are responding and adapting to it. However, often this perception does not correspond with what actually happens. Based on a search of empirical studies carried out in Africa and Asia, this paper analyzes two factors that can influence farmers’ perception regarding climate change: expected utility maximization and availability heuristic. While expected utility maximization refers to an expected change in farmers’ well-being, the availability heuristic is a mental shortcut based on the memory of occurrence of events. Generally, empirical studies show that farmers’ perceptions are aligning with meteorological records regarding an increase in temperature. However, while there are no significant variations in rainfall trends, farmers perceive a reduction in rainfall in the last few years. The recent increase in drought frequency and severity may cause this divergence, because it affects farmers’ well-being, and extreme droughts have a central position in peoples’ memory. In this context, our findings suggest that farmers’ perceptions are influenced by economic and psychological issues. Policymakers, extension workers and developers of climate projects need to pay attention to farm and farmers’ characteristics in order to develop mitigation and/or adaptation practices regarding climate change.
      PubDate: 2018-06-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-018-0193-0
       
  • HPI appraisal of concentrations of heavy metals in dynamic and static flow
           of Ganga River System
    • Authors: Gagan Matta; Avinash Kumar; A. K. Tiwari; Pradeep K. Naik; R. Berndtsson
      Abstract: Ganga River system is a life support system to sustain the people of northeast region, India, by providing freshwater resource. In this study, the seasonal heavy metal concentrations of Ganga River system at Haridwar region (India) have been characterised for metal pollution. The collection of water samples was done from 10 different locations and analysed for various metal parameters (Zn, Pb, Mn, Fe, Cu, Si, Al, Ni, Cd, Mg and Co) using a standard laboratory procedures. The pollution level was assessed from the observed concentrations by using Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI) for nine heavy metals. The observed values of HPI were found lower than the Critical Pollution Index value of 100 (average value 78.62 and 81.18) during the study period. The concentration of Fe and Mg is exceeding the desirable limits of the World Health Organization, Bureau of Indian Standards and US Environmental Protection Agency in all water samples throughout the study period. The levels of all the metals were higher in the monsoon season and lower in the winter season. The Karl Pearson’s correlation matrix was developed by using the mean values of all parameters and showed the light intensity positively correlated with biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and sulphate which indicate good microbial activity. Dissolved oxygen and BOD is found negatively correlated. From this study, it is easy to understand the various harmful effects of metal pollution to irrigation water and health of local people.
      PubDate: 2018-06-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-018-0182-3
       
 
 
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