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Journal Cover Environment, Development and Sustainability
  [SJR: 0.438]   [H-I: 36]   [34 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-2975 - ISSN (Online) 1387-585X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Low-carbon society creation and socio-economic structural transition in
    • Authors: Xiangsheng Dou; Huanying Cui
      Pages: 1577 - 1599
      Abstract: Abstract China is facing the problem of climate change, environment protection and energy security. Therefore, China has to create a low-carbon society to address them. The purpose of this paper is to make a comprehensive and in-depth analysis of China’s reality and transition to a low-carbon society. The research indicates that China’s transition to low-carbon society will inevitably meet many difficulties under the relatively backward situation of China’s socio-economic structure and technologies at the current stage. Therefore, China has to take concrete policies and countermeasures to promote its development gradually. In particular, China has to vigorously promote the innovation of low carbon system, technologies, subsidy and tax, financing and investment to lay groundwork for comprehensive development of low-carbon society.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9834-3
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 5 (2017)
  • Bridging the Maghreb’s water gap: from rationalizing the virtual water
           trade to enhancing the renewable energy desalination
    • Authors: Maamar Sebri
      Pages: 1673 - 1684
      Abstract: Abstract The debate about the water resources shortages and finding appropriate solutions to close the water gap in many regions is still not finished. The Mediterranean region is among the most arid regions in the world and hosts more than the half of the world’s water-poor population. The situation is more severe in the southern shore of the Mediterranean, in particular, the Maghreb countries. In this region, water resources are very limited and polluted and most countries rely on groundwater yet overexploited. On the other hand, several factors, including rapid economic growth, expanding populations and changing climate, are driving up demand for water. This pushes forward the Maghreb countries to more and more rely on non-conventional and costly water resources such as wastewater treatment and desalination. Obviously, this bears a heavy burden on the economic growth within these countries. In this paper, rationalizing the virtual water trade and enhancing desalination using renewable energy are presented as two promising options to bridging the Maghreb’s water gap.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9820-9
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 5 (2017)
  • Assessing and selecting interventions for river water quality improvement
           within the context of population growth and urbanization: a case study of
           the Cau River basin in Vietnam
    • Authors: Pham Thi Thu Ha; Nomessi Kokutse; Sophie Duchesne; Jean-Pierre Villeneuve; Alain Bélanger; Ha Ngoc Hien; Babacar Toumbou; Duong Ngoc Bach
      Pages: 1701 - 1729
      Abstract: Abstract In this study, a multi-criteria methodology is proposed to identify and prioritize interventions for water quality improvement with the aid of computer simulation models. The methodology can be used to elaborate and compare future socio-economic development scenarios to select the best interventions based on three criteria: (1) ideas of experts and stakeholders about the importance of scenarios, (2) impacts of each scenario on surface water quality in watershed, and (3) benefit–cost analysis for each scenario. A score is computed for each scenario based on a weighted sum technique which enables to take into consideration different level of importance for the three criteria. The methodology is applied to Cau River basin in Vietnam, with the aid of a computer tool, to assess interventions for river water quality improvement within the context of population growth and urbanization. The results show that fast future population growth in upstream has significant impacts. In 2020, an increase of 116 % of the population in Bac Kan town can lead to an increase of 120 and 135 % in BOD5 and NH4 + median concentrations, respectively, with the implementation of a treatment plant for 10,000 people in Bac Kan town. Therefore, the increase of the domestic wastewater treatment plant’s capacity in Bac Kan town, at least twice as the projection of local government, is necessary. These results will help decision makers to select the best interventions for Cau River basin management.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9822-7
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 5 (2017)
  • Assessment of the hunting of mammals using local ecological knowledge: an
           example from the Brazilian semiarid region
    • Authors: Belarmino Carneiro da Silva Neto; André Luiz Borba do Nascimento; Nicola Schiel; Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves; Antonio Souto; Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque
      Pages: 1795 - 1813
      Abstract: Abstract The hunting of wild animals remains a common activity in various parts of the world, especially in rural communities with poor socioeconomic conditions. To investigate patterns of mammal hunting, this study adopted a rural community located in semiarid Brazil as a model to test whether variables such as perceived abundance, activity period (day or night) and animal biomass could influence the consumption potential of mammal taxa. For this study, a checklist/interview technique using 32 photographs of mammals recorded in the region and two photographs of species that did not occur in the region, which acted as “control” species, was used, in addition to other visual stimuli and free lists. All species presented in the photographs, with the exception of the “control” species, were recognized as occurring in the region. Fourteen species were cited as being those most hunted locally. The species cited as most hunted had an average perceived abundance higher than the group of the least-hunted species. However, there was no significant relationship between hunting of a species and its locally perceived abundance. No significant difference in hunting pressure between diurnal and nocturnal species was found, nor was a relationship between animal biomass and hunting pressure observed. Our findings suggest that perceived abundance is an important factor for choosing a resource fauna, but other factors such as intended use, meat flavor and vulnerability to hunting, among others, may influence the potential use of a species.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9827-2
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 5 (2017)
  • Dividivi tannins: an ecological product for water-based drilling fluids
    • Authors: Miguel A. Pérez; Richard Rengifo; Carlos Pereira; Vanessa Hernández
      Pages: 1815 - 1829
      Abstract: Abstract Modified tannins are used as deflocculant additives in the formulation of water-based drilling fluids (WBDF) for drilling operations in any scenario. Due to their high heavy metals content, these additives are toxic and hazardous for any environmental scenario. Deflocculant efficiency of unmodified tannins (UDT) extracted from fruit pods of “dividivi” (Caesalpinia coriaria) as an additive for WBDF was assessed. Raw materials for UDT elaboration come from the rural and sustainable exploitation of natural occurring dividivi trees, growing in dry tropical forests in Anzoátegui state (Orinoco Oil Belt, eastern Venezuela). The tannins extract, in the form of dividivi fruit powder, contains 47.0 % of total tannins (hydrolyzable tannins plus condensed tannins), of which 67.4 % corresponds to hydrolyzable tannins. Dividivi tannins in WBDF showed nine (9) times deflocculant efficiency than heavy metals commercial modified tannins. Moreover, commercial modified tannins do not improve their deflocculant efficiency with increased tannin content. Ecotoxicological studies were carried out for WBDF formulations with UDT, using freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus dimorphus as chronic toxicity bioindicator. Toxicity bioassays performed with these microalgae did not show significant effects on its population growth. The EC50 values resulted in over 100,000 mg L−1, and these formulations were therefore considered non-toxic. Values of LC50 obtained this time with Poecilia reticulata, as acute toxicity bioindicator are around 100,000 mg L−1, with no significant effects on population mortality. Thus, WBDF formulated with UDT can be considered non-toxic formulations for populations of this freshwater fish. From the social perspective, the use of UDT in WBDF fosters organized communities economical activities based on the maintenance of a sustainable supply chain for processing fruits in a quantity enough to obtain three thousand seven hundred fifty kilograms (3750 Kg). The UDT so obtained was used as deflocculant in four (4) oil wells producing excellent performance and relevant savings compared with commercial modified tannin.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9829-0
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 5 (2017)
  • Using the Framework for Integrated Sustainability Assessment (FISA) to
           expand the Multiregional Input–Output analysis to account for the three
           pillars of sustainability
    • Authors: Irene Rodríguez-Serrano; Natalia Caldés; Cristina De La Rúa; Yolanda Lechón; Alberto Garrido
      Pages: 1981 - 1997
      Abstract: Abstract Decision makers interested in promoting sustainable development must simultaneously consider the environmental, economic and social implications of any action. This article proposes the Framework for Integrated Sustainability Assessment (FISA), a methodological framework for conducting a sustainability impact assessment of any investment project. Based on a Multiregional Input–Output (MRIO) framework, FISA links the extended MRIO results with social risk data from the Social Hotspots Database (SHDB) in order to integrate the social with the environmental and economic pillars. Resulting impacts are simultaneously considered and reported by means of FISA charts, making it possible to assess the different impacts within the three sustainability pillars across countries involved in the whole supply chain of investment projects. This methodological framework can be applied not only to compare the sustainability impacts of two alternative projects, but also to derive specific recommendations aimed at minimizing the harmful social, environmental and economic effects along the whole project supply chain.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9839-y
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 5 (2017)
  • Hydrochemical characteristics and the impact of anthropogenic activity on
           groundwater quality in suburban area of Urmia city, Iran
    • Authors: M. Chitsazan; N. Aghazadeh; Y. Mirzaee; Y. Golestan
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this research was to determine the main hydrochemical processes, quality change and groundwater pollution resulted from various human activities in the suburban area of Urmia city, located in the northwest of Iran. For this purposes, 62 groundwater samples were collected from urban, suburban and rural areas in September 2015. Furthermore, for determining the effect of anthropogenic activities on urban and suburban groundwater quality, a comparison was made between rural, suburban and urban groundwater. The results indicate that the main type of groundwater is Ca–HCO3, and the important processes controlling groundwater chemistry are mineral weathering, ion exchange and anthropogenic activity. The effect of anthropogenic activity such as increase in urbanization and change in land use caused the increase in the concentration of Ca, HCO3, Cl, Na, Mg, NO3 and pollution of groundwater in the suburban area. In suburban zone and especially in areas with low-depth groundwater, runoff infiltration, domestic effluent sewages and application of fertilizers caused an increase in nitrate in groundwater. In urban areas with impermeable surfaces, due to less infiltration, the amount of nitrate in groundwater is low, and groundwater is not contaminated. The results obtained from groundwater sustainability indicators (index of damages, index of pollution and groundwater quality index) show that the suburban area has low-hazard pollutant problem. Also, quality of 41% groundwater samples in the suburban zone and 13% in the rural zone is poor. In this paper, to determine the water quality for irrigation uses, sodium percent (Na%), sodium absorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate and permeability index were all calculated. The calculation of the irrigation water quality indices indicated that the quality of water for irrigation purposes can be classified as excellent to permissible categories.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-0039-1
  • Design principles for protected area certificates: a case study on
           strategic investor groups
    • Authors: Nathalie Meißner; Etti Winter
      Abstract: Abstract Biological capacity of earth is limited. While it is obvious at first glance, it has been ignored for decades. Policy makers attempt to overcome the persistent depletion of the human livelihood base through the establishment of protected areas. However, the financial means to sustainably manage a representative network of protected areas on a global scale do not yet exist, and particularly, private sector investment is extremely modest. One option for increasing private investment flows is the development of a market place for protected area certificates (PACs) issued for geographical areas managed according to social and environmental best practices. This paper utilizes semi-structured expert interviews with 39 German companies to analyze major product and market requirements for the sound implementation of an international certification scheme for PACs. Based on a triangulation approach that combines quantitative and qualitative evaluations with the two-step clustering procedure for strategic investor groups, seven design principles are determined that might encourage voluntary investment funds from the private sector, and thus support the sustainable management of protected areas. Having a look at existing markets for protected areas, one scheme provides a good foundation for the defined design principles: the LifeWeb initiative—an online clearing house for protected area developers and potential investors.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-0038-2
  • Relationship between the environmental conditions and floristic patterns
           in two phytophysiognomies of the Brazilian Cerrado
    • Authors: Gilsonley Lopes dos Santos; Marcos Gervasio Pereira; Daniel Costa de Carvalho; Raíssa Nascimento dos Santos; Rafael Coll Delgado; José Luiz Rodrigues Torres; Matheus Duarte da Silva Cravo
      Abstract: Abstract Cerrado is the second-largest Brazilian biome and an important area for nature conservation. However, little is known about the distribution of forest species in anthropized areas undergoing natural regeneration. Understanding the dynamics of ecological succession is fundamental to the decision-making process regarding revegetation of anthropic areas in the Cerrado. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the phytosociological patterns of natural regeneration in areas anthropized by agricultural uses in the Cerrado in different soil and environmental conditions. For this purpose, the study was performed in an anthropized area that has been protected from anthropic actions since 2002. A floristic survey of forest species was carried out, and soil samples were collected at depths of 0–5, 5–10, and 10–20 cm to determine the physical and chemical properties of the soil. The distribution of forest species with respect to the soil characteristics was determined using multivariate analysis. The distribution of the forest species was shown to be influenced by the soil properties and the degree of succession of the vegetation. Furthermore, the natural regeneration process resulted in an improvement in the chemical properties of soils in the Gleysol class. This pattern is related to the slow decomposition of organic matter, being associated with an environment that has greater water availability and, consequently, less nutrient loss from leaching during the cycling mechanisms responsible for the return of nutrients to the soil.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-0025-7
  • A review of the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacological
           relevance of the South African weed Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam.
    • Authors: Garland K. More
      Abstract: Abstract Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. also known as “wild tomato” is a traditional medicine used by indigenous people of Central and South America, to treat both veterinary and human diseases. Various parts of the wild tomato have been widely used in prevention and treatment of numerous diseases including hypertension, diarrhoea, and respiratory and urinary tracts infections. The traditional uses of this plant has attracted researchers to investigate its efficacy using different in vivo and in vitro biological assays, identify and isolate phytochemicals from different parts of this plant. Biological activities of different parts of the plant reported include anti-microbial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diabetic, cytotoxicity, hepatoprotective, anti-cancer, larvicidal and piscicidal activity. Compound classes including steroidal saponin, spirostane saponins, glycoalkaloids, steroidal alkaloids, pyrrolidine alkaloids, sterols, steroid glycosides and lignans were isolated from different parts of S. sisymbriifolium and reported to exhibit biological activities. This review intends to document the ethnopharmacological uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities and toxicity aspects of the South African weed, S. sisymbriifolium. To achieve this, textbooks and electronic databases were used to source the necessary peer-reviewed data. Research reports documented in this review have shown that S. sisymbriifolium has potential to be a contender for the treatment and management of numerous diseases, and a source of new pharmaceutical drugs. However, further research still needs to be conducted in order to fully understand the mechanisms of action of reported bioactive molecules.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-0042-6
  • Geostatistical and geochemical model-assisted hydrogeochemical pattern
           recognition along the groundwater flow paths in Coimbatore district, South
    • Authors: P. J. Sajil Kumar; E. J. James
      Abstract: Abstract The deterioration of groundwater quality in Coimbatore district is principally attributed to the geological formations, application of agrochemicals and discharge of untreated industrial effluents. Groundwater samples were collected and analysed to obtain the hydrochemical characteristics for delineating the groundwater recharge and discharge zones. Alkaline water is present in the district during all seasons. Groundwater facies were evaluated and the majority of them were CaHCO3 and Ca–Na–HCO3 types. Generally, HCO3 was used to identify the recharge area and Cl the discharge area. Dominance of HCO3 in both water types helps in identifying the recharge zones. The TDS and major ions in conjunction with HCO3/Cl, SO4/HCO3, HCO3 + CO3/Ca + Mg, HCO3 + CO3/T.anions and Cl/T.anions were used in the delineation of recharge–discharge areas. Results of geochemical modelling using PHREEQC were in agreement with the analysis of ionic ratios. Carbonate minerals are saturated in the recharge zone and become undersaturated as the flow progresses. HCO3 to Cl types for the recharge to discharge zones were confirmed by the aqueous speciation modelling. Gradual increase of NO3 along the flow path also supported the increasing anthropogenic influences towards the discharge zone. The spatial distribution diagrams drawn for each of these ratios suggested that a major part of the study area is covered by recharge zones. Mettupalayam and Pollachi taluks were found to be discharge zones. The results of the study showed that the water quality in the discharge zones is largely controlled by anthropogenic activities. The study gains importance since part of the water supply to the Coimbatore corporation area is from a source in the neighbouring state and the major surface water source of this area comes under an interstate water dispute.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-0043-5
  • Technicalities to be considered for culture fisheries development in
           Indian inland waters: seed and feed policy review
    • Authors: Koushik Roy
      Abstract: Abstract The government and premier fisheries research institutes of India are in pursuit to sensitize the fish farmers and entrepreneurs regarding prospects of highly promising ‘culture-based fisheries (CBFs) technology’ in inland waters. Some crucial aspects, key drivers and existing policy-level lacunae having implications for culture fisheries development in inland waters from fish farmers and fisheries experts perspective have been discussed. Although the technicalities encompassing fish seed and feed are discussed in Indian context, the information may be useful for other developing countries as well. The opinions from fisheries policy, vision documents, meeting proceedings, experts and stakeholders have been compiled to suggest some advanced strategies for hastening culture fisheries development in inland waters and its easier acceptability among stakeholders. Based on recommendations, a centralized fish seed and feed vigilance-cum-certification system is the need of the hour. Stakeholder extracted technicalities and ambiguities surrounding seed and feed aspects can be the basis on which these systems shall function. Periodic upgradation of policies is suggested through feedbacks obtained from stakeholders, especially fish farmers, and shall not be limited to experts only.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-0037-3
  • The Green Bench: Can an environmental court protect natural resources in
    • Authors: Narong Kiettikunwong
      Abstract: Abstract Environmental destruction due to development is widespread throughout Thailand, and is increasing, both in scope and severity. In addition, tensions between developers (sometimes including the government) and the public have risen, and will only become more strained as both sides become more aggressive in their tactics and demands. Members of the public and the public sector have filed nearly five thousand civil and criminal claims to force government agencies to take action against or revoke permits from corporations or development projects causing environmental destruction. However, the prolonged period required for judicial remedies to be administered appears to significantly worsen the overall environmental impact of development projects, which continue to create environmental problems while cases are lodged, heard, appealed, and ultimately decided upon. Today, using existing civil or criminal court systems and attempting to treat environmental cases differently within their procedures requires tremendous effort and also specific environmental knowledge in order to ensure a fair judicial process. Thus, many have proposed reforming judicial procedures for environmental cases by establishing a specialist environmental court or tribunal. In addition, a specialist court would be expected to issue sound judgments, producing a record in case law and contributing to good jurisprudence. This article provides an overview of the establishment of environmental courts as specialized agencies in several different countries in order to shed light on how such a transformation might feasibly be undertaken. Additionally, the article analyses the possibilities for establishing an environmental court or tribunal as a specialized agency in Thailand.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-0044-4
  • Decomposing the anthropogenic causes of climate change
    • Authors: Alessandro De Matteis
      Abstract: Abstract Awareness of the risks imposed by the ongoing process of climate change has led to progressive efforts at coordination at the global level, highlighting the need for shared efforts to achieve common goals. This study provides a contribution to the discussion through an analysis of the human contribution to climate change, highlighting the complexity of policy measures and the long amount of time required to reduce, or at least contain, the ongoing process of climate change. Our results remark the key role played by demographic pressure and the limited contribution that technological progress can provide to contain climate change. Overall, the core socio-economic and political paradigms on which current lifestyle is predominantly based are put under the spotlight. The results of the analysis question the very basis of economic growth and modern lifestyle and raise the prospect of some difficult but necessary behavioural changes.
      PubDate: 2017-10-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-0028-4
  • Relations of the groundwater quality and disorderly occupation in an
           Amazon low-income neighborhood developed over a former dump area,
           Santarém/PA, Brazil
    • Authors: Anderson Mendes; Paulo Galvão; Janice de Sousa; Iverson da Silva; Raimundo Nonato Carneiro
      Abstract: Abstract Groundwaters are better protected than surface waters. However, in unconfined conditions, groundwater can be easily contaminated when the land use and occupation are considered as determining factor. In the city of Santarém/PA, Brazil, the district of Santo André has experienced a population growth until reaching areas close to a former dump, and this may have caused an impact on the quality of the Alter do Chão Aquifer. In order to analyze these impacts generated, seven ground-penetrating radar sections to set the dump boundaries, physicochemical and bacteriological analyses in six pumping wells to set the drinkability values of the water, and potentiometric surface map in order to understand groundwater flow directions were carried out. Geophysical data indicated the presence of lateritic crusts, buried pipelines, as well as faults and fractures, which may serve as preferred pathways for contaminant infiltrations up to the aquifer. The geophysical data also indicated the dump boundaries are larger than expected, where the population has built their residences over the compacted garbage. Consequently, every pumping well presented total amounts of coliforms higher than the allowed values, and three of these wells have above 10 mg/L values of nitrate, indicating the region has waters in disagreement to the drinkability standards set, directly influenced by the contamination of the former dump under the Alter do Chão Aquifer.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-0040-8
  • Livelihood alternatives model for sustainable rangeland management: a
           review of multi-criteria decision-making techniques
    • Authors: Hojatollah Khedrigharibvand; Hossein Azadi; Dereje Teklemariam; Ehsan Houshyar; Philippe De Maeyer; Frank Witlox
      Abstract: Abstract Although a set of appropriate livelihood alternatives has already been developed to approach sustainable rangeland management (SRM), determining an appropriate livelihood model for supporting policy makers still remains to be a challenge. Livelihood alternatives are affected by multiple factors such as livelihood capital, vulnerability contexts as well as policies, institutions and processes which can be identified by stakeholders from different perspectives. Accordingly, determining appropriate livelihood alternatives is a multifaceted challenge that requires multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) techniques. This paper aims to review MCDM methods that have the potential to be applied in SRM. It discusses how different MCDM techniques can be used and which techniques are well matched to determine appropriate livelihood alternatives. First, it justifies the need for decision support systems followed by an explanation of the most common MCDM techniques. Among them, two techniques, namely analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), are found to be the most suitable MCDM in the case of SRM. Furthermore, based on the reviews on different hybrid approaches, AHP–TOPSIS is introduced as a superior approach to select appropriate livelihood alternatives. Accordingly, AHP is introduced to elicit the relative importance of livelihood criteria and TOPSIS is employed to provide a score for livelihood alternatives. As a conclusion, the application of AHP–TOPSIS approach is proposed where many decision criteria, alternatives and stakeholders are involved. Subsequently, a methodological framework to determine a livelihood model is also developed. This study concludes that, as well as recognizing the theory of appropriate livelihood alternatives, the application of MCDM techniques can be further pursued toward devising a workable policy framework for SRM. At the end, we have elaborated future methodological issues to be considered when selecting feasible alternatives to resolve the current challenges in SRM.
      PubDate: 2017-10-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-0035-5
  • Exploring the concept of sustainable development within education for
           sustainable development: implications for ESD research and practice
    • Authors: Eleni Sinakou; Jelle Boeve-de Pauw; Peter Van Petegem
      Abstract: Abstract This paper explores how three major factors in education for sustainable development (ESD) practice view the concept of sustainable development (SD). These are (a) international policy documents which shaped ESD, (b) the academic discourse in the field of ESD and (c) students and teachers. SD is a complex concept, and it can be interpreted in several ways. This paper adopts a holistic approach to SD, according to which SD is considered an integrated concept of three dimensions, namely the environment, the economy and the society. The significance of the holistic approach to the SD concept is emphasized in the recent international policy documents and by the academic discourse, as well. However, teachers and students do not hold yet a holistic understanding of the concept. The purpose of this paper is to discuss this ESD policy–practice gap and to propose implications in ESD practice and research.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-0032-8
  • Greenhouse gas emissions in conversion from extensive pasture to other
           agricultural systems in the Andean region of Colombia
    • Authors: Amanda Silva Parra; Eduardo Barretto de Figueiredo; Ricardo Oliveira de Bordonal; Mara Regina Moitinho; Daniel De Bortoli Teixeira; Newton La Scala
      Abstract: Abstract The challenge of agricultural sector is to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while increasing food, fiber and energy production without jeopardizing environmental integrity. In the Andean zone of Colombia, there is a growing need to develop GHG mitigation techniques associated with milk production. The present study focuses on GHG emissions and potential sinks associated with milk production scenarios in the Andean zone of Colombia. The scenarios considered were as follows: conventional agriculture of Pennisetum clandestinum in rotation with potatoes (PRP), improved pastures of Lolium multiflorum (IP) and silvopastoral system of P. clandestinum in association with Acacia decurrens and Trifolium repens (SPS). Based on the IPCC (Guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories. The intergovernmental panel on climate change, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Kanagawa, 2006. methodologies, the annual GHG emissions considering a 6-year production cycle included agricultural sources and gasoline consumption related to the most important agricultural phases in the field, and a potential for soil carbon accumulation and biomass carbon fixation in all the studied scenarios. The lowest GHG emissions were estimated in PRP scenario (3684 kg CO2-eq ha−1 year−1), which also presented additional emissions because of soil carbon losses beyond the lower milk productivity. Highest GHG emissions were observed in IP scenario (7711 kg CO2-eq ha−1 year−1), which exhibited the highest milk productivity and a considerable potential for soil carbon accumulation that could help to offset its emissions. Nevertheless, SPS scenario, which had milk productivity close to that of IP, presented the highest potential to offset the total GHG emission (4878 kg CO2-eq ha−1 year−1) because of soil carbon accumulation and biomass carbon fixation in trees. This study contributed to indicate management strategies that should be prioritized to mitigate the main sources of GHG emission in the extensive and intensive dairy cattle production in the Andean region of Colombia.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-0034-6
  • Households’ dependence on community forest and their contribution to
           participatory forest management: evidence from rural Ethiopia
    • Authors: Tsegaye T. Gatiso
      Abstract: Abstract In recent decades, there has been a major shift in natural resource conservation policies in developing countries, and community-based natural resource management has become the integral part of the policies. Nonetheless, the link between the local communities’ dependence on forest resources for their livelihood and the likelihood of the success of community forest management has been understudied. Thus, this study investigates how forest dependence influences the contribution of local communities to the management of community forest, using the data collected from 190 households participating in community forest management in rural Ethiopia. It was found that the sample households derived almost 38% of their annual income from community forest. Moreover, results from mixed effects linear regression models show that forest dependence promotes contribution to collective action in the management of community forest. When households derive more income from the community forest relative to their total income, they contribute more to the management of the community forest. This suggests that the more the households depend on the community forest for their livelihood, the more they value the resource and the more they participate in the management of the forest. Thus, the results underline that the success of local communities in managing community forest may be significantly influenced by their level of dependence on the resources from the forest.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-0029-3
  • Status of natural springs in the Melamchi region of the Nepal Himalayas in
           the context of climate change
    • Authors: Prem Sagar Chapagain; Motilal Ghimire; Shova Shrestha
      Abstract: Abstract Natural springs and small rivers are the major sources of water for drinking, livestock feeding, irrigation and other purposes in the Middle Hills of Nepal. The Melamchi area is in the northeastern part of Kathmandu from where the Melamchi River is considered as a major source of drinking water for the people of Kathmandu city. This paper examines the characteristics of natural springs in terms of their distribution, discharge, water utilization and conservation in the context of climate change. Out of the total surveyed springs of the Melamchi area, 93% are permanent and two-thirds of the total springs are located in mid-elevation (1500–2500 m). One-fourth of the total springs are small in terms of discharge and are used for multiple purposes such as drinking, livestock, irrigation and household cleaning. Around 45% of the springs provide a source of drinking water for up to five households. Our work has shown that the water volume in about 30% of the springs has decreased over the last decade. The springs located in mid-elevation with discharge less than 5 liters per minute are more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic activities. The 2015 Nepal earthquake had a huge and immediate impact on the water volume of the springs in our study with an immediate drying effect in about 18% of the springs.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-0036-4
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