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Journal Cover   Environment, Development and Sustainability
  [SJR: 0.419]   [H-I: 29]   [29 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-2975 - ISSN (Online) 1387-585X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2302 journals]
  • Daphne Halkias and Paul W. Thurman: Entrepreneurship and sustainability:
           business solutions for poverty alleviation from around the world
    • PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Assessment of climate change awareness and agronomic practices in an
           agricultural region of Henan Province, China
    • Abstract: Abstract Agricultural production is a complex interaction between human and natural environment, making agriculture both significantly responsible and vulnerable to climate change. China, whose socioeconomy is fundamentally dependent on agriculture, is already experiencing climate-change-related issues that threaten food security and sustainable development. Climate change mitigation and adaptation are of great concern to ensure food security for the growing population and improve the livelihoods of poor smallholder producers. A questionnaire survey was conducted in Henan Province, China to assess agronomic practices of smallholder farmers, adaptation strategies and how climate change awareness and perceptions influence the farmers’ choice of agronomic practices. The results showed that the vast majority of farmers owned <10 Chinese Mu (0.7 ha) and nearly all farmers’ relied on intensive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides to increase yield at the detriment of environment. However, farmers who were aware of climate change had adopted agronomic practices that reduce impacts of climate change. Information about climate change, lack of incentives, lack of credit facilities and small farm sizes were major hindrance to adaptation and adoption of farming practices that can reduce impacts of climate change. This study recommends that research findings should be disseminated to farmers in timely and appropriate ways. The central government should formulate policies to include subsidies and incentives for farmers to motivate adoption of eco-friendly agronomic practices.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Experimental comparison of different heat transfer fluid for thermal
           performance of a solar cooker based on evacuated tube collector
    • Abstract: Abstract A comparison of thermal performance of solar cooker with two different heat transfer fluid (HTF) and effect of gate valve on discharge process of phase change material (PCM) had been investigated experimentally. In this experimental setup, solar cooker with inbuilt thermal storage unit was connected to evacuated tube collector through connecting pipes. The available solar heat in the collector was transferred to the solar cooker by natural circulation (thermosiphon) of HTF. The water and thermal oil (engine oil) were used separately as HTF to compare the thermal performance of solar cooker. Commercial grade acetanilide was used as thermal storage material in the solar cooker. The PCM discharging process was studied, firstly when both gate valves were open and secondly when both gate valves were closed during discharging process. Then, cooking was carried out using thermal oil as HTF, and both gate valves were closed during discharging of PCM. It was found that with water as HTF, the temperature of PCM at 18:00 h was 10.7 °C higher when both valves were closed as compared to the case when both valves were opened, whereas it was 13.1 °C in case of thermal oil as HTF. Using thermal oil as HTF, quantity of average energy stored by PCM was increased by an amount of 18.88 % as compared to water as HTF.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Future trends in urbanization and coastal water pollution in the Bay of
           Bengal: the lived experience
    • Abstract: Abstract The Bay of Bengal includes coastal seas of several countries, including Bangladesh, India, and Myanmar. We present scenarios for future river export of eutrophying nutrients into the Bay of Bengal, and the role of urbanization therein. We used NEWS (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model to analyze trends over the period 1970–2050. The scenarios are based on the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and indicate the number of people living in urban areas may increase from 22 % in 1970 to about 50 % in 2050. We show that this may considerably increase nutrient levels in rivers from sewage and other sources. For 2050, we calculate that harmful algal blooms may be a potential problem in coastal waters of about 95 % of the total drainage basin of the Bay of Bengal. In addition, we analyze Bangladeshi citizens’ expectations of future trends and how citizens with different worldviews would experience environmental changes (i.e., their lived experience). The citizens indicate that trends as envisaged in our scenarios may be a negative experience. However, some people may experience the trends as positive, because they expected worse.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Tracy Bhamra and Vicky Lofthouse: Design for sustainability: a practical
    • PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Influence of hydrogeochemical processes and assessment of suitability for
           groundwater uses in Busan City, Korea
    • Abstract: Abstract This study was carried out to understand the hydrogeochemical processes of groundwater quality and groundwater use in the Suyeong District of Busan city, Korea. Groundwater samples were collected from 40 wells in February, 2010. The abundance of major cations concentration in groundwater is Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+> K+, while that of anions is Cl− > HCO3 − > SO4 2− > NO3 − > F−. According to hydrogeochemical facies, Ca (HCO3)2, Ca Cl2 and NaCl are the dominant groundwater types in this study area. Mechanism controlling the water chemistry (Gibbs) indicates that most of groundwater samples fall at rock-weathering dominance zone. The geochemical processes and temporal variation in groundwater in this area are influenced by evaporation processes, ion exchange and dissolution of minerals. According to water quality index (WQI) of the study area exhibits 8 % of the groundwater samples fall at the unsuitable zone for drinking purpose. The spatial distribution map of WQI shows the poor quality of the water decrease toward the southern part of the study area. The results of SAR, Na%, PI, RSC and MH show that majority of groundwater samples are suitable for domestic and agricultural purposes. By the hydrogeochemical analysis, aquifer rock weathering, seawater intrusion, sewer leakage are the dominant factors that determine the major ionic composition. The proper management plan is necessary to preserve valuable groundwater resources.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Shaping minds to action: an evaluation of the environmental influences of
           primary school students in an urbanizing community
    • Abstract: Abstract Environmental perspectives are shaped by both affective and cognitive domains of education. In the urbanizing municipality of Balanga City, the primary school students of its 19 public schools were reported to have a skewed perspective of the environment, equating the term to only the natural components of their surroundings. This does not prevent the students from being actively concerned about the environment, but their confusion is aggravated by the contrasting habits observed in their households to those taught in school. Education is only a limited means to help develop sustainable practices needed as the global community addresses the challenges brought by climate change so to determine how to further develop the environmental knowledge of primary school students in Balanga City, and the influences enumerated by the children of its public schools were studied. Based on the students’ response, their school and television provide the fundamentals for their understanding of the environment, but the social atmosphere in their homes causes the trivialization of the environmental information they acquire. The ease by which these students are compelled to let go of environment-friendly habits may be caused by the absence of a solid cognitive foundation of environmental science due to the integrated curriculum design for teaching science to elementary students and the lack of sufficient training of the teachers involved. Although reiteration and emphasis of learned environmental principles in school can also come from mass media, the forms the students are exposed to are local and subject to sensationalism. There is a lack of sufficient infrastructure needed to expose the students to global viewpoints and issues about the environment, while those with immediate family members overseas have limited avenues for sharing their external influences. Involving the family in environmental education is the key, together with proper training of faculty and a modification of how environmental science is taught, to create an effective system for the improvement of the environmental perspectives of the children of Balanga City. Though environmental education may rely on the linearity of communication, the meeting point of the social influences of these children should emphasize the values of environmental stewardship for them to ascertain the right perspectives toward the environment.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Paul James: Urban sustainability in theory and practice: Circles of
    • PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Margaret Robertson: Sustainability principles and practice
    • PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Nicholas A. Ashford and Ralph P. Hall: Globalization and sustainable
           development. Transforming the industrial state
    • PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • A.R.G. Heesterman and W.H. Heesterman: Rediscovering sustainability:
           Economics of the finite earth
    • PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • John Blewitt: Understanding sustainable development
    • PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Remittances in the face of disasters: a case study of rural Samoa
    • Abstract: Abstract In Samoa, like in most Small Island Developing States, remittances are important to sustain people’s daily livelihood and become even more significant in the face of disasters. This study investigates the role of remittances in households’ response to disasters. The focus is on Samoa, where participatory activities and interviews were carried out in coastal communities affected by the tsunami of 2009, and some of which were further hit by cyclone Evan in 2012. It is found that remittances are very fast in reaching those affected and remain high in the long term in order to cope with and recover from disaster. Moreover, remittances interact with external aid since remittances increase when external aid is low and decrease when external aid is higher. Households receiving remittances were able to deal more easily with immediate security needs and recovered more quickly than those with no or limited access to this resource. However, remittances also benefit the wider community, economically, socially, and culturally, for example in perpetuating local tradition. We conclude that governments and aid agencies should take into account remittances in their relief actions and recovery programs.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • A study on the status of saltwater intrusion in the coastal hard rock
           aquifer of South India
    • Abstract: Abstract Groundwater of the coastal regions represents a fragile environment. A study has been attempted in the hard rock aquifer of the south-eastern part of India. A total of 135 groundwater samples were collected and analysed for major cations and anions. The domination of cations and anions was in the order of Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ for cations and Cl− > HCO3 − > SO4 2− > H4SiO4 > NO3 − > PO4 − > F− in anions. The water is neutral to alkaline in nature with pH ranging from 6.30 to 9.20 with an average of 7.57. The ions analysed were used for standard plots, ratio of different ions and correlation between them helped to evaluate the active hydrogeochemical process and extent of saltwater intrusion in the coastal aquifer. The electrical conductivity (EC) contour shows that the groundwater quality is poor along the coast due to saltwater intrusion. The Piper and chadda’s plot shows that most of the groundwater samples fall on Na–Cl water type may be due to saltwater intrusion in the eastern part study area. The ratios of Cl−/HCO3 − ranged between 0.24 and 152.50 and have strong positive relationship with Cl− concentrations; it was found that about 30 % of the groundwater samples were strongly affected by the saline water in the study area. The Na+/Cl− ratios ranged from 0.20 to 3.73, and most of the groundwater samples fall close to the contamination region. Agricultural and salt pan land use pattern decrease the water quality due to impact of anthropogenic processes and seawater intrusion. Statistical analysis was also used to obtain the objectives, and it was found that the seawater intrusion is the major factor controlling the groundwater chemistry followed by other factors such as weathering and fertiliser impact.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Revisiting the link between socio-economic development and environmental
           status indicators—focus on panel data
    • Abstract: Abstract The link between economic, social, and environmental indicators is often complex and requires a detailed analysis for its understanding. The economy is dependent on the society and the environment, while the very existence of human race and society depends on and within the environment. Thus, these three entities are intricately interconnected, and it is therefore important to understand that any individual group of economic, social or environmental indicators must always be interpreted in connection with the other two groups, since only in this way, an integrated view of the functioning of an economy can be ensured. For the system to be sustainable, the different forces that act on this particular system of interaction must be in balance. Hence, a detailed analysis of selected economic, social, and environmental aspects of development and their linkages is a matter of utmost significance. The objective of this study is to identify an endogenously integrated relationship where economic factor such as gross domestic product per capita influences both qualitative and quantitative factors in social and environmental dimensions and vice versa and to focus on possible correlation between a set of ambient environmental aspects and a set of socio-economic dimensions that influence human well-being and sustainability. The results of the empirical analysis emphasise the fact that there exists bi-directional relationship between different developmental and environmental aspects in the developing countries. The study further argues that without consideration of depreciation/depletion charges for the environmental capital, this relation will not reflect the true interdependence.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Environmental resources reduce income inequality and the prevalence, depth
           and severity of poverty in rural Nepal
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper investigates the economic importance of environmental income to rural households in Nepal and how environmental income influences poverty and inequality measures. Qualitative contextual information was collected from two village development committees in middle Gorkha District followed by a structured survey of 303 randomly selected households; income data were collected quarterly throughout 2008. Average environmental income was 15.7 % of total household income, ranging from 11.0 to 29.5 %. Environmental reliance decreased with rising income while absolute environmental income increased. Ordinary least square regression analysis indicated that households having large areas of crop and other lands, many livestock, larger amount of bank saving and having at least one migrating household member generate significantly larger amount of total household income. Households having a larger household size and the Dalit households generate significantly lower amount of total household income. Poverty indices and Gini decomposition showed that excluding environmental income from total household income has a large negative impact on the proportion of households below poverty lines, the income shortfall as a proportion of poverty lines and the variation in income distribution among households below the poverty lines.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • The sustainability of New Zealand climate change policy: an ethical
    • Abstract: Abstract Through a theory-driven thematic analysis, the paper gauges how, since 1990, New Zealand (NZ) Governments have approached climate change ethics and provides insight into the importance of ethics in the broader context of sustainable development and global sustainability. Analysis of the policy-related data identified two main ethical themes labelled standard self-interest and advocacy. The data show that despite some advocacy consistent with urging the objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in the international arena, Governments from 1990 to 2008 have held back to an extent on climate change policy development having operated broadly under a “standard self-interest” approach. Since 2008, the current Government has also held back on policy development and is operating under a particularly narrow, highly unethical and unjust form of self-interest. Strong criticism of the Government is therefore warranted. The paper has also highlighted the significant consensus around the broad overarching operational conclusions of sustainable development. The paper concludes, inter alia, that the NZ Government should advocate to the international community to achieve, and among their people to support, the objective of the UNFCCC, while advocating at the national and international levels for a science-informed global ethic on sustainable development. The same logic would apply to all other UNFCCC members, of which it appears many are also operating unethically and unjustly on this global transformational issue.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Towards more non-compensatory sustainable society index
    • Abstract: Abstract A sustainable society index (SSI) developed by the Sustainable Society Foundation (SSF) has been designed to measure the sustainability of 151 countries over the world in terms of human, environmental and economic well-being dimensions. The purpose of SSF’s SSI is to share global, integrated and scientifically based information and serve as a tool to measure the level of sustainability of a country in absolute terms and in comparison with other countries. The SSF provided the framework and the data for this study. The aims of this study were to test different alternatives that would enable to take interactions of the sustainability indicators into account and accomplish a more non-compensatory composite index, which presents more of a stronger sustainability view instead of weak sustainability. The tested methods included additive aggregation rule with interaction terms for the indicators, multiplicative aggregation rule, weighting of the decision hierarchy and constructing piecewise linear models with threshold values to calculate the indicator scores for each country from the raw data. The acquired results were compared to the redesigned SSI-2012 developed by the SSF. According to the results of this study, the new framework and geometric mean used as aggregation method in the redesigned SSF’s SSI-2012 did not fully succeed in its aims towards more non-compensatory composite index. The results of the tested methods showed that the most useful manner to construct composite indices such as SSI would be the use of multiplicative aggregation rule applying weighting based on expert elicitation, and constructing new calculation rules with thresholds for the indicator scores, thus considering the strong sustainable view already at the level of indicator scores. However, all these issues need further studying and development including new comprehensive weighting task, expert judgment task for determining the threshold values and constructing the piecewise models for calculation of the indicator scores.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Spillover effect of congestion charging on pro-environmental behavior
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper reports an examination of a spillover effect from a real-world intervention policy of traffic congestion charging that impacted various pro-environmental behaviors. A mailed questionnaire surveyed randomly sampled car owners living in Stockholm County (Sweden) to gather data on travel modes and pro-environmental behavior before and after the introduction of a trial congestion charging policy in Stockholm. Results of paired t test on 291 valid samples revealed that this policy not only directly mitigates traffic congestion (i.e., a direct effect of the policy intervention), but it also indirectly ‘spills over’ to affect pro-environmental behaviors in nontransportation situations (resource and energy use). A spillover to pro-environmental behavior was confirmed by respondents who shifted their travel mode from car to pro-environmental travel mode. Interestingly, the spillover was also confirmed in a group of respondents who remained in the pro-environmental travel mode and others who adversely shifted away from a pro-environmental travel mode to cars. Results suggest that the spillover effect from an environmental policy intervention can have considerable impact on facilitating pro-environmental behaviors and surrounding issues in more general contexts, thus warranting careful evaluation with a wider perspective.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • A model for the effect of density of human population on the depletion of
           dissolved oxygen in a water body
    • Abstract: Abstract A nonlinear mathematical model to study the effect of density of human population on the depletion of dissolved oxygen in a water body is proposed and analyzed. The proposed model is governed by interactions among five dependent variables, namely density of resource biomass, density of human population, concentration of organic pollutants, density of bacteria and concentration of dissolved oxygen. In the model formulation, it is assumed that density of resource biomass and density of human population follow logistic models with prey--predator type interaction. The model is analyzed using stability theory of differential equations. The analysis of model shows that increase in human population intensify the depletion in concentration of dissolved oxygen in a water body. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate analytical findings.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
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