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Journal Cover Environment, Development and Sustainability
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [30 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1573-2975 - ISSN (Online) 1387-585X
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2209 journals]   [SJR: 0.319]   [H-I: 26]
  • Community attitudes toward forest conservation programs through
           collaborative protected area management in Bangladesh
    • Abstract: Abstract The formulation of conservation policies with options for creating protected areas is significantly influenced by the social factors of the surrounding communities. Therefore, indigenous knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of the local communities need to be explored during the planning and implementation stages of conservation projects. A government-initiated experiment in co-management was conducted in the Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary, Bangladesh. This paper analyzes the attitudes toward conservation by members of local communities living in and around the wildlife sanctuary. Training incentives on alternative income-generating (AIG) activities and allotment of agricultural lands were distributed among the Forest User Groups. It is of interest to policy makers and resource managers whether this technique leads to improved attitudes on the part of local people. Although there were different attitudes toward protected areas and conservation, overall, a favorable attitude of the respondents was observed. The opinions of respondents also varied based on factors such as village position, village dependency level on forest resources, ethnicity and gender. Increase in annual income resulting from the augmented skills by trainings on AIG activities and getting agricultural lands leased from the Forest Department contributed significantly to the variation in respondents’ conservation attitudes. It is suggested that eliminating inequity and inequality in incentive distribution, discovering and launching training on more need-based livelihood activities, and liberalizing the restriction of resource extraction from the protected area by fixing the harvesting limit would encourage the community to be more cordially and actively involved in the conservation efforts of the sanctuary.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • On shrimp, salt and security: livelihood risks and responses in South
           Bangladesh and East India
    • Abstract: Abstract Bangladesh and India are among the world’s most populous but also most vulnerable countries to environmental risks. In addition to storms, sea-level rise, floods and droughts, local communities face a multitude of pre-existing and concomitant economic and socio-political risks. To understand these risks and how communities respond to them is critical in securing community livelihoods. We therefore ask what are the livelihood risks; how do they impact the human security of environment sensitive communities in Satkhira, Bangladesh and in Odisha, India; and, what are the responses of these communities to the livelihood risks? The communities studied in Bangladesh depend mainly on the shrimp and fish resources of the Sundarbans mangrove forest. The two communities researched at Lake Chilika in India depend on fishing and salt farming, respectively. The field research, conducted in 2012 and 2013, shows that the communities face multiple and interacting livelihood risks. While storms and floods are common environmental risks in both countries, related livelihood risks are case-specific. In Bangladesh, attacks by criminals are the major threat to human well-being, while in India, it is violent conflict between lake users. Unsustainable resource extraction is found in both study countries. In Bangladesh, shrimp farming weakens the flood protection, while in India, illegal prawn farming marginalizes poorer lake users. Accessing loans and labor migration are responses observed in both countries. We conclude that adaptation to environmental changes needs to be sensitive to the interaction between governance, local institutions and socio-economic developments.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Assessment of adoption and impact of rainwater harvesting technologies on
           rural farm household income: the case of rainwater harvesting ponds in
    • Abstract: Abstract Rainwater harvesting is increasingly viewed as a major strategy for enhancing agricultural productivity and boosting farm income in many drought-prone areas. While this technology is being promoted in many developing countries, there is conflicting evidence in the literature about its impact on welfare of farm households. This study uses propensity score matching and discrete choice regression techniques to assess the impact of rainwater harvesting ponds on farm household income and factors that influence adoption of such technologies in Rwanda. It finds that households with rainwater harvesting ponds have significantly higher income than their counterparts of comparable observable characteristics. It further finds evidence that increase in farm income occurs via increased input use and that household size, asset endowments and participation in farmer organizations condition adoption of rainwater harvesting ponds. The study concludes that adoption of rainwater harvesting technologies has positive benefits on farm households. It discusses the policy implications that adoption of rainwater harvesting ponds presents a pathway for reducing rural poverty.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • The effectiveness of environmental education workshops for teachers,
           learners and schools in Malaysia
    • Abstract: Abstract In Malaysia, various efforts have been introduced to increase the knowledge, skills and awareness of citizens to the benefit of the environment by means of a variety of programmes. However, uncertainty about the effectiveness of environmental education programmes and the way they contribute to sustainability still exists. This paper reports on an evaluation of the Kelab Pencinta Alam (KPA) (School Nature Clubs) programme organised by the Malaysia Nature Society and the Forest Research Institute of Malaysia. The Kellogg Logic Model was used as an evaluative instrument as the impact of the programme had to be determined. This was done through questionnaires to teachers and principals in KPA schools. School visits were also undertaken to evaluate workplace success and to validate the findings from the questionnaires. Overall, the evaluation showed a high level of success for the programme.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Performance analysis of solar water heating system in Centre for DNA
           Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD), Southern region of India
    • Abstract: Abstract In the present study, a natural circulation thermosyphon flat plate solar water heater has been tested at the CDFD, Hyderabad (17.37°N, 78.43°E) Andhra Pradesh, India. Experimental data were noted on a sunny day. Dynamic response of the system to variations in solar insulation was studied and analyzed. T inlet °C and T outlet °C temperatures were recorded. The performance of the system can be improved by using aluminum tape inserts into the collector fins. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the performance of flat plate collector with and without inserts (aluminum strip of 1 mm thick, 3 mm width and 203 mm length). It is expected that with the same collector with the same flow rate, higher efficiency can be obtained by inserting the tapes inside the collector copper fins (9 mm). Thus, the cost of the system can be further bringing down by enhancing the collector efficiency.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Managing common pool resources without state support: insights from
           Shisholeka community in Central Zambia
    • Abstract: Abstract Increasingly, emphasis is being placed on the role of indigenous or locally crafted natural resources management systems in sustainable natural resources management. While it is generally agreed that their potential to sustain and protect natural ecosystems exists in large measure, such systems are increasingly facing diverse internal and external pressures that threaten their viability. These pressures include demographic and economic change, land privatisation policies, renewable energy investment projects and large-donor-driven livelihood projects. Such pressures and their complexity raise the need to understand how local communities organise to protect resources they collectively value in the face of both internal and external pressures. Based on empirical data collected through interviews, participant observations, focus group discussions and a questionnaire survey conducted with local level actors in Shisholeka village of Central Zambia, this paper shows how local actors, in the absence of state support, react to internal and external pressures to develop robust and locally suited governance and institutional arrangements that best suit their interests in order to sustain their resource base.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Integrated hydrologic–economic decision support system for
           groundwater use confronting climate change uncertainties in the
           Tunuyán River basin, Argentina
    • Abstract: Abstract This study presents an integrated hydrologic–economic model as decision support system for groundwater use and incorporates uncertainties of climate change. The model was developed with the Vensim software (Ventana Systems) for system dynamic simulations. The software permitted the integration of economic variables along with hydrologic variables, in a unified format with the aim of evaluating the economic impacts of climate change on arid environments. To test the model, we applied it in one of the upper Tunuyán River sub-basin, located in the Mendoza Province (Argentina), where irrigation comes from groundwater. The model defines the best mix of crops and the total land use required to maximize the total river sub-basin monetary income, considering as a limit the amount of water that does not exceed the natural annual aquifer recharge. To estimate the impacts of climatic changes, four scenarios were compared: the business as usual (with the number of existing wells) in a dry year with a temperature increase of 4 °C; the business as usual in a wet year with an increase in temperature of 1.1 °C; an efficient use of wells in a dry year and a temperature increase of 4 °C and an efficient use of wells in a wet year with a temperature increase of 1.1 °C. Outputs calculated by the model were: land use per crop, total sub-basin net benefit, total sub-basin water extraction, water extraction limit depending on river discharge and total number of wells required to irrigate the entire area. Preliminary results showed that the number of existing wells exceeded the optimized number of wells required to sustainably irrigate the entire river sub-basin. Results indicated that in an average river discharge year, if wells were efficiently used, further rural development would be possible, until the limit of 350 million m3 of water extraction per year was reached (650 million m3 for a wet year and 180 million m3 for a dry year). The unified format and the low cost of the software license make the model a useful tool for Water Resources Management Institutions, particularly in developing countries.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Sustaining cultural and biological diversity in rapidly changing
           communities: the revitalization of the Voladores ritual in northern
           Veracruz (Mexico)
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper aims to contribute to the ongoing debate on the protection of cultural and biological diversity, and their interconnectedness. It highlights the importance of understanding the dynamic and complex strategies that cultures are developing to protect their biocultural diversity in the face of the ongoing cultural, economic, and social reductionist transformations occurring worldwide. We analyze Totonac society in the present time, and provide evidence on how cultural revitalization processes are emerging from the grass roots, by focusing on the ceremony of the Voladores, a pre-Hispanic ritual performed by several indigenous groups in Mesoamerica. The preoccupation of Totonac communities to safeguard this millenary tradition fostered a process of dialogue, reinforced local institutions, and catalyzed the development of strategies to preserve a tree species and its habitat.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Philipp Schmidt-Thomé and Johannes Klein: Climate change adaptation
           in practice: from strategy development to implementation
    • PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Sensitivity analysis assessment of remotely based vegetation indices to
           improve water resources management
    • Abstract: Abstract Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is estimated from Landsat 8 sensor acquired in June 2013 to drive four different water-related indices calculated as NDVI derivatives. Different vegetation indices (VIs) have been extracted exclusively in estimation of different VIs: Leaf Area Index, Water Supply Vegetation Index, Crop Water Shortage Index, and Drought Severity Index in addition to estimation of daily evapotranspiration (ET). Sensitivity analysis assesses the contributions of the inputs to the total uncertainty in the analysis outcomes. Vegetation indices are complex and intercepted, therefore the interceptions of the five different vegetation indices are considered in the current study. A comparative analysis of Gaussian process emulators for performing global sensitivity analysis was used to conduct a variance-based sensitivity analysis to identify which uncertain inputs are driving the output uncertainty. The results showed that the interconnections between different VIs vary, but the extent of the features sensitivity is uncertain. Findings from the current work conducted are anticipated to contribute decisively toward an inclusive VIs assessment of its overall verification. Daily ET is the less sensitive and more certain index followed by Drought Vegetation Index.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Causality relationship between CO 2 emissions, GDP and energy intensity in
    • Abstract: Abstract This article analyzes the causality between the economic growth, the energy and the environment, measured by CO2 emissions. Our empirical study is based on a series of annual data from 1980 to 2010 in Tunisia. Our study was conducted using the Granger causality test and variance decomposition. The empirical results confirm the presence of a positive effect between the energy consumption and the economic growth measured by gross domestic product (GDP). Thus, there is a unidirectional relationship between GDP and CO2 emissions in the short term. This analysis shows, as is common to relatively fast-growing economies in Tunisia, that the biggest contributor to the rise is CO2 emissions. Hence, in congruence with the result of variance decomposition, the GDP affects CO2 emissions in the short and medium term at an almost constant level (10 %). The non-renewable energy intensity in Tunisian economy is responsible for a modest reduction in CO2 emissions, which suggests the implementation of conservation policies aimed at energy efficiency and the orientation toward renewable energy.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Innovation through collaboration: scaling up solutions for sustainable
    • Abstract: Abstract The open collaborative philosophy employed in the success of open source (OS) software can be applied to hardware design. Specifically, the development of OS appropriate technologies (OSAT) can improve sustainable development efforts worldwide. Yet, widespread OSAT use is far from ubiquitous. Given that lack of communication, access to information and poor collaboration are among the largest barriers to a more effective OSAT dissemination, this paper explores opportunities to overcome such obstacles using four techniques: (1) collaborative online platforms, (2) crowd-sourcing, (3) the concept of knowledge commons, and (4) enabled educational institutions through service learning and applied research. The results are analyzed, and conclusions are drawn that outline paths to higher multiuser collaboration for OSAT deployment.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Oil palm plantation investments in Indonesia’s forest frontiers:
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper examines the implications of oil palm estate development in Indonesia’s frontier province of Papua. Government planners believe that oil palm investment will develop the local economy, create jobs and reduce poverty. Using the input–output approach, we find that, in aggregate terms, oil palm investments boost the economic output in the province, generate jobs and increase worker salaries. However, the oil palm subsector operates in isolation and has limited economic multipliers. The number of jobs is potentially large, but those best positioned to benefit from them are mostly skilled migrants, not local poor. The government should reduce the size of plantation investments and plan their implementation as part of a broader development package to allow greater economic integration and skill acquisition by local communities. The priority areas for plantation development should be degraded, non-forest land.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • The speciation of cobalt and nickel at mine waste dump using improved
           correlation analysis: a case study of Sarcheshmeh copper mine
    • Abstract: Abstract Investigating the speciation of potentially toxic elements in mining waste dump systems provides valuable knowledge about the potential for transfer in the environment and the risks posed to mining sites. Sequential extraction analyses are common experiments, which are often used to determine the speciation of potentially toxic elements. However, there would be some drawbacks for using this experiment including labour-intensive procedure, interferences of fractions, impractical for testing large numbers of samples from a heterogeneous environment and the inability to determine the individual minerals relevant to the corresponding fraction. The present paper is an attempt to determine the speciation of cobalt and nickel as potentially toxic elements in the waste dumps of Sarcheshmeh using improved correlation analysis. This method employed the cobalt and nickel contents together with the exact mineral contents which were classified according to the paste pH experiments for improving the correlation matrix. To achieve the aim of study, sixty samples were collected from two waste dumps at the Sarcheshmeh Copper mine in Kerman province of Iran. The result of proposed method showed that cobalt bound to hydroxysulphate minerals, muscovite and iron and manganese oxyhydroxide minerals and nickel is controlled by hydroxysulphate minerals, and manganese and iron oxyhydroxide minerals, as paste pH ranges ascend. Furthermore, at all paste pH ranges, pyrite was the main source of cobalt and nickel. These results were in agreement with the sequential extraction method and also previous experimental investigations, which confirms the performance of applied improved correlation analysis.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
  • Dynamic impact of household consumption on its CO 2 emissions in Malaysia
    • Abstract: Abstract This article aims to measure the dynamic impact of household consumption (final household consumption expenditure, LHC) on CO2 emission from household’s energy consumption in Malaysia from 1971 to 2010. The estimation of autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds test confirms a non-monotonic relationship between LHC and residential CO2 emission. In the long run, there is a positive relationship between LHC and CO2 emission as well as a negative relationship between quadratic forms of LHC and CO2 emission which indicates the existence of an inverted U-shaped relationship between these two variables. The analysis also found a similar relationship in both the short and long run. To confirm the non-monotonous relationship, the U test of Sasabuchi–Lind–Mehlum (2010) approach has followed to obtain the sufficient conditions for the existence of inverted U relationship. Moreover, the U test of Sasabuchi–Lind–Mehlum (2010) found that CO2 emission increases with increasing LHC up to 6.5 units, but it declines with an additional increase of LHC which is also found by the ARDL model. However, the existence of environmental Kuznets curve implies that in the long run, household CO2 emission declines with the additional increase of household consumption in the Malaysian economy.
      PubDate: 2014-10-10
  • Erratum to: Flora biodiversity change detection: a case study
    • PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • Tourism and its impact on livelihood in Manaslu conservation area, Nepal
    • Abstract: Abstract Tourism is an activity of a person which includes traveling and staying in places that are outside of their location for business, vacation and other purpose. Large-scale tourism in developed and developing countries has positive and negative effects on the regional and national economies, local culture, physical infrastructure and environment. There are considerable gaps in research regarding tourism and livelihood in developing countries like Nepal. This research work aims at fulfilling such gap by assessing the impact of tourism on livelihood in Manaslu conservation area (MCA) of Nepal. We interviewed 76 household followed by three focus group discussions and five key informant interviews. The first-hand information collected at the site is complimented by socioeconomic and tourism-related secondary information. Socioeconomic variables such as marital status, size of household, education and landholding status had positive effect on tourism participation while livestock-holding status and occupation of the household had negative effect on tourism participation. Number of visitors is increasing in MCA in recent years, and tourism participation is helping local people to earn more money and improve their living standard. So, awareness and education related to tourism, gender empowerment of women, advertisement and publicity on tourism promotion, adequate subsidy and training on ecotourism and skill development trainings on handicraft are recommended.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • Technical efficiency of Kenya’s smallholder food crop farmers: do
           environmental factors matter?
    • Abstract: Abstract Smallholder agriculture dominates Kenya’s agricultural landscape, accounting for 75 % of total agricultural output and 70 % of the marketed agricultural produce. As a result, the Government of Kenya, with the support of development partners, has invested in production and dissemination of productivity-enhancing technologies such as high-yielding varieties and inorganic fertilizers targeting the smallholders. Adoption of these technologies has remarkably improved, especially in the maize sub-sector. However, productivity has been declining or, at best, stagnating. Productivity is attributable to not only technological improvements but also technical efficiency. Consequently, this study sought to determine the technical efficiency of the country’s smallholder food crop farmers and establish how it correlates with environmental factors. The study used a two-stage nonparametric approach on household panel data to estimate the efficiency levels of the smallholders and establish the sources of its variation across households. Controlling for endogeneity and incorporating geographic information system-derived measures of environmental factors in the analysis, the study finds that technical efficiency differentials are influenced by environmental factors, production risks and farmer characteristics. The policy implication is that the country has room to improve agricultural productivity by addressing environmental and farm-level constraints. Viable options include switching from rain-fed to irrigated agriculture, entrenching land tenure security, improving transport network among farm communities and setting up smallholder credit schemes.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • Indigenous African building techniques and the prospects for sustainable
           housing and environmental development
    • Abstract: Abstract In this paper, sustainability is examined as one of the objectives of enabling man in a preserved, efficient and enduring world environment. Thus, sustainable housing and environmental development is conceptualized as a building or shelter provided through judicious, selective sourcing, processing and use of building materials to satisfy current shelter needs while ensuring quality environment and adequate resources for the future generations in satisfying theirs. To stimulate orderly academic debate, the paper proposes five major factors of sustainability. They include climatic sustainability factor, ecological sustainability factor, economics and affordability sustainability factor, social sustainability factor and cultural sustainability factor. The sustainability attributes of each factor are highlighted, and the criteria for the selection of building materials to satisfy the attributes are commended.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • Jean Palutikof, Sarah L. Boulter, Andrew J. Ash, Mark Stafford Smith,
           Martin Parry, Marie Waschka, Daniela Guitart (Eds): climate adaptation
    • PubDate: 2014-08-07
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