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Journal Cover Environment, Development and Sustainability
  [SJR: 0.438]   [H-I: 36]   [30 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-2975 - ISSN (Online) 1387-585X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2336 journals]
  • Extraction of earthworm from soil by different sampling methods: a review
    • Authors: Jaswinder Singh; Sharanpreet Singh; Adarsh Pal Vig
      Pages: 1521 - 1539
      Abstract: Abstract Earthworms are so closely incorporated into the soil structure that they are not calculated easily from the soil. Due to this property, their extraction from soil is tedious and time-consuming. Different methods have been used for their extraction from the soil, and efficiency of each method is affected by physical properties, viz., temperature and moisture of the soil. This study explored the advantage and disadvantage of different sampling methods for the extraction of earthworms such as hand sorting, octet method, formalin method, mustard extraction method, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), and onion extraction method. Extraction efficiency of formalin is 20–60 times more as compared to hand sorting, but hand sorting gives satisfactory results for earthworms of more than 0.2 g live weight, and cocoons can also be recovered by this method. Octet method is effective in extracting anecic species and could easily be applied to site where chemical extraction is not a viable option. Extraction by mustard and AITC is simple, low cost, and more efficient for the extraction of deep-burrowing anecic species. The onion extraction solution is low cost and nontoxic which can be used as alternative to formalin. Like mustard, the onion solution is also inexpensive and not harmful to the earthworms and environment.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-015-9703-5
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
  • Adaptive threat management framework: integrating people and turtles
    • Authors: Valéria R. F. da Silva; Sylvia F. Mitraud; Maria L. C. P. Ferraz; Eduardo H. S. M. Lima; Maria Thereza D. Melo; Armando J. B. Santos; Augusto César C. D. da Silva; Jaqueline C. de Castilhos; Jamyle A. F. Batista; Gustave G. Lopez; Frederico Tognin; João Carlos Thomé; Cecília Baptistotte; Berenice M. Gomes da Silva; José Henrique Becker; Juçara Wanderline; Fernanda de Vasconcellos Pegas; Gonzalo Róstan; Guy Guagni dei Marcovaldi; Maria Ângela G. dei Marcovaldi
      Pages: 1541 - 1558
      Abstract: Abstract In the 35 years since its inception, the Brazilian National Program for the Conservation of Marine Turtles (TAMAR) has had great success in protecting the five species of sea turtles that occur in Brazil. It has also contributed significantly to worldwide scientific data and knowledge about these species’ biology, such as life cycles and migration patterns. TAMAR’s conservation strategies have always relied on a variety of environmental education and social inclusion (EESI) activities highly adapted to the socio-environmental evolving contexts of its 25 locations distributed across nine states. Diversity and flexibility are critical to enable timely and effective local responses to existing or potential threats to sea turtles. The intuitive, locally adapted, decentralized, and independent way EESI activities have been carried out have generated positive results in the resolution of specific and evolving local problems through the course of the project. This article brings EESI under the same conceptual framework that underlies its conservation approach by adopting an adaptive threat management framework to organize and qualify its educational and social inclusion interventions according to the main categories of threat addressed by TAMAR.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-015-9716-0
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
  • Sustainable domestic lighting options for poor people—an empirical
    • Authors: Chinmoy Jana
      Pages: 1559 - 1573
      Abstract: Abstract The availability of sustainable and reasonably priced sources of energy for lighting is a prerequisite for the development of rural India. This study attempts to take a close look at the micro-level energy scene and its various options for domestic lighting, considering socio-economic condition of the poor people in rural areas. The concept of calculating levelized cost as cost per 300 lumen-hour is applied on source–device combinations of lighting and validated in Bargaon Community Development Block of Sundergarh District in Odisha, India, for finding out the low-priced energy sources for sufficient lighting. It is revealed that LED and CFL through solar photovoltaic and electricity should be the best choice of domestic lighting. Most of the households (97 %), even electrified, use kerosene regularly. There is a huge potential of biogas and solar photovoltaic which can overcome the problem of power cut, indoor pollution, carbon emission, etc. Supporting electrification to all households, this study is also justifying about efficient devices and off-grid power generation through SPV for all households and biogas for possible 2300 households. Government should immediately intervene, providing capital subsidy, micro-finance schemes, other credit mechanisms, training to local youths, etc. with adequate infrastructure and organizational development to make the clean energy such as solar home lighting system and biogas plant affordable and accessible by the poor villagers.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-015-9702-6
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
  • Exploring relationships of environmental attitudes, behaviors, and
           sociodemographic indicators to aspects of discourses: analyses of
           International Social Survey Programme data in the Philippines
    • Authors: Joseph Anthony L. Reyes
      Pages: 1575 - 1599
      Abstract: Abstract Data from the International Social Survey Programme 2000 and 2010 environment modules were analyzed to explore the relationships between attitudes, behavior, and sociodemographic variables to citizens’ preferences to aspects of environmental discourse in the Philippines. Overall, significantly more people agree to multilateralism, equity, and the link between the environment and economic progress in 2010 as compared to 2000. A series of multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to determine significant predictors to peoples’ disposition to variables related to three overarching environmental discourses. After controlling for other covariates, the study found that the more the Filipinos adhere to statements toward science and nature that are negatively connoted: the more likely they are to agree to international multilateral commitments and ascribe to equity for poorer countries in environmental efforts; and less likely to disagree to the aspects of multilateralism, equity, and the link between the environment and economic progress. Furthermore, the results showed that demographics and civic participations generally did not have a statistically significant impact on Filipino’s agreement or disagreement to environmental discourses. The paper then discusses the implications of the findings and conclusions of the study.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-015-9704-4
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
  • Stand-alone hybrid energy system for sustainable development in rural
    • Authors: Renu Sharma; Sonali Goel
      Pages: 1601 - 1614
      Abstract: Abstract Renewable energy system such as solar, wind, small hydro and biogas generators can be used successfully in rural off-grid locations where grid connection is not possible. The main objectives of this study are to examine which configuration is the most cost-effective for the village. One renewable energy model has been developed for supplying electric power for 124 rural households of an off-grid rural village in eastern India. The load demand of the village was determined by the survey work, and the loads were divided into three sub-heads such as primary load I, primary load II and deferred load. Locally available energy sources such as solar radiation and biogas derived from cow dung and kitchen wastes were used as sensitivity variables. This study is unique as it has not considered any diesel generator for supplying unmet electricity to the households; rather it completely depends on locally available renewable resources. Here in this paper, two different models were taken and their cost and environmental benefit were discussed and compared. The net present cost, levelised cost of energy and operating cost for various configurations of models were determined. The minimum cost of energy of $0.476/kWh with lowest net present cost of $386,971 and lowest operating cost ($21,025/year) was found with stand-alone solar–biogas hybrid system.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-015-9705-3
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
  • Marginal land use and value characterizations in Lagos: untangling the
           drivers and implications for sustainability
    • Authors: I. R. Aliu
      Pages: 1615 - 1634
      Abstract: Abstract Lagos, the leading African megacity, is a coastal city located in creeks and riparian environment. In all parts of the city, transactions in marginal lands—riparian or water-logged areas—are increasingly becoming more noticeable. However, while previous studies have focused upon normal land transactions, the dynamics of land uses in marginal regions remain largely unexplained. Information on the dynamics of informal land transactions in the marginal regions of Lagos city is important for urban sustainability. This study therefore interrogates the attributes, uses, values and drivers of marginal land in Lagos using generalized linear model (GLM). Findings show that the predominant land use in marginal areas of Lagos is residential, majority of the lands are less than full plot size, close to river channels and less accessible, and the mean price ranges from NGN 3,156,908 to NGN 4,052,158. The GLM estimations show that distance to river channels/lagoon and buyer’s status have more significant influence on marginal land uses and values in Lagos. These findings have significant policy and practical implications for the city’s land use and sustainability. For urban and environmental sustainability, there is need to stem transactions in coastal marginal environments of Lagos for their obvious implications for climate change, flooding, erosion, sea incursion, building collapse, natural parks and public spaces, river channels and urban greening.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-015-9706-2
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
  • Coastal vulnerability assessment of the predicted sea level rise in the
           coastal zone of Krishna–Godavari delta region, Andhra Pradesh, east
           coast of India
    • Authors: Malay Kumar Pramanik; Sumantra Sarathi Biswas; Biswajit Mondal; Raghunath Pal
      Pages: 1635 - 1655
      Abstract: Abstract The Krishna–Godavari coastal region in east coast of India has a 525.15-km-long coastline with low-lying tidal mudflats, beaches, mangrove swamp, creek and tidal channels. Recently, the increasing frequency of tropical cyclones in the Bay of Bengal, i.e., Phylin and Hudhud in Andhra Pradesh coast, and the devastating impact of the 2004 tsunami in India increased the significance in assessing the vulnerability of the coastal lands to inundation and flooding, notably in the context of climate change-induced sea level rise. This study aims to estimate a coastal vulnerability index (CVI) for the coastal subregion of Krishna–Godavari delta and to use the calculated index to evaluate the vulnerability of 14 coastal talukas of the Krishna–Godavari delta region. This CVI is calculated by using four geological and three physical parameters characterizing the vulnerability of the study coastal region, including regional slope, coastal elevation, geomorphology, significant wave height, mean tidal range and relative sea level using different conventional and remotely sensed data. Using a composite coastal vulnerability index based on the relative risk rating of those parameters, each of the 14 coastal talukas was classified according to their vulnerability. The CVI results depict that coasts are least and most vulnerable to inundation, flooding and erosion of coastal lands where geological parameters are more efficient to CVI. The paper alerts to decision makers and planners to mitigate the natural disaster and manage the coastal zone and is a primary step toward prioritizing coastal lands for climate change adaptation strategies in the view of increased storminess and projected sea level rise.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-015-9708-0
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
  • Is rainfall gradient a factor of livelihood diversification? Empirical
           evidence from around climatic hotspots in Indo-Gangetic Plains
    • Authors: Gopal Datt Bhatta; Pramod Kumar Aggarwal; Amit Kumar Shrivastava; Lindsay Sproule
      Pages: 1657 - 1678
      Abstract: Abstract Farmers in the Indo-Gangetic Plains are constantly seeking ways to adapt to changing circumstances and opportunities that include new technologies, institutions, policies, socio-economic and cultural shifts, as well as a changing climate. The relationship between rainfall and local livelihoods is important to devise policies to improve adaptive capacity of farmers to different drivers of changes. The present study investigates whether the spatial variations in rainfall have prompted the location-specific livelihood diversification by using data from 2660 farm families in the climatic risk areas in India, Nepal and Bangladesh. The results show a higher on-farm livelihood diversification in the areas with high rainfall (1500–2100 mm) compared to medium (900–1500 mm) and very high rainfall regimes (>2100 mm). Based on this study, the optimal range of rainfall for better agricultural livelihood in the context of changing environmental circumstances is from 1500 to 2100 mm. In terms of farm practices changed (proxy of adaptability), farmers responded more frequently to the market-related drivers than climatic stressors. Farmers in climate vulnerable areas (Bihar and coastal Bangladesh for instance) responded more to climatic stressors than those living in relatively less vulnerable areas (Terai for instance). The results imply that livelihood strategies should be tailor-made along the climatic resources such as rainfall, considering other biophysical and socio-economic variations at the spatial scale. Identifying household and farm-level coping strategies along the rainfall gradient can also be useful in targeting interventions to build resilience to shocks.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-015-9710-6
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
  • Sustainable welfare and optimum population size
    • Authors: Theodore P. Lianos; Anastasia Pseiridis
      Pages: 1679 - 1699
      Abstract: Abstract This paper is an attempt to estimate the level of sustainable welfare, namely a level of consumption that can be enjoyed by all future generations. Based on available measures of the ecological footprint and biocapacity and assuming an acceptable level of per capita consumption, we estimate the maximum level of world population, which will allow that level of consumption without damaging the natural productive capacity of the earth. Also based on a criterion of the ability of each country to feed its people, we estimate the maximum size of population for the fifty most populated countries. It turns out that a few countries are underpopulated (Argentina, Canada, Russia, etc.), but most are overpopulated (China, India, Japan, etc.). We conclude by emphasizing the need for an ecumenical effort to educate and inform people about the need to reduce world population.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-015-9711-5
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
  • Landscape change assessment of reservation areas using remote sensing and
           landscape metrics (case study: Jajroud reservation, Iran)
    • Authors: Shirkou Jaafari; Yousef Sakieh; Afshin Alizadeh Shabani; Afshin Danehkar; Ali-akbar Nazarisamani
      Pages: 1701 - 1717
      Abstract: Abstract Understanding and analyzing the dynamics of reservation areas, as one of the most valuable ecological resources, is of great importance for effective management of these environments. Monitoring the process of land-use/land-cover (LULC) transformations in these areas and knowing their driving forces would contribute to an informed decision making. In this study, an integrated application of satellite imagery interpretation and landscape ecology approach is implemented to quantify and analyze the landscape dynamics of Jajroud reservation area, Iran. The digital images collected by satellite at 1986, 2000, and 2010 were classified following an ensemble classification method. The resultant LULC maps included six categories of orchard, healthy rangeland, degraded rangeland, afforest, water, and urban. Landscape metrics-based analysis of temporal patterns of LULCs indicated that Jajroud reservation area has been undergoing rapid and drastic changes over the past 25 years. Based on class area metric at landscape level, changes were mostly due to the conversion of degraded rangeland and orchard to urban category. The impervious area expanded approximately fivefold from 1986 to 2010. Based on Largest Patch Index metric, the dominant land-cover class across the study time frame was degraded rangeland that decreased from 1986 to 2010. The main driving forces of urban growth in the area were willingness of local residents to sell their orchard lands and having financial interests. Because of rapid economic development and expansion of human-constructed elements, the landscape of the area experienced a fragmentation process during the last three decades. The study demonstrated that integrated application of satellite imagery and landscape metrics can be a useful and easy-to-implement tool for environmental impact assessment of an ongoing urbanization process.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-015-9712-4
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
  • Contribution of the sugar cane industry to reduce carbon dioxide emissions
           in the energy sector: the case of Mauritius
    • Authors: A. Khoodaruth
      Pages: 1719 - 1731
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this paper was to present the contribution of the sugar cane industry to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the energy sector. Mauritius is taken as a case study. Sugar cane was introduced in Mauritius during the seventeenth century and production of sugar started around 60 years later. Since then, the cane industry has been one of the economic pillars of the country. Bagasse, a by-product of sugar cane, is used as fuel in cogeneration power plants to produce process heat and electricity. This process heat and the generated electricity are used by an annexed sugar mills for the production of sugar, while the remaining electricity is exported to the national grid. In fact, Mauritius is a pioneer in the field of bagasse-based cogeneration power plant; the first bagasse-based cogeneration power plant that was commissioned in the world was in Mauritius in 1957. The contribution of the cane industry in the electricity sector has been vital for the economic development of Mauritius and also in terms of mitigating carbon dioxide emissions by displacing fossil fuels in electricity generation, as bagasse is classified as a renewable source. Data obtained from Statistics Mauritius on electricity production for the past 45 years were analysed, and carbon dioxide emissions were calculated based on international norms. It is estimated that savings on heavy fuel oil importation were by 1.5 million tons of oil—representing a value of 2.9 billion dollars—thus avoiding 4.5 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions. This figure can be further increased if molasses, a by-product of sugar cane juice, is used to produce bio-ethanol to be used as fuel in vehicles.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-015-9713-3
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
  • Healing with animals in a semiarid northeastern area of Brazil
    • Authors: Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves; Maria de Fátima Melo; Felipe Silva Ferreira; Dilma Maria de Brito Melo Trovão; Thelma Lúcia Pereira Dias; José Valberto Oliveira; Reinaldo Farias Paiva de Lucena; Raynner Rilke Duarte Barboza
      Pages: 1733 - 1747
      Abstract: Abstract This study presents information on the use of medicinal animals in a semiarid area of northeast Brazil, a region where animals have recognized importance in local popular medicine. The information on the use of animals for medicinal purposes was obtained through semi-structured questionnaires, complemented by free interviews and informal conversations. The results obtained showed that the residents of the area studied utilize a considerable richness of animal species (n = 42) for medicinal purposes, as occurs in other areas of Brazil’s semiarid region, demonstrating that zootherapy represents an alternative form of health care that is important to the inhabitants of the region. There is a need for new investigations on medicinal fauna, aimed at promoting the sustainable use of eventual medicinal species and preserving popular knowledge associated with the use of animal species.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-015-9715-1
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
  • Exploring factors that shape small-scale farmers’ opinions on the
           adoption of eco-friendly nets for vegetable production
    • Authors: F. Vidogbéna; A. Adégbidi; R. Tossou; F. Assogba-Komlan; T. Martin; M. Ngouajio; S. Simon; L. Parrot; S. T. Garnett; K. K. Zander
      Pages: 1749 - 1770
      Abstract: Abstract If agro-ecological systems are to realize their potential as sustainable alternatives to conventional agricultural systems, innovation diffusion needs to be enhanced. We conducted surveys among 214 small-scale vegetable farmers in Benin, a food-deficit country in West Africa, on how they perceived the different attributes of eco-friendly nets (EFNs). The nets act as physical barriers against insects in vegetable production and so reduce pesticide use. Understanding farmer perceptions about new technologies helps reveal farmers’ propensity to adopt them. Intensity of attitude was measured on a Likert scale, and an ordered probit model was used to determine which characteristics of nets were most influential. Eighteen percent of farmers thought that EFNs would benefit them, but almost half preferred not to adopt this technology at all. The main reason for rejecting the nets was the perceived high labor requirement, particularly on larger plots of land. This largely negative perception was strongest among farmers with large areas cultivated with vegetables, farmers who had little or no experience in a trial, and those living far from extension services. We recommend expanded trials that engage a higher proportion of farmers, strengthening of external support for those wanting to use the nets and further technological development to reduce labor costs, improved access to finance and increased education about the negative impacts of insecticides abuse.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-015-9717-z
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
  • Community-based scenario planning: a process for vulnerability analysis
           and adaptation planning to social–ecological change in coastal
    • Authors: Nathan James Bennett; Alin Kadfak; Philip Dearden
      Pages: 1771 - 1799
      Abstract: Abstract The current and projected impacts of climate change make understanding the environmental and social vulnerability of coastal communities and the planning of adaptations important international goals and national policy initiatives. Yet, coastal communities are concurrently experiencing numerous other social, political, economic, demographic and environmental changes or stressors that also need to be considered and planned for simultaneously to maintain social and environmental sustainability. There are a number of methods and processes that have been used to study vulnerability and identify adaptive response strategies. This paper describes the stages, methods and results of a modified community-based scenario planning process that was used for vulnerability analysis and adaptation planning within the context of multiple interacting stressors in two coastal fishing communities in Thailand. The four stages of community-based scenario planning included: (1) identifying the problem and purpose of scenario planning; (2) exploring the system and types of change; (3) generating possible future scenarios; and (4) proposing and prioritizing adaptations. Results revealed local perspectives on social and environmental change, participant visions for their local community and the environment, and potential actions that will help communities to adapt to the changes that are occurring. Community-based scenario planning proved to have significant potential as an anticipatory action research process for incorporating multiple stressors into vulnerability analysis and adaptation planning. This paper reflects on the process and outcomes to provide insights and suggest changes for future applications of community-based scenario planning that will lead to more effective learning, innovation and action in communities and related social–ecological systems.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-015-9707-1
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
  • Diversity of corals and benthic algae across the shallow-water reefs of
           Andaman Islands: managing the valuable ecosystems
    • Authors: Suman Sarkar; Samir Sarkar
      Pages: 1801 - 1814
      Abstract: Abstract The Andaman Islands characterize one of the relatively unexplored coral reef zones of the Indian subcontinent. A few benthic biodiversity studies have been carried out to date, but several coral and algal species still remain to be evaluated in terms of their abundance, vigour and conservation priority. In absence of a comprehensive, reliable dataset, inter-relationships between anthropogenic impacts and climate alterations with the coral reefs cannot be assessed authentically. This paper addresses the coupled themes of biodiversity and reef management in the Andaman Islands by examining the percentage cover of corals and benthic algae from shallow-water ecosystems across the coasts of Havelock, Neil, Ross, Jolly Buoy Islands and Chidiyatapu beach proximal to Port Blair. Four major reef types were observed: coral-dominated, algae-dominated, neutral setting and algae overgrowing dead reefs. Jolly Buoy Island had the highest percentage cover of scleractinian corals and crustose coralline algae. Turf algae were most abundant at the Ross Island, while other macroalgae showed highest abundance at Chidiyatapu. Overall species diversity values for corals and algae were highest at the Jolly Buoy and Chidiyatapu, respectively. Given that corals and algae are critical reef components, management paradigms must consider the abundance and frequency of both these biogenic entities in the seascape. The needs, expectations and objectives of the people dependent on coral reef ecosystems also need to be considered. Long-term monitoring is imperative in understanding the natural typology of reefs and managing the possible algal encroachments. Refined management efforts that include greater thrust on development of marine protected areas and reserves; establishment of connectivity between various coral ecosystems of the region; control of invasive algae; and increasing awareness among the local people as well as tourists will ensure continued support of ecosystem to maintain healthy reefs. Collectively, the results are used to promote some strategies to conserve the Andaman coral reefs and cope with the detrimental anthropogenic and climate changes in these coastal habitats.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-015-9709-z
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
  • Karen Chapple: Planning sustainable cities and regions: towards more
           equitable sustainable development
    • Authors: Luc Hens
      Pages: 1815 - 1816
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-015-9753-8
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
  • Tran Dinh Lan, Luc Hens, Cao Thi Thu Trang, and Do Thi Thu Huong:
           Environmental management of seaports in Vietnam
    • Authors: Nguyen Van Thanh
      Pages: 1817 - 1818
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-015-9752-9
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
  • Catherine MCNeuer: Taming Manhattan: environmental battles in the
           antebellum city
    • Authors: Dirk Van Melkebeke
      Pages: 1819 - 1821
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-015-9748-5
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
  • Retraction Note to: Perspectives for the long-term penetration of new
           renewables in complex energy systems: the Italian scenario
    • Authors: Alessandro Franco; Pasquale Salza
      Pages: 1823 - 1823
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-015-9726-y
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
  • A review of approaches for monitoring and evaluation of urban climate
           resilience initiatives
    • Authors: Craig Brown; Richard R. Shaker; Runa Das
      Abstract: Abstract There are numerous challenges that evaluators face when determining the success of urban climate resilience initiatives (e.g., how to attribute impacts to initiatives). Fortunately, a growing body of literature—much of it dealing with climate change adaptation—has emerged which can help address these challenges. This narrative review of academic and grey literature reviews various monitoring and evaluation methods that can assess the inputs, processes, outputs, outcomes, and impacts that result from climate resilience planning and action. Since there is no commonly accepted monitoring and evaluation approach, the literature stresses the importance of acknowledging the context in which resilience is being evaluated, in order to ensure that appropriate methods are chosen. This context includes the ways that the resilience framework and definition chosen for a project constrain and determine the monitoring and evaluation approaches which can be adopted. As a result of this, a blend of quantitative and qualitative approaches is often recommended, with sufficient evidence suggesting that qualitative approaches (e.g., outcome harvesting) are essential. Nuanced approaches to monitoring and evaluation give evaluators additional means of reporting progress, and of demonstrating success, which is especially important as cities begin to implement resilience initiatives in the coming years.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9891-7
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