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Journal Cover Environment, Development and Sustainability
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [30 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1573-2975 - ISSN (Online) 1387-585X
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2209 journals]   [SJR: 0.319]   [H-I: 26]
  • Erratum to: Flora biodiversity change detection: a case study
    • PubDate: 2014-10-01
       
  • Tourism and its impact on livelihood in Manaslu conservation area, Nepal
    • Abstract: Tourism is an activity of a person which includes traveling and staying in places that are outside of their location for business, vacation and other purpose. Large-scale tourism in developed and developing countries has positive and negative effects on the regional and national economies, local culture, physical infrastructure and environment. There are considerable gaps in research regarding tourism and livelihood in developing countries like Nepal. This research work aims at fulfilling such gap by assessing the impact of tourism on livelihood in Manaslu conservation area (MCA) of Nepal. We interviewed 76 household followed by three focus group discussions and five key informant interviews. The first-hand information collected at the site is complimented by socioeconomic and tourism-related secondary information. Socioeconomic variables such as marital status, size of household, education and landholding status had positive effect on tourism participation while livestock-holding status and occupation of the household had negative effect on tourism participation. Number of visitors is increasing in MCA in recent years, and tourism participation is helping local people to earn more money and improve their living standard. So, awareness and education related to tourism, gender empowerment of women, advertisement and publicity on tourism promotion, adequate subsidy and training on ecotourism and skill development trainings on handicraft are recommended.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
       
  • Technical efficiency of Kenya’s smallholder food crop farmers: do
           environmental factors matter?
    • Abstract: Smallholder agriculture dominates Kenya’s agricultural landscape, accounting for 75 % of total agricultural output and 70 % of the marketed agricultural produce. As a result, the Government of Kenya, with the support of development partners, has invested in production and dissemination of productivity-enhancing technologies such as high-yielding varieties and inorganic fertilizers targeting the smallholders. Adoption of these technologies has remarkably improved, especially in the maize sub-sector. However, productivity has been declining or, at best, stagnating. Productivity is attributable to not only technological improvements but also technical efficiency. Consequently, this study sought to determine the technical efficiency of the country’s smallholder food crop farmers and establish how it correlates with environmental factors. The study used a two-stage nonparametric approach on household panel data to estimate the efficiency levels of the smallholders and establish the sources of its variation across households. Controlling for endogeneity and incorporating geographic information system-derived measures of environmental factors in the analysis, the study finds that technical efficiency differentials are influenced by environmental factors, production risks and farmer characteristics. The policy implication is that the country has room to improve agricultural productivity by addressing environmental and farm-level constraints. Viable options include switching from rain-fed to irrigated agriculture, entrenching land tenure security, improving transport network among farm communities and setting up smallholder credit schemes.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
       
  • Indigenous African building techniques and the prospects for sustainable
           housing and environmental development
    • Abstract: In this paper, sustainability is examined as one of the objectives of enabling man in a preserved, efficient and enduring world environment. Thus, sustainable housing and environmental development is conceptualized as a building or shelter provided through judicious, selective sourcing, processing and use of building materials to satisfy current shelter needs while ensuring quality environment and adequate resources for the future generations in satisfying theirs. To stimulate orderly academic debate, the paper proposes five major factors of sustainability. They include climatic sustainability factor, ecological sustainability factor, economics and affordability sustainability factor, social sustainability factor and cultural sustainability factor. The sustainability attributes of each factor are highlighted, and the criteria for the selection of building materials to satisfy the attributes are commended.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
       
  • Techno-economic feasibility of biogas generation in Attari village,
           Ferozepur road, Lahore
    • Abstract: Attari Saroba is a village located on the Ferozepur road near Attari Darbar. This study assesses techno-economic feasibility for biogas production in Attari Saroba village using different tools for data collection. Since there was no waste management system in the village, the residents threw household waste in the streets and used the animal waste as the fertilizer, while the leftover waste was disposed off in heaps scattered around the village. This waste can be utilized to generate biogas that can be a renewable substitute for natural gas as natural gas is becoming scarce in our country and is suitable for home use in cooking and heating purposes. Thus, the objective of the study is to combat pollution by managing organic waste and to produce biogas by reusing waste in Attari Saroba through waste recycling process. The suggested type of digester for this area is dispersed growth, Chinese-type combined digester and gasholder. Two designs of different measurements were proposed due to varying family size. The residents were receptive to the idea of installing and maintaining digesters in their homes as they faced regular gas shortages in their area.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
       
  • Environmental externalities in relation to agricultural sector in Thailand
           with trade-linked analysis
    • Abstract: Thailand plays an important role in the international trade of food and agricultural products, which is in alignment with its national strategy of serving as the “kitchen of the world.” When looking at its agricultural promotion and export policies, the country only counts the value gains from exports while neglecting environmental externalities related to plantation practices. The purpose of this study was to perform a trade-off analysis between consumptive water, land, and fertilizer use together with the economic values of major crops for export and consumption in the country. The results show that to gain income from agricultural exports, the country has exploited various natural resources. The area used to harvest rice, sugarcane, cassava, and rubber adds up to approximately 15.3 million ha: 7.2 million ha of which is for domestic consumption and 8.1 ha for export. To produce Thailand’s agricultural exports, total water use is estimated to be 49.8–67.5 billion m3 per year (61–65 %), while the amount used to produce crops for domestic consumption is 26.5–43.7 billion m3 per year (35–39 %). Meanwhile, 1,056–1,826 thousand tons (54 %) of fertilizer was used on crops for domestic consumption, and 1,222–1,370 thousand tons (46 %) of fertilizer was used on export crops. The best crop choice for export in terms of its export value, land use, fertilizer use, and water consumption is rubber. The worst crop choices for export are rice and cassava. More sustainable agricultural practices are needed to effect improvements such as increased yields and reduced fertilizer and water use.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
       
  • Application of remote sensing techniques toward the role of traditional
           water bodies with respect to vegetation conditions
    • Abstract: Sri Lanka being an agrarian country, the role of water is important for agricultural production. In Sri Lanka, various tank cascade systems, earthen dams and distribution canals have been accepted as few of the most complex ancient traditional water systems of the world. Rainfall, surface water, groundwater and runoff are linked with each other, they have close interactions to land cover classes such as forests and agriculture. The monitoring of vegetation conditions can show subsurface manifestations of groundwater. In this study, an effort to understand the role of traditional water reservoirs and groundwater recharge was made using remote sensing techniques. We have analyzed various vegetation indices such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI-2), Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), tasselled cap transformation analysis (TCA brightness, greenness and wetness) and their relations with the existence of soil, vegetation and water. Result shows that EVI, SAVI, and TCA-based Greenness Index indicates good relationship with the vegetation conditions as compared to other indices. Therefore, these indices could play a crucial role in depicting the interaction between soil, vegetation, and water. However, multi-temporal observations can provide significant results about these interactions more accurately.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
       
  • Transhumant pastoralism, sustainable management of natural resources and
           endemic ruminant livestock in the sub-humid zone of West Africa
    • Abstract: Transhumant pastoralism is one of the dominant livestock production systems in West Africa, and it is characterized by seasonal and cyclical movement of varying degrees between complementary ecological areas. The common pattern of transhumance is moving herds from areas with pasture and water scarcity such as the Sahelian zone to areas where the forage and water are found, often in the sub-humid zone. Whereas the transhumant herds from the Sahel are mainly Zebu breeds, endemic ruminant livestock (ERL) are the dominant breeds in sub-humid zone of West Africa because of their tolerance to tsetse-borne trypanosomosis disease. These livestock fulfill different functions in the livelihood of rural communities in the region. To identify potential areas of interventions for sustainable natural resource management to improve ERL productivity, a desk study that included spatial mapping was performed to review and document the existing knowledge on transhumance in West Africa. Additionally, group discussions were held to analyze the (actual or potential) effects of transhumant herds on natural resource management and ERL in the sub-humid zone. This study covered sub-humid zone in The Gambia, Guinea, Mali and Senegal. The key question we addressed in this study was as follows: What are the key trends and changes in transhumant pastoralism and how do these impact sustainable management of natural resources including endemic livestock? The results of the desk study and group discussions showed that there have been more southerly movements by transhumant pastoralists into the sub-humid zone over the past three decades and this has contributed to growing competition for grazing resources. The presence of transhumant herds in the sub-humid zone has a potential impact on management and conservation of ERL through crossbreeding with transhumant Zebu breeds from the Sahel but only study sites in Mali showed a high risk.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
       
  • Environmental requirements for furniture industry: the case study of
           Brazilian Southeast industry
    • Abstract: Despite more than 20 years of economic progress, especially in emerging economies like Brazil, the gap between developed and developing countries is still large, and environment problems have risen significantly. In this context, this paper aims to make the Brazilian furniture production cleaner, analyzing the environmental requirements considered by the micro and small enterprises (SMEs) in made-to-order furniture industry during the product development process (PDP). Another attempt was to identify the internal and external factors that led to the incorporation of these requirements. In this regard, a comprehensive review of eco-design concept that consists of composing environmental requirements into the PDP, through methods, tools, guidelines and techniques, was carried out. The data were collected using semi-structured interviews and in loco observations, analyzing each activity of the PDP and the environmental requirements on 18 SMEs in Brazil. The outcomes show that the economic factors determine the way in which the enterprises respond to the environmental issues and how adequate their companies according to laws and regulations. Moreover, the small number of qualified professionals in this field lead to difficulties to structure the sector, in other words, to produce with less environment impact.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
       
  • Demand of the tourists visiting protected areas in small oceanic islands:
           the Azores case-study (Portugal)
    • Abstract: In general, tourism plays a significant role in the economy of archipelagos and islands. The Autonomous Region of the Azores has a great potential for tourism, offering multiple attractions, both natural and cultural, creating a big challenge for a sustainable tourism policy since little attention has been paid to the archipelagos and their special needs. This work aims to understand the profile and type of ecotourist that visits the Azores. This knowledge is of great importance for a better management and development of nature-based tourism, and products tailored to the needs and expectations of visitors. The data were collected by means of exit surveys conducted at the Airport of São Miguel Island, the larger and most populated island of the archipelago, during the high tourist season—July–September 2009. The analysis of the visitor’s profile and preferences is crucial to draw adequate strategies of management for tourism, while it helps to adequate the offer to the demand. Results showed that 41.1 % of the tourists claimed to be attracted to the islands due to their “natural values” (e.g., landscape, biodiversity, and geodiversity). The most practiced activities were whale-watching (32.4 %) and mountaineering/hiking (31.6 %), followed by diving (7 %) and other sports (5.1 %). The tourists’ profile points to a mainstream, soft, and incidental type of ecotourist. This information helps to develop and support a strategic planning and management, both at local and regional levels, for sustainable tourism policies.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
       
  • Fast increases in urban sewage inputs to rivers of Indonesia
    • Abstract: We present estimates for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) sewage inputs to 19 Indonesian rivers for 1970–2050. Future trends are based on the four scenarios of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Our results indicate a rapid increase in N and P pollution from sewage over time. In 1970, N and P inputs to rivers were low because not many households were connected to sewage systems discharging to rivers. Sewage connection is increasing over time. As a result, N and P inputs to rivers increase. We calculate that between 2000 and 2050 the N and P inputs increase with a factor of 17–40, depending on the scenario. Important determinants of future N and P sewage inputs are population, economic growth, urbanization, sewage systems development and wastewater treatment. Our calculations are based on an improved model for N and P inputs to rivers, indicating that previous estimates underestimated these inputs considerably.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
       
  • Adopting material flow cost accounting model for improved waste-reduction
           decisions in a micro-brewery
    • Abstract: This paper report findings from a pilot study in a micro-brewery that demonstrates the adoption of the MFCA model to capture adequate waste-cost information to support and improve waste-reduction decisions. While studies have shown that applying MFCA is a relevant tool in providing both financial and non-financial waste information for improving waste-reduction decisions in large- and medium-sized organizations, its adoption in a micro-brewery set-up is lacking. Findings reveal that the MFCA model can be adopted within different management systems to improve waste-reduction decision and cost savings. A significant implication for practice is the potential to adopt the MFCA model under different organizational circumstances that generally do not support systematically structured management approaches. A major significance of the findings in this study serves to focus the attention of owner–managers in micro-business circumstances on the management of product material and energy losses as well as the inclusion of certain production processes costs in product cost.
      PubDate: 2014-09-24
       
  • Sustainability in environmental education: new strategic thinking
    • Abstract: Recently environmental education (EE) literature has been supportive of pluralistic rather than goal-oriented learning. Researchers argue that sustainability is not fixed but socially constructed and that sustainability issues should not be represented as indisputable targets. Countering this trend in environmental education research, this article argues that unsustainability should be treated as a concrete challenge that requires concrete solutions. The author will argue that there is a need for clear articulation of (1) what (un)sustainability is; (2) what are the key challenges of (un)sustainability; and (3) how the sustainability challenges can be meaningfully addressed. This article will outline a number of helpful frameworks that address obstacles to sustainability, ranging from population growth to unsustainable production and consumption practices. Solutions include investment in family planning to counter the effects of overpopulation, and alternative production frameworks, such as Cradle to Cradle that differs from the conventional frameworks. This article will conclude with the broader reflection that without goal-oriented critical learning explicitly providing sound models of sustainability, open learning may never permit transcendence from unsustainability. This article will develop a number of comprehensive frameworks targeted at solutions to sustainability issues both from ethical and practical perspectives.
      PubDate: 2014-09-20
       
  • A review on composting of oil palm biomass
    • Abstract: Nowadays, the biomass produced in oil palm industry, such as oil palm fronds, palm pressed fibers, palm kernel shells, empty fruit bunch, and liquid waste discharged from the palm oil mill effluent and others, may lead to significant environmental concerns. The quantity of produced wastes by oil palm industry is increasing with the growth of this industry day by day. Therefore, the use of these wastes as compost is considered by researchers to overcome their negative impacts and recycle them to produce a useful byproduct for agriculture. This review analyzes the recent composting studies on palm oil biomass and provides useful information about the potential uses of these biomass in composting as an alternative method for enhanced and sustainable use of biomass produced from oil palm industry. In addition, environmental impacts of composting are discussed. This knowledge could build a platform for researchers in this area to understand the recent developments in palm oil biomass composting by means of addressing the environmental pollution concerns as well.
      PubDate: 2014-09-19
       
  • Alleviating climate change impacts in rural Bangladesh: a PROMETHEE
           outranking-based approach for prioritizing agricultural interventions
    • Abstract: This paper presents a PROMETHEE multicriteria outranking-based approach for prioritizing agricultural interventions to alleviate climate change on a farm basis. The drought-prone areas of Rajshahi and flood-saline-prone areas of Barisal in rural Bangladesh were chosen as case studies. A number of existent agricultural interventions have been comparatively evaluated upon several diversified criteria. The process of evaluation was held through an online survey to experts with knowledge in rice farming and climate change effects in Bangladesh. The findings indicate that water storage systems were prioritized first in northern drought area, whereas the introduction of improved rice varieties in flood-saline south was of the highest importance. Furthermore, the combined implementation of water storage, improved rice varieties, and seminars on agricultural management to farmers was signified as an integrated response to climate change for both regions. The findings were already presented to key stakeholders where a strong support for the combined implementation of the suggested interventions in pilot sites was given.
      PubDate: 2014-09-18
       
  • Exploring participation in new forms of environmental governance: a case
           study of payments for environmental services in Nicaragua
    • Abstract: This article discusses a “payments for ecosystem services” project in Nicaragua involving different public and private actors. The main contribution of this paper to the literature is that this study shows how the participation of the poor and marginalized in environmental governance projects, particularly in payments for environmental services (PES) projects, is shaped by asymmetrical and preexisting power relations that do not simply disappear with the inception of a project. This study also contributes to better understand and to nuance the motives of different actors to engage in PES projects, and my analysis confirms that a sole focus on economic incentives is too narrow and insufficient explanation for actors’ involvement in the project. The project constitutes a hybrid arena where different ideas meet. One of the outcomes of such hybridity is that the expansion of the activities of corporate actors remains unquestioned and their perspectives are favoured, while at the same time claiming to promote the conservation of natural resources. The study reveals the engagement of international development agencies in influencing the relations between private and public actors. Powerful actors are able to draw the borders of what is possible to discuss and negotiate in “invited” spaces for participation like this PES project.
      PubDate: 2014-09-17
       
  • Households’ perception and livelihood vulnerability to climate
           change in a coastal area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
    • Abstract: This study examines households’ perception and livelihood vulnerability to climate change in a coastal area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. It employed multistage sampling procedure, selected a total of 101 households from three coastal communities in Ibeno local government area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria and obtained primary data on several indicators through interviews guided by a structured questionnaire. From the data obtained, the study examined households’ perception and developed a livelihood vulnerability index (LVI) to assess livelihood vulnerability. The result showed that households in the study area generally perceive that all the climate variables considered in the study, especially timing and length of the average rainy season, have changed over time. These are in line with meteorological data obtained from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency. In addition, the LVI shows that households are vulnerable to changes in climate variables. Households in the study area are striving to adapt to these changes but facing many challenges of which lack of adequate finance is the most important. Although these challenges are multifarious, they can be reduced through adequate support of government and non-governmental organizations. Consequently, policy recommendations are discussed.
      PubDate: 2014-09-17
       
  • Renewable energy in Saudi Arabia: current status and future potentials
    • Abstract: The energy future must be accessible, affordable and mainly sustainable. Actually, there is an increased demand for energy worldwide, and 80 % of the present energy use is based on fossil fuels. Not only are oil prices increasing but also pollution continues to rise due to the burning of fossil fuels, and the probability of oil supply depletion remains. A critical part of the solution will lie in promoting renewable energy technologies in order to address concerns about energy security, economic growth in the face of high prices of crude oil, competitiveness, health costs and environmental degradation. All of these issues encourage the investigation of using renewable energy, which has several unique advantages that should be considered when making comparison with oil-based alternatives. Besides, achieving sustainable development is a target that is now widely recognized as important to humankind. In this context, the utilization of renewable energy resources such as solar, wind and geothermal energy appears to be one of the most efficient and effective ways of achieving this goal since renewable energy is abundant universally and holds huge ecological and economic promise. Although the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the world’s major producer and exporter of fuel, and represents one of the biggest consumers of petroleum in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia should be interested in taking an active part in the development and exploitation of renewable energy technologies. In fact, the unsustainable use of fossil fuels and the activities which are mainly responsible for significant greenhouse gas emissions are consistently in the upslope. That is why Saudi Arabia was among the first countries to contribute in renewable energy research through major joint international cooperation programs, despite the fact that it occupies a very advanced rank in the world in terms of huge proven oil and gas reserves. This paper describes the current status of energy and focuses on renewable and energy-efficient technologies, major achievements, and current government policies and challenges.
      PubDate: 2014-09-14
       
  • Non-timber forest products certification and management: a socioeconomic
           study among the Kadars in Kerala, India
    • Abstract: Debates on linking livelihoods and conservation through the commercialization of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) continue to hold significance considering the increasing market demand for NTFPs, its high economic value for forest-dependent communities and “enabling” neoliberal policies that are in place. Kerala, located on the southwest coast of India, flanked by the Western Ghats—a UN declared biodiversity hot spot, on its windward side, is of particular significance due to the presence of the Ayurvedic industry—a traditional medicine industry that procures 90 % of its raw materials from the wild. In addition, the presence of a resource-dependent tribal population re-affirms the economic, social and cultural significance of NTFPs. Unsustainable practices and poor co-management and marketing arrangements have rendered the sector ineffective in terms of meeting livelihood as well as conservation goals in the region. Although new approaches such as NTFP certification are being recommended for India not much has been reported on its feasibility and/or implementation challenges. Focusing on the Kadar community of Kerala, this study attempts to highlight some of the issues within the sector and using an “instrumental model”, present the benefits accrued from new strategies such as NTFP certification through quantitative and qualitative assessments. Last but not least, recommendations for the adoption of sustainable strategies in context with the existing policy environment are provided that may be broadly applicable to other forest-dependent communities in India and elsewhere.
      PubDate: 2014-09-06
       
  • Jean Palutikof, Sarah L. Boulter, Andrew J. Ash, Mark Stafford Smith,
           Martin Parry, Marie Waschka, Daniela Guitart (Eds): climate adaptation
           futures
    • PubDate: 2014-08-07
       
 
 
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