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Journal Cover Environment, Development and Sustainability
  [SJR: 0.438]   [H-I: 36]   [30 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-2975 - ISSN (Online) 1387-585X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2336 journals]
  • Conditions for the development of anaerobic digestion technologies using
           the organic fraction of municipal solid waste: perspectives for Poland
    • Authors: Anna Rolewicz-Kalińska; Anna Oniszk-Popławska; Judyta Wesołowska; Elżbieta D. Ryńska
      Pages: 1279 - 1296
      Abstract: Abstract This article outlines problems related to the location of facilities designed to treat the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). Anaerobic digestion (AD) facilities are investigated as a treatment option, while taking into account the aspects of renewable energy generation. This research has been spurred on by the relationship between waste management, energy generation issues and spatial planning procedures. The analysis is focused on urban and semi-urban areas of medium and large cities. One of the most difficult issues associated with siting of waste processing plants is its integration with local infrastructures, avoiding conflicts and negative environmental impacts at the same time. This research aims to analyse possible locations for AD plants fuelled by OFMSW in Poland. Based on the experience gained from other countries and lessons learnt from the analysis of existing facilities in Europe, conditions for the location of this type of waste treatment plants have been defined, with the focus on economic, environmental and social issues. Most likely, the results of the multicriteria decision analysis for siting of municipal solid waste AD plants (M-BIST tool) could be transferred to other countries, especially those with a comparable GDP level and a similar framework for a waste management system.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9808-5
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 5 (2016)
  • Using stated preference methods to assess environmental impacts of forest
           biomass power plants in Portugal
    • Authors: Anabela Botelho; Lina Lourenço-Gomes; Lígia Pinto; Sara Sousa; Marieta Valente
      Pages: 1323 - 1337
      Abstract: Abstract As a renewable energy source, the use of forest biomass for electricity generation is advantageous in comparison with fossil fuels; however, the activity of forest biomass power plants causes adverse impacts, affecting particularly neighbouring communities. The main objective of this study is to estimate the effects of the activity of forest biomass power plants on the welfare of two groups of stakeholders, namely local residents and the general population. To this end, we apply two stated preference methods: contingent valuation and discrete choice experiments, respectively. The former method was applied to estimate the minimum compensation residents of neighbouring communities of two forest biomass power plants in Portugal would be willing to accept. The latter method was applied among the general population to estimate their willingness to pay to avoid specific environmental impacts. The results show that the presence of the selected facilities affects individuals’ well-being. On the other hand, in the discrete choice experiments conducted among the general population all impacts considered were valued, in particular odour and fauna and flora impacts. The results of this study stress the importance of performing an equity analysis of the welfare effects on different groups of stakeholders from the installation of forest biomass power plants, as their effects on welfare are location and impact specific. Policy makers should take into account the views of all stakeholders either directly or indirectly involved when deciding crucial issues regarding the sitting of new forest biomass power plants, in order to achieve an efficient and equitable outcome.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9795-6
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 5 (2016)
  • Forestry activity in Portugal within the context of the European Union: a
           cluster in agricultural economics for sustainable development
    • Authors: Vítor João Pereira Domingues Martinho
      Pages: 1339 - 1397
      Abstract: Abstract Forestry activities may be important complements to a farmer’s income within the context of agricultural economics, or autonomous production, with determining factors upon rural dynamics and sustainable development. Taking these ideas into account, the objective of this study was to analyze the importance of forestry for sustainability in Portugal, namely in rural regions, comparatively with the context verified across other countries in the European Union. For this, data from the Eurostat (Several statistics. European Union Statistics, Luxembourg, 2015) for the European countries were used, over the period 1990–2014, and for variables that allowed to capture the interrelationships among forest indicators and economic, social and environmental variables. This statistical information was analyzed from a descriptive perspective and using the pairwise correlation matrix (complemented with the Granger causality Wald tests), through the Stata (Statistics/data analysis. StataCorp, LP, College Station, TX, 2015) software, to understand the relationships between the different indicators. As a main finding, it is worth referring that Portugal has had, in this period, a small impact on the European Union forestry conjuncture, but with great potential, namely in terms of agricultural and rural economic sustainability.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9775-x
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 5 (2016)
  • On the possibility of sustainable development with less economic growth: a
           research note
    • Authors: Ângelo Barroso; Cristina Chaves; Francisco Vitorino Martins; Manuel Castelo Branco
      Pages: 1399 - 1414
      Abstract: Abstract The main purpose of this paper is to discuss whether it is possible to achieve human development without or with less economic growth. For this to happen, it is important that developed countries can maintain high levels of human development while reducing the scale of production and consumption so that developing countries can achieve greater economic growth. Using panel data from 118 countries aggregated in ten blocks of countries, we assess the influence of “growth” on “development”, as proxied by a transformed variable “Social Human Development Index” (SHDI), controlling for the influence of geo-economic factors. In particular, we analyse whether developed countries present a weaker statistical relation between GDP and the social dimension of HDI than their less developed counterparts. Results reveal that the GDP elasticity of SHDI is higher in blocks of countries where the concentration of developing countries occurs than in blocks dominated by the presence of developed countries. Thus, it is possible to envisage that a slowdown in economic activity in developed countries may occur without great sacrifice of human development, at least when it is measured by health and education components. We interpret the findings as meaning that at an aggregate level there are conditions for development to occur without or with less growth.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9802-y
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 5 (2016)
  • Solar photovoltaic investments and economic growth in EU: Are we able to
           evaluate the nexus?
    • Authors: Teresa Grijó; Isabel Soares
      Pages: 1415 - 1432
      Abstract: Abstract A core question in energy economics may be stated as follows: Is the cost–benefit analysis being correctly applied when we encourage investments in renewables, as an alternative to the traditional energy sources? The relationship between energy consumption and economic growth has been extensively treated within economics literature. Yet, literature on the nexus between specific energy sources and GDP is almost inexistent. In this article, we intend to explore the relationship between a certain type of renewable generation technology (solar PV) and GDP. The present and above all the planned energy mix might differ widely from one country to another. Thus, the analysis by source of energy generation becomes a helpful instrument for policy-making. Using a fixed effects panel data methodology and a sample of eighteen EU countries, we find that a 1 % increase in solar PV installed capacity and in electricity production from renewable sources has a positive impact on GDP of 0.0248 and 0.0061 %, respectively. We also conclude that a 1 % growth on greenhouse gas emissions positively affects GDP by 0.3106 %. Further evidence reveals that, in terms of country-specific analysis, Germany, France, Italy and the UK have the most significant estimations for fixed effects. In fact, Germany is a solar PV technology producer, France has a very active nuclear sector, with little pressure for both renewables development and CO2 reductions, Italy had in this period a strong governmental support to this sector, and the UK has a strong connection between the solar PV and the industry sectors.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9806-7
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 5 (2016)
  • Energy rating methodology for light-duty vehicles: geographical impact
    • Authors: Sara Marques; Luis Reis; João L. Afonso; Carla Silva
      Pages: 1501 - 1519
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this paper was to describe a new energy dependency score methodology and its consequent application to cars sold in twelve regions: Europe (EU-28) and eleven specific countries worldwide (Australia, Brazil, China, India, Japan, Norway, Portugal, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa and USA). This methodology was developed as a potential tool to inform consumers of their choice impact on the country’s economy. This methodology is based on primary energy assessments and origins for each energy pathway associated with a gasoline-, diesel-, natural gas (used for H2 production)- or electricity (balanced with country electricity mix)-powered vehicle. An energy dependency index was attributed to the best-case (100 % endogenous production) and worst-case (0 % endogenous production) scenarios and consequently weighted with vehicle fuel consumption. This enabled obtaining an energy dependency index (10–0). This index could be assigned to an environmental and social index to provide a sustainability index and therefore complement a road vehicle environmental rating system, providing a combined index rating. Internal combustion engine vehicles and hybrid vehicles (that have oil products as energy source) rate the lowest for almost all locations, with the exception of regions that are energy independent (Norway, Saudi Arabia or Russia). Electric vehicles rank higher when comparing to the other technologies analyzed for all locations in this study. The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle shows generally a rank in an intermediate place, except for Japan where it scores lower than all other technologies.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9776-9
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 5 (2016)
  • Experimental investigation of dust pollutants and the impact of
           environmental parameters on PV performance: an experimental study
    • Abstract: Abstract The accumulation of dust pollution on the photovoltaic (PV) module can have a significant effect on the productivity and efficiency of PV systems in different locations in the world. Dust which accumulated over time on the PV module and is based on weather conditions led to the reduction in the effectiveness of solar cells. The aim of this research was to experimentally investigate the effect of the natural dust and the effects of environmental parameters on PV performance. The experiments were conducted to propose a model for the current, voltage, power and efficiency and to simulate the effect of environmental parameters on PV performance. The natural dust investigated consisted of different compounds: SiO2 (45.53 %), CaO (24.62 %), Al2O3 (10.83 %), Fe2O3 (10.46 %), MgO (6.33 %), K2O (0.87 %), TiO2 (0.45 %), SO3 (0.24 %), MnO2 (0.21), Cr2O3 (0.23 %), SrO (0.13 %) and NiO (0.09 %). It was found that the most accurate correlation is a polynomial from seventh degree for current, voltage, power and efficiency, fourth degree for solar radiation and temperature, cubic degree for humidity and wind velocity. The coefficients of general model are 0.6343, 0.0110, 0.0 and 0.0001 for PV module, respectively, with 0.0011 fitting factor. The proposed model has been validated using models in the literature.
      PubDate: 2016-10-25
  • Spatio-temporal analysis of climatic variables in the western part of
    • Abstract: Abstract Monitoring and detecting trends of climatic variables like rainfall and temperature are essential for agricultural developments in the context of climate change. The present study has detected trends in annual and cropping seasonal rainfall and temperature data for the period of 1961–2011 using Mann–Kendall (MK) test, Spearman’s rho (SR) test and modified Mann–Kendall test that has been applied to the significant lag-1 serial correlated time series data, and slope has been estimated using Sen’s Slope estimator for twelve meteorological stations located in the western part of Bangladesh covering about 41 % of the country. Almost 71 % trends explored by MK test in annual rainfall are statistically insignificant, and SR test also complies it. The spatial distribution of rainfall trend shows insignificant positive trends in major part of the area. Significant positive trends both by MK test and by SR test at 95 % confidence levels are observed at rates of 8.56, 11.15 and 13.66 mm/year at Dinajpur, Rangpur and Khepupara stations, respectively, and the Kharif season rainfall of these stations also shows significant increasing trends except Dinajpur. On the other hand, significant decreasing trends in annual rainfall are found at Bhola (−11.67 mm/year) and Rajshahi (−5.951 mm/year) stations and decreasing trends in rainfall dominated the Pre-Kharif season over the area. But, 83.33 % of the stations show rising trends in annual mean temperature with significant positive trends (as observed by both MK test and SR test) at Rangpur, Bogra, Faridpur, Jessore and Bhola stations where the rate of changes vary from 0.013 °C/year at Faridpur to 0.08 °C/year at Bhola. Most of the trends in Rabi and Pre-Kharif seasons of mean temperatures are not statistically significant. However, all stations except Barisal show significant rising trends in temperature in Kharif season. To cope with this changing pattern of rainfall and temperature, effective adaptation strategies should be taken to keep up the agricultural production that is related to livelihood of the most people and to ensure the country’s food security.
      PubDate: 2016-10-22
  • Governance challenges of cocoa partnership projects in Indonesia: seeking
           synergy in multi-stakeholder arrangements for sustainable agriculture
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper investigates multi-stakeholder arrangements initiated by businesses and NGOs from the North that aim to enhance a more sustainable agricultural production at specific localities in Southern countries. We aim to better understand the search for concerted action in multi-actor arrangements. Therefore, this paper presents a diagnostic framework with three strategic challenges the partnership projects are facing: linking global economic objectives to local needs, values and interests; bridging public and private interests and responsibilities; and seeking trade-offs between social, environmental and economic values. Starting from the partnerships’ Theory of Change, this diagnostic framework is applied to comparative case studies of partnership projects in the cocoa sector in Indonesia, which are part of a Northern-based public–private partnership to improve farmers’ prospective. It is concluded that the economic reality faced by the farmers differs from that of the Northern actors; collaboration with governments is difficult because of different organizational cultures; and the partnership projects underestimate the strength of vested social relations the smallholders are part of. Overall, the initiators of the partnerships seem to work with a too restricted economic interpretation of the local reality.
      PubDate: 2016-10-22
  • Ecological and economic impacts of different irrigation and fertilization
           practices: case study of a watershed in the southern Iran
    • Abstract: Abstract Best management practices, such as conservation tillage, the optimum level of irrigation, fertilization, are frequently used to reduce non-point source pollution from agricultural land and improve water quality. In this study, we used the soil and water assessment tool to model the impacts of different irrigation (adjusted to crop need), cropping and fertilization practices on total nitrogen loss. The economic impacts of these practices on crop net farm income were also evaluated. For this purpose, the model was calibrated through comparing model outputs with observations to ensure reliable hydrologic, crop yield and nitrate leaching simulations. The results showed that by reducing water or fertilizer or combination of both, we can reduce nitrate leaching. For wheat and corn, the best scenario was S1n1 (combination between reduction by 10 % of water and nitrogen fertilizer application, simultaneously) and S2n3 (combination of 20 and 30 % reduction in water and fertilizer application), respectively. These scenarios are both ecologically and economically desirable. Also, decreasing nitrogen fertilization by 50 % for corn would decrease the nitrate pollution from 101.1 to 32.3 kg N ha−1; therefore, this strategy is ecologically desirable but economically unsound. So, there are opportunities for environmental decision makers to encourage farmers to implement these strategies. Also, since the nitrogen leaching cannot decrease without a reduction in net farm income for crops such as corn; hence, the losses of farmers should be compensated.
      PubDate: 2016-10-20
  • Adoption and farm-level impact of conservation agriculture in Central
    • Abstract: Abstract Soil erosion and degradation is an important agro-ecological challenge in the highlands of Ethiopia. Conservation agriculture (CA) has a long time been identified as one of the key interventions that could abate the current trend of physical and chemical erosion of soil. This study analyzed adoption of the different components of CA (minimal disturbance of soil, permanent organic soil cover, and crop rotation) and herbicide application in two districts of Ethiopia using a multivariate probit model. The impact of CA on land and labor productivity was also estimated using generalized methods of moments and the control function approach. The initial decision to adopt the different components of CA is influenced by location, family size, access to extension, and formal education. Among the components introduced with CA, herbicide application significantly and strongly influences land productivity. Other factors, which influenced land productivity, were location, sex of head of household, livestock wealth, and human labor endowment. None of the components of CA—including the complementary herbicide application—was found to be influencing labor productivity in the study areas. Generally, access to extension and the main crop under production drive the decision to adopt or not to adopt the different components of CA. Despite its positive impact on land productivity, herbicide application should be further investigated with attention to its effect on sustainable use of cultivable land.
      PubDate: 2016-10-20
  • Economical sensitivity analysis of rice husk utilization in a 300 kW el
           Micro Thermal Power Plant
    • Authors: Flávio Dias Mayer; Roger Gallon; Ronaldo Hoffmann
      Abstract: Abstract Production of rice husks in Rio Grande do Sul State, which is the major rice production state in Brazil, needs to be adequately managed to diminish environmental impacts. A Micro Thermal Power Plant (MTP), which is a compact and small-scale biomass thermal power plant technology, can be used in electricity generation in thermal power plants with a power capacity up to 800 kWel. This paper presents a feasibility analysis of a 300 kWel MTP that is fuelled by rice husks using two different scenarios: the autoproduction (Case 1) and the independent production (Case 2) of electricity. Both scenarios were found to be unfeasible. Therefore, a sensitivity analysis is performed to evaluate the variables that affect feasibility, such as the electricity commercialization price, the value of certified emission reductions and the financial interest rates. According to sensitivity analysis, small-scale thermal power plants could have feasibility if they received incentives through government programmes, such as through the exemption of equipment taxes and/or the reduction or elimination of the financial interest rate.
      PubDate: 2016-10-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9871-y
  • Seasonal dynamics of vegetation of the central Loess Plateau (China) based
           on tree rings and their relationship to climatic warming
    • Authors: Huiqin Wang; Feng Chen; Ruibo Zhang; Li Qin
      Abstract: Abstract Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) is a highly climate-sensitive species. Presently, the Huanglong Mountains are covered by widespread forests dominated by Chinese pine and thus has a great potential for dendrochronological studies. To increase the knowledge of NDVI changes of the Loess Plateau and their potential influences on the environmental changes, the regional tree-ring chronology from the Huanglong Mountains was used to investigate climate/NDVI relationships. Standard dendrochronological methods were applied to a regional tree-ring series of Pinus tabulaeformis from the Huanglong Mountains, the Loess Plateau. The relationships between ring widths and NDVI/climate factors were investigated by the simple and spatial correlation analysis. The results of the correlation analysis indicated that mean temperature has negative influences on tree growth, while the tree-ring widths of Chinese pine reflect the variations of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Herein the standard tree-ring width series was used to develop June–July NDVI for the Huanglong Mountains during the period AD 1812–2012, and it explained 41.2 % of the total NDVI variance during the period AD 1982–2006. The results of the spatial analysis show that the reconstructed NDVI has strong drought signals for the Huanglong Mountains. Drought events in the NDVI series are compared to the historical records and climate data in the study area, and show common drought events over much of Shaanxi. These drought-caused famines have had strong influences on the people of Shaanxi during the past 201 years. The moving correlation between March–July temperature and the NDVI reconstruction showed that the recent warming is the most important driving force of the drying trend and the resulting in tree growth decline during the last 30 years. Our reconstructed NDVI is significantly correlated with sea surface temperature in the Indian and the western Pacific Oceans. The linkages to the Indian and Pacific Oceans suggest the connection of regional NDVI variations to large-scale ocean–atmosphere–land circulation systems. Our NDVI reconstruction provides the long-term perspective on the vegetation dynamics of the Huanglong Mountains and is used to guide expectations of future forest variations.
      PubDate: 2016-10-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9870-z
  • Perceptions regarding the challenges and constraints faced by smallholder
           farmers of vanilla in Mexico
    • Authors: Verónica Borbolla-Pérez; Lourdes Georgina Iglesias-Andreu; Mauricio Luna-Rodríguez; Pablo Octavio-Aguilar
      Abstract: Abstract Mexico was the main vanilla producer worldwide many years ago. However, it currently provides just around 5 % of the global production. The issues that have led to the current stagnation of the vanilla production in Mexico have been addressed from various perspectives, but few studies have included the opinion of smallholder farmers. For this reason, the aim of this study was to conduct a participatory diagnostic to identify the challenges and constraints that affect the vanilla productive sector in Mexico from the smallholder farmers perspective. This study was conducted under the of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) approach; consequently, we used PRA techniques for data collection. The qualitative data obtained were transcribed and analyzed using the Content Analysis Method (CAM) and Constant Comparative Method (CCM). The results showed that most of the challenges and limitations referred to by smallholder farmers result from the lack of training to improve production, processing, and marketing. Likewise, various restrictive aspects were identified in the production process that affect crop productivity, such as cultivation in small parcels, high incidence of diseases, premature abortion of fruits, and low tolerance of plants to stress. An aspect common to all processes is the need to promote organization and training schemes, since under the conditions described for the vanilla production chain in Mexico, relationships have been built in highly competitive communities and, in general, the targets seek have been mutually exclusive. For the above, we consider that achieving more profitable and sustainable production schemes require placing smallholder farmers at the base of an inclusive production system supported by fair trade, with organization, institutions, technology transfer, level of trust, and cooperation as core elements.
      PubDate: 2016-10-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9863-y
  • A sustainable method for optimizing product design with trade-off between
           life cycle cost and environmental impact
    • Authors: Mariam Ameli; Saeed Mansour; Amir Ahmadi-Javid
      Abstract: Abstract In today’s competitive market, corporations have learned that taking sustainability issues into account can significantly improve their public image. Modern producers therefore must simultaneously reduce the environmental impact of their products and make economic gains. Therefore, making trade-offs between economic and environmental issues is required to ensure a company’s continuity. In doing so, companies have attached a great deal of importance to the new product design phase. However, optimization at the design stage becomes very complex for a product with a large number of parts, which can have several design alternatives with similar forms and functionality, but different costs and environmental impacts. In the automobile, shipbuilding and aircraft industries, if the conventional complete enumeration method is applied, the time required for selecting the optimal combination of design alternatives with respect to life cycle cost and environmental impact may exceed a human’s natural life span. To overcome this limitation, this paper introduces an optimization method for use as a design aid tool that enables a designer to assess the life cycle cost and environmental impact of his/her design very early in the product development process. To support the developed method, an illustration is provided using a case study on a locally manufactured automobile.
      PubDate: 2016-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9864-x
  • Green procurement in South Africa: perspectives on legislative provisions
           in metropolitan municipalities
    • Authors: Adelaide Owusu Agyepong; Godwell Nhamo
      Abstract: Abstract This paper sets an objective to analyse legislative provisions for green procurement in South Africa’s metropolitan municipalities in the context of climate change and sustainable development. The main methods for data generation were interviews and document analysis. There were 30 interviews granted by among others, procurement officers, town planners and economic development specialists. In addition, 51 policy documents were retrieved, followed by a keyword search. The keywords were carefully selected and limited to those commonly used in green procurement terminology to include climate change, green procurement, renewable energy, energy efficiency, mitigation, clean technology, carbon footprint, sustainable development and green economy. The findings are that although all the metropolitan municipalities have procurement policies in place, only the City of Cape Town and eThekwini metropolitan have incorporated green procurement strategies into their supply chain management. The City of Cape Town and Nelson Mandela Bay metropolitan municipalities also emerged as the only ones with stand-alone green procurement strategies. To this end, the research concludes that legislative provisions mandating green procurement in South African metropolitan municipalities are not entirely lacking, although more work needs to be done to roll this out to cover all the existing metropolitan municipalities.
      PubDate: 2016-10-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9865-9
  • Modeling of high step-up converter in closed loop for renewable energy
    • Authors: R. Nagaraj; D. Thiruganamurthy; Manik Murthy Rajput
      Abstract: Abstract A majority of small-scale renewable energy sources including the solar PV modules, fuel cells gives out output voltage in the range of around 15–40 V DC. This needs to be stepped up to suit load requirements using a high voltage gain converter. Since renewable sources inherently generate sudden variations in input voltage, a good output voltage profile even during such random variations in input conditions is essential. This paper presents modeling of a high step-up converter configuration with closed loop control. The converter topology is designed to operate with moderate duty ratios and the simple coupled inductor. The converter is capable of high step-up and can find application in solar PV systems. The controller response is good with low steady state error and required dynamics. The modeling and simulation is carried out using MATLAB/Simulink software package.
      PubDate: 2016-10-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9866-8
  • Bacteriological quality of fresh produce and link to water and sanitation
           service access from informal markets in Mzuzu, Malawi
    • Abstract: Abstract In 2010, the global burden of foodborne diseases was 33 million Disability-adjusted life years, and 40 % of this burden was for children under 5 years old (Havelaar et al. 2015). Our study site was informal public markets within Mzuzu, Malawi, visited between September and December 2015, during the dry season. From these markets, fresh vegetables, leafy greens (n = 85), tomato (n = 85), and green pepper (n = 35) were analyzed for Escherichia coli. The prevalence of E. coli was highest on leafy greens; it was found in 74 (87 %) of the 85 samples. The prevalence of E. coli in green peppers was found in 2 (6 %) of the 35 samples. The prevalence of E. coli was lowest on tomatoes; it was found in only 1 (1 %) of the 85 samples. The lack of adequate water and sanitation infrastructure in market areas may be contributing to the bacteriological contamination of fresh produce. Providing venders with free access to market area toilets containing hand-washing facilities with soap and wash water with a chlorine solution may reduce bacterial contamination of fresh produce. Universal and sustainable access to water and sanitation services must include informal public market areas to reduce diarrheal diseases transmitted through food within Sub-Saharan Africa countries.
      PubDate: 2016-10-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9867-7
  • Energy and environment: bringing together engineering and economics
    • Authors: Paula Ferreira; Madalena Araújo; Luc Hens
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9846-z
  • Energy policy evaluation in practice: the case of production subsidies and
           DEN-B in the Netherlands
    • Authors: Viktória Kocsis; Bert Hof
      Abstract: Abstract This paper describes how energy policy can be evaluated in practice. The goal is to make policy makers aware of how an evaluation can be based on scientific principles and to help economists appreciate how an evaluation can be performed if strong empirical evidence is lacking. We have built a basic evaluation framework and have applied this to a selection of Dutch energy policy instruments, namely production subsidies and their complementary non-financial instrument, DEN-B. Our evaluation criterion was effectiveness, defined as the extent to which policy instruments contribute to achieving policy goals. The evaluation was based on existing ex post evaluations complemented by interviews and other available data. We conclude that production subsidies and DEN-B were (partly) effective. Furthermore, the Dutch government increased effectiveness by reconsidering the design of production subsidies. We also formulate lessons for future policy evaluations and energy markets policies.
      PubDate: 2016-08-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9837-0
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