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Journal Cover Environment, Development and Sustainability
  [SJR: 0.438]   [H-I: 36]   [30 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-2975 - ISSN (Online) 1387-585X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Conditions for the development of anaerobic digestion technologies using
           the organic fraction of municipal solid waste: perspectives for Poland
    • Authors: Anna Rolewicz-Kalińska; Anna Oniszk-Popławska; Judyta Wesołowska; Elżbieta D. Ryńska
      Pages: 1279 - 1296
      Abstract: This article outlines problems related to the location of facilities designed to treat the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). Anaerobic digestion (AD) facilities are investigated as a treatment option, while taking into account the aspects of renewable energy generation. This research has been spurred on by the relationship between waste management, energy generation issues and spatial planning procedures. The analysis is focused on urban and semi-urban areas of medium and large cities. One of the most difficult issues associated with siting of waste processing plants is its integration with local infrastructures, avoiding conflicts and negative environmental impacts at the same time. This research aims to analyse possible locations for AD plants fuelled by OFMSW in Poland. Based on the experience gained from other countries and lessons learnt from the analysis of existing facilities in Europe, conditions for the location of this type of waste treatment plants have been defined, with the focus on economic, environmental and social issues. Most likely, the results of the multicriteria decision analysis for siting of municipal solid waste AD plants (M-BIST tool) could be transferred to other countries, especially those with a comparable GDP level and a similar framework for a waste management system.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9808-5
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 5 (2016)
  • Understanding slums: analysis of the metabolic pattern of the Vidigal
           favela in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    • Authors: Raul F. C. Miranda; Carolina Grottera; Mario Giampietro
      Pages: 1297 - 1322
      Abstract: This paper illustrates an innovative approach to characterize the metabolic pattern of informal urban settlements or slums with the aim to better understand the factors that affect the material standard of living of slum residents, the dynamics of slum development and the interaction of the slum with its wider socioeconomic context. The proposed system of accounting, multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism (MuSIASEM), integrates socioeconomic and spatial data and studies energy and monetary flows in relation to the pattern of human activities and land uses. The theoretical basis of the approach is illustrated with data from Vidigal favela in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In particular, we show how to construct taxonomies of accounting categories to characterize: (1) the set of activities carried out by the slum dwellers, to which to link assessments of flow rates per hour; (2) the set of land uses or spatial elements making up the slum, to which to link assessments of flow densities per hectare. The analysis of the interaction of Vidigal with its wider socioeconomic context focuses on monetary flows and transport (job commuting).
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9810-y
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 5 (2016)
  • Using stated preference methods to assess environmental impacts of forest
           biomass power plants in Portugal
    • Authors: Anabela Botelho; Lina Lourenço-Gomes; Lígia Pinto; Sara Sousa; Marieta Valente
      Pages: 1323 - 1337
      Abstract: As a renewable energy source, the use of forest biomass for electricity generation is advantageous in comparison with fossil fuels; however, the activity of forest biomass power plants causes adverse impacts, affecting particularly neighbouring communities. The main objective of this study is to estimate the effects of the activity of forest biomass power plants on the welfare of two groups of stakeholders, namely local residents and the general population. To this end, we apply two stated preference methods: contingent valuation and discrete choice experiments, respectively. The former method was applied to estimate the minimum compensation residents of neighbouring communities of two forest biomass power plants in Portugal would be willing to accept. The latter method was applied among the general population to estimate their willingness to pay to avoid specific environmental impacts. The results show that the presence of the selected facilities affects individuals’ well-being. On the other hand, in the discrete choice experiments conducted among the general population all impacts considered were valued, in particular odour and fauna and flora impacts. The results of this study stress the importance of performing an equity analysis of the welfare effects on different groups of stakeholders from the installation of forest biomass power plants, as their effects on welfare are location and impact specific. Policy makers should take into account the views of all stakeholders either directly or indirectly involved when deciding crucial issues regarding the sitting of new forest biomass power plants, in order to achieve an efficient and equitable outcome.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9795-6
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 5 (2016)
  • Forestry activity in Portugal within the context of the European Union: a
           cluster in agricultural economics for sustainable development
    • Authors: Vítor João Pereira Domingues Martinho
      Pages: 1339 - 1397
      Abstract: Forestry activities may be important complements to a farmer’s income within the context of agricultural economics, or autonomous production, with determining factors upon rural dynamics and sustainable development. Taking these ideas into account, the objective of this study was to analyze the importance of forestry for sustainability in Portugal, namely in rural regions, comparatively with the context verified across other countries in the European Union. For this, data from the Eurostat (Several statistics. European Union Statistics, Luxembourg, 2015) for the European countries were used, over the period 1990–2014, and for variables that allowed to capture the interrelationships among forest indicators and economic, social and environmental variables. This statistical information was analyzed from a descriptive perspective and using the pairwise correlation matrix (complemented with the Granger causality Wald tests), through the Stata (Statistics/data analysis. StataCorp, LP, College Station, TX, 2015) software, to understand the relationships between the different indicators. As a main finding, it is worth referring that Portugal has had, in this period, a small impact on the European Union forestry conjuncture, but with great potential, namely in terms of agricultural and rural economic sustainability.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9775-x
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 5 (2016)
  • On the possibility of sustainable development with less economic growth: a
           research note
    • Authors: Ângelo Barroso; Cristina Chaves; Francisco Vitorino Martins; Manuel Castelo Branco
      Pages: 1399 - 1414
      Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to discuss whether it is possible to achieve human development without or with less economic growth. For this to happen, it is important that developed countries can maintain high levels of human development while reducing the scale of production and consumption so that developing countries can achieve greater economic growth. Using panel data from 118 countries aggregated in ten blocks of countries, we assess the influence of “growth” on “development”, as proxied by a transformed variable “Social Human Development Index” (SHDI), controlling for the influence of geo-economic factors. In particular, we analyse whether developed countries present a weaker statistical relation between GDP and the social dimension of HDI than their less developed counterparts. Results reveal that the GDP elasticity of SHDI is higher in blocks of countries where the concentration of developing countries occurs than in blocks dominated by the presence of developed countries. Thus, it is possible to envisage that a slowdown in economic activity in developed countries may occur without great sacrifice of human development, at least when it is measured by health and education components. We interpret the findings as meaning that at an aggregate level there are conditions for development to occur without or with less growth.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9802-y
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 5 (2016)
  • Solar photovoltaic investments and economic growth in EU: Are we able to
           evaluate the nexus?
    • Authors: Teresa Grijó; Isabel Soares
      Pages: 1415 - 1432
      Abstract: A core question in energy economics may be stated as follows: Is the cost–benefit analysis being correctly applied when we encourage investments in renewables, as an alternative to the traditional energy sources? The relationship between energy consumption and economic growth has been extensively treated within economics literature. Yet, literature on the nexus between specific energy sources and GDP is almost inexistent. In this article, we intend to explore the relationship between a certain type of renewable generation technology (solar PV) and GDP. The present and above all the planned energy mix might differ widely from one country to another. Thus, the analysis by source of energy generation becomes a helpful instrument for policy-making. Using a fixed effects panel data methodology and a sample of eighteen EU countries, we find that a 1 % increase in solar PV installed capacity and in electricity production from renewable sources has a positive impact on GDP of 0.0248 and 0.0061 %, respectively. We also conclude that a 1 % growth on greenhouse gas emissions positively affects GDP by 0.3106 %. Further evidence reveals that, in terms of country-specific analysis, Germany, France, Italy and the UK have the most significant estimations for fixed effects. In fact, Germany is a solar PV technology producer, France has a very active nuclear sector, with little pressure for both renewables development and CO2 reductions, Italy had in this period a strong governmental support to this sector, and the UK has a strong connection between the solar PV and the industry sectors.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9806-7
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 5 (2016)
  • Social acceptance of wind and solar power in the Brazilian electricity
    • Authors: Lunardo Alves de Sena; Paula Ferreira; Ana Cristina Braga
      Pages: 1457 - 1476
      Abstract: Renewable energy is often associated with the production of clean electricity and free of significant adverse impacts. However, several studies have been highlighting the importance of the assessment of social impacts of these technologies, including not only the benefits but also the potential negative aspects most frequently affecting local population. The energy matrix in Brazil is already built up on a renewable system largely supported on hydropower but other technologies with special emphasis on wind power start to have a major role, with a strong growth forecasted for this sector in the coming years. This article discusses the integration of solar and wind power in the Brazilian electricity system focusing on the social awareness and acceptance for the population living in high potential regions. For this, a questionnaire was proposed with the aim of evaluating the level of knowledge of wind and solar power, their social acceptance and perceptions towards cost, local development and environmental impacts. The questionnaire was implemented in an academic institution in the State of Rio Grande do Norte (RN) including students and professors as key actors for the present and future energy policy decision making. The implementation process and the obtained results are described allowing to conclude on the high level of acceptance of solar and wind power in the country and the region, with low evidence of not in my backyard syndrome.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9772-0
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 5 (2016)
  • The effects of different CCS technological scenarios on EU low-carbon
           generation mix
    • Authors: Fernando deLlano-Paz; Paulino Martinez Fernandez; Isabel Soares
      Pages: 1477 - 1500
      Abstract: Carbon capture and storage technology (CCS), a technology to reduce the emissions in coal and gas power generation plants, will play an important role in the achievement of the European Union emissions reduction objective. In the European Union, energy policies are articulated around three different elements: measures to promote renewable energy technologies, the emissions certificates system and both energy-saving and energy-efficiency policies. The succession of directives and communications from the EU Commission on renewable technology generation share targets and the implementation of the European Emissions Market exemplify the serious EU commitment to a more environmentally friendly future. CCS technologies—together with RES technologies—are thus key to achieve the European emissions reduction target. Although the CCS commercial availability is not guaranteed—due to a slow technological development—some institutions, such as the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, assume, for 2030 horizon, a quick development of this technology, growing until a maximum participation of an 18 % over the fossil fuels total generation. An eventual non-availability of these technologies in 2030 could increase the cost of this objective in a 70 %. Therefore, the achievement of pollutant emissions reduction targets depends on a correct design of the European generation technologies mix, which should include CCS technologies. Nevertheless, the uncertainty about the final costs and economic risk of these technologies makes a question about their future role to arise. This paper analyses the effects of different variations in the cost and risk of the CCS technologies (scenarios) over the European power technologies mix. The results confirm the need of the availability of these technologies in 2030, beyond the potential costs and risks of both options. The reason lies in the methodological approach of portfolio theory, which allows an analysis from an efficient portfolio point of view.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9809-4
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 5 (2016)
  • Energy rating methodology for light-duty vehicles: geographical impact
    • Authors: Sara Marques; Luis Reis; João L. Afonso; Carla Silva
      Pages: 1501 - 1519
      Abstract: The aim of this paper was to describe a new energy dependency score methodology and its consequent application to cars sold in twelve regions: Europe (EU-28) and eleven specific countries worldwide (Australia, Brazil, China, India, Japan, Norway, Portugal, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa and USA). This methodology was developed as a potential tool to inform consumers of their choice impact on the country’s economy. This methodology is based on primary energy assessments and origins for each energy pathway associated with a gasoline-, diesel-, natural gas (used for H2 production)- or electricity (balanced with country electricity mix)-powered vehicle. An energy dependency index was attributed to the best-case (100 % endogenous production) and worst-case (0 % endogenous production) scenarios and consequently weighted with vehicle fuel consumption. This enabled obtaining an energy dependency index (10–0). This index could be assigned to an environmental and social index to provide a sustainability index and therefore complement a road vehicle environmental rating system, providing a combined index rating. Internal combustion engine vehicles and hybrid vehicles (that have oil products as energy source) rate the lowest for almost all locations, with the exception of regions that are energy independent (Norway, Saudi Arabia or Russia). Electric vehicles rank higher when comparing to the other technologies analyzed for all locations in this study. The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle shows generally a rank in an intermediate place, except for Japan where it scores lower than all other technologies.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9776-9
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 5 (2016)
  • A geographic information system-based socioeconomic impact assessment of
           the broadening of national highway in Sikkim Himalayas: a case study
    • Authors: Polash Banerjee; Mrinal K. Ghose
      Abstract: Socioeconomic impact assessment (SEIA) is an undermined area of environmental impact assessment of highway projects. The problem becomes even more pronounced in remote and difficult terrains. The challenge in data gathering and impact prediction in mountainous areas can be mitigated using Geographic Information System (GIS). In this paper, an attempt has been made to apply the techniques of GIS and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to perform a rapid SEIA on broadening of national highway in a mountainous terrain like Sikkim. The proposed spatial impact model shows the distribution of impacts of highway broadening on socioeconomic attributes and generates a composite impact inventory map. The composite impact is found to be slightly to moderately beneficial for the study area. Cross-validation of Empirical Bayesian Kriging (EBK) and sensitivity analysis have also been carried out for model evaluation. Cross-validation results show a reliable spatial interpolation. Sensitivity analysis shows a robust decision model and identifies the socioeconomic attributes to which the spatial impact model is sensitive. The study presents a novel methodology of rapid spatial SEIA.
      PubDate: 2016-09-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9859-7
  • Analysis of farm-level adoption of soil nutrient management technology by
           paddy farmers in Karnataka, India
    • Authors: Elumalai Kannan; K. B. Ramappa
      Abstract: Adoption of soil test-based nutrient management is important for achieving sustainable development of agriculture. The present study analysed the factors influencing the adoption of soil nutrient management technology package comprising adoption of soil test and recommended fertiliser by paddy farmers in the southern Indian state of Karnataka by using field survey data. Bivariate probit model was used to estimate the sequential adoption decisions on soil test and fertiliser application technologies. The study results showed that farmers’ training on fertiliser application and education had positive and significant effect on adoption of soil nutrient technology package. The likelihood of adoption of soil test technology decreases with increase in distance measured from farm to soil test laboratory. Availability of fewer family labour increases the probability of adoption of soil nutrient management technology. These results have significant policy implications for provision of soil testing facilities nearer to villages and for conducting periodical training programmes for encouraging the farmers to adopt soil test-based nutrient management.
      PubDate: 2016-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9858-8
  • Measuring satisfaction: analyzing the relationships between sociocultural
           variables and functionality of urban recreational parks
    • Authors: Mohammad Hasani; Yousef Sakieh; Sanaz Khammar
      Abstract: Urban recreational parks have a wide range of ecosystem services including health, social, tourism and cooling effects. With significant contribution to improving life quality of urban residents, successful maintenance of urban recreational parks heavily relies on visitors’ profile information. In this case, this study attempts to analyze the relationships between different characteristics of Koohsangi Park in Mashhad City, Iran, with sociocultural variables of park visitors to explicitly measure their recreational satisfaction level. In this case, descriptive and inferential statistics (Mann–Whitney U test, Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Pearson correlation coefficient) approaches were applied to conduct analyses of this study. A collection of variables was considered among gender, age and monthly income of the visitors which were more important and informative for management practices. According to the results, Koohsangi Park has its own user portfolio based on sociocultural variables such that there is a general urban park user profile as age between 20 and 40, married, employee, B.Sc. graduate, mostly male and belonging to middle-high income groups. In addition, positive bivariate association between monthly incomes of the visitors and their willingness to pay entrance fee was identified; however, majority of the visitors had a tendency to pay less than 1 US dollar as entrance fee. This study suggests that users’ opinions on different characteristics of Koohsangi Park could be instructive for park management and city authorities who normally decide on the future development of urban parks and their success could substantially benefit from such information.
      PubDate: 2016-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9856-x
  • The driving factors of separate waste collection in Italy: a
           multidimensional analysis at provincial level
    • Authors: Massimiliano Agovino; Maria Ferrara; Antonio Garofalo
      Abstract: With the recommendation of the EU environmental policies, the separate waste collection issue has become more and more an object of public concern. Nevertheless, Italy’s waste management performances need further assessment processes. Until recently, some areas, especially in the South, have experienced serious waste management crises, mainly due to low rates of separate waste collection (less than 10 % of solid waste generated). The aim of this paper is to analyse the driving factors that influence the separate waste collection. Relatively to the Italian provinces in the year 2011, the analysis consists of two steps. In the first step, we characterize different institutional and socio-economic contexts through a multidimensional scaling analysis. In the second step, we provide evidence about the presence of subsets among Italian provinces using cluster analysis. Results show that contexts featuring high institutional quality promote the separate collection process. Differently, tourism-oriented environments characterized by low institutional quality don’t produce positive effects on the recycling process.
      PubDate: 2016-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9857-9
  • Citizen perception on environmental responsibility of the corporate sector
           in rural areas
    • Authors: B. S. Choudri; Mahad Baawain; Khalifa Al-Zeidi; Hamood Al-Nofli; Rashid Al-Busaidi; Khalifa Al-Fazari
      Abstract: A study was undertaken in order to understand people perceptions on environmental responsibility of the corporate sector in the Al-Wusta region of Oman. Since the year 2011, this region has become very important area for corporate sector because of the establishment of Special Economic Zone in Duqm, currently housed with activities related to port, ship repair and dry dock, fisheries, petrochemicals, hotels and resorts. The survey was conducted in the year 2014 covering four Wilayats of the governorate. The information was collected through questionnaire survey with a sample size of 1150 households in the region and their concerns about local conservation and management practices related environment by the corporate sector. Survey results indicated that citizens are aware about the possible impacts of projects implemented by various companies and that companies need to have greater concern toward management and monitoring of local resources such as biodiversity, fisheries, livestock, quality of air and noise including organizational setup, regular monitoring and comply with national environmental regulations within companies to address environmental problems. This study suggest that corporate sector in the region needs to be more organized, responsible toward developing healthy relationships among community through awareness and capacity-building activities for achieving the goals of environmental sustainability.
      PubDate: 2016-09-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9855-y
  • Sustainable cropping pattern in North Iran: application of fuzzy goal
    • Authors: Ramtin Joolaie; Ahmad Abedi Sarvestani; Fatemeh Taheri; Steven Van Passel; Hossein Azadi
      Abstract: Due to the important role that the application of mathematical programming models have in determining optimal cropping patterns, this research presents a sustainable cropping pattern that considers selected economic, environmental, and social goals together. Using a random sampling method, a sample size of 168 farmers was selected in the Sari County, Iran. Our results showed that economic, self-sufficiency, environmental, and social goals have a distinctly different impact on cropping pattern performance. Compared to the current cropping pattern, the gross margins for economic and social goals increased by nearly 11 and 2 %, respectively, and the gross margins for self-sufficiency and environmental goals decreased by nearly 2 and 36 %. Interestingly, it has been found that the performance of the current cropping pattern has an average positive impact of 6 % if economic, self-sufficiency, environmental, and social (employment) goals are realized simultaneously.
      PubDate: 2016-09-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9849-9
  • Contract farming and the adoption of climate change coping and adaptation
           strategies in the northern region of Ghana
    • Authors: Shaibu Baanni Azumah; Samuel A. Donkoh; Isaac Gershon K. Ansah
      Abstract: In climate change adaptation, contract farming can facilitate the adoption of coping and adaptation strategies, but such dynamics are less understood in the literature. This study uses primary data collected from a cross section of crop farmers in northern Ghana and a simultaneous equation systems approach to examine the links between contract farming and adoption of climate change coping and adaptation strategies. The major coping and adaptation strategies used by farmers include spraying of farms with chemicals, row planting, mixed farming, mixed cropping and crop rotation. Econometric results confirm that contract farming enhances the adoption of climate change adaptation strategies, but there is also a feedback effect on contract farming, such that farmers adopting more adaptation strategies have higher probabilities to get contract offer. This makes contract farming a viable policy instrument to consider in climate change adaptation. Furthermore, land ownership and extension services exert significant positive influence on adoption. As much as possible, coping and adaptation strategies should effectively be communicated to crop farmers. Policy-wise, development actors and successive governments in Ghana should encourage and facilitate contract or group farming, as was in the case of the National Block Farming, led by Ghana’s Ministry of Food and Agriculture.
      PubDate: 2016-09-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9854-z
  • A proposed framework to assess upstream supply chain sustainability
    • Authors: Susana Garrido Azevedo; Helena Carvalho; Luís M. Ferreira; João C. O. Matias
      Abstract: There are few methods that are suitable for assessing the sustainability of companies and supply chains in an integrated way, taking into consideration the economic, social and environmental dimensions. This paper proposes a framework for assessing the sustainability of individual companies and their corresponding upstream supply chain. The framework consists of a set of steps to evaluate the sustainability of both the individual company and their upstream supply chain. The linear aggregation technique is suggested to combine the set of indicators from the economic, environmental and social dimensions of sustainability into a unique value, giving rise to a composite index for the company and corresponding supply chain. The proposed framework represents a contribution in the area of index construction and could be used as a valuable component of sustainability reporting and sustainability management practices. It also represents an important benchmarking tool, offering managers the possibility of identifying the supply chain partners that are best and worst performers in terms of sustainability while at the same time making it possible to improve company performance. Managers can adjust their company’s behaviour according to their sustainability index score and improve economic, social and environmental performance.
      PubDate: 2016-09-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9853-0
  • Social-ecological resilience and the quest for sustainability as object of
    • Authors: Walter Alfredo Salas-Zapata; Leonardo Alberto Ríos-Osorio; Jorge Antonio Mejía-Escobar
      Abstract: The term ‘sustainability science’ has been employed to refer to a scientific trend, movement or program aimed at studying problems related to human–nature interactions. However, since it does not have its own set of principles for knowledge building and lack of a definition of a study object, sustainability science is not a science, at least in the usual sense of the word. A study object is the conceptual delimitation of the problems tackled by a science, and therefore, its search in the context of a science of sustainability requires exploring different notions of sustainability. This article presents different perspectives on the concept of sustainability and analyzes the viability to assume them as study object of sustainability science. Such exploration demands concepts based on a processual ontology that directs the researcher toward the dynamic, historic and temporal and social-ecological character of problems of unsustainability. The concept of social-ecological resilience seems to comply with such requirements.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9852-1
  • Energy and environment: bringing together engineering and economics
    • Authors: Paula Ferreira; Madalena Araújo; Luc Hens
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9846-z
  • Energy policy evaluation in practice: the case of production subsidies and
           DEN-B in the Netherlands
    • Authors: Viktória Kocsis; Bert Hof
      Abstract: This paper describes how energy policy can be evaluated in practice. The goal is to make policy makers aware of how an evaluation can be based on scientific principles and to help economists appreciate how an evaluation can be performed if strong empirical evidence is lacking. We have built a basic evaluation framework and have applied this to a selection of Dutch energy policy instruments, namely production subsidies and their complementary non-financial instrument, DEN-B. Our evaluation criterion was effectiveness, defined as the extent to which policy instruments contribute to achieving policy goals. The evaluation was based on existing ex post evaluations complemented by interviews and other available data. We conclude that production subsidies and DEN-B were (partly) effective. Furthermore, the Dutch government increased effectiveness by reconsidering the design of production subsidies. We also formulate lessons for future policy evaluations and energy markets policies.
      PubDate: 2016-08-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9837-0
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