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Journal Cover Environment, Development and Sustainability
  [SJR: 0.438]   [H-I: 36]   [33 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-2975 - ISSN (Online) 1387-585X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Methodological characteristics of sustainability science: a systematic
           review
    • Authors: Walter Alfredo Salas-Zapata; Leonardo Alberto Ríos-Osorio; Jaiberth Antonio Cardona-Arias
      Pages: 1127 - 1140
      Abstract: Abstract Sustainability science has emerged as a research program and a scientific trend that directs all efforts to promote transition of societies toward sustainability. The style of research proposed to tackle unsustainability issues should be characterized by the application of a systems approach, as well as transdisciplinarity, participation, generation of social learning and a problem-solving perspective. However, whether such traits are being actually implemented has not been determined. Furthermore, a mature science is expected to have coherent research typologies, besides a scientific community and shared theoretical assumptions and methodological prescriptions; such types or research on sustainability science is still unknown. This systematic review aimed at analyzing research papers on sustainability carried out in 2013. Three aspects were studied: the scientific community, the theoretical assumptions on the concept of sustainability and the methodological design. Results suggest that the scientific community comes from disciplines different to sustainability, the researchers tend not to define the concept of sustainability and among those who do, and there is a lack of shared assumptions. The present analysis also showed that research on sustainability has not implemented the methodological characteristics mentioned and coherent method typologies were not found. These aspects hinder sustainability science evolution and maturity, given the difficulty to construct theories and consolidate a scientific community that develops coherent methods on such grounds.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9801-z
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Assessing use-values and relative importance of trees for livelihood
           values and their potentials for environmental protection in Southern
           Burkina Faso
    • Authors: Daniel Etongo; Ida Nadia S. Djenontin; Markku Kanninen; Edinam K. Glover
      Pages: 1141 - 1166
      Abstract: Abstract Empirical ethnobotanical studies in Burkina Faso and the Sahel apply unmodified use-value methods, which often fail to capture uses of plants within and across categories. These methods mask both the relative uses and local people’s ‘true’ knowledge of plant species. This study addresses these methodological weaknesses by assessing plant use-values within and across eight use categories for livelihood values and their potentials for environmental protection among 48 informants, selected through a stratified random technique. The research is twofold: (1) to document and identify the conservation status of plant species and (2) to assess local knowledge and perceived importance of the most easily found plant species in relation to informant’s age, gender, ethnicity, and location. Seventy-three plant species belonging to 24 families were recorded on fields, fallows, and forests. The most easily found 30 species belonged to 14 families of which Combretaceae, Mimosodeae, Caesalpinioideae, and Anacardiaceae dominated. Results show that Adansonia digitata, Parkia biglobosa, Vitellaria paradoxa, and Balanites aegyptiaca were more valued for livelihood benefits, while A. digitata, Tamarindus indica, and Ficus thonningii received more value for their potentials in environmental protection. Local knowledge was unevenly distributed and showed significant differences at the 0.01 % level among gender, age, ethnicity, and study village. The relative importance of plant uses goes beyond nutrition and potentials in environmental protection and can provide valuable information for creating local markets for such goods. Three species belonging to different families were identified as vulnerable and considered priority for conservation. The design of conservation and development projects should consider creating opportunities for knowledge sharing that will not only improve knowledge but provide better understanding of local priorities based on sociocultural and economic factors.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9787-6
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Dynamics of leaf litter and soil respiration in a complex multistrata
           agroforestry system, Pernambuco, Brazil
    • Authors: Phelipe Manoel Oller Costa; Marina Alessandra Gomes de Araújo; Cristina Maria de Souza-Motta; Elaine Malosso
      Pages: 1189 - 1203
      Abstract: Abstract High litter inputs in agroforestry systems contribute to soil microbial activity, soil fertility and productivity. Considering that the cycling of organic matter is essential to the maintenance of physical–chemical and microbiological properties of the soil, the aims of this work were to estimate the production, accumulation and decomposition of litter, and assess soil microbial respiration in a complex multistrata agroforestry system located in the north-east of Brazil. This agroforestry system has three strata formed by forest and fruit trees and species of multiple uses. During 3 years (2011–2013), leaf litter was sampled monthly to account for litterfall and quarterly to account for litter accumulation. The rates of litter decomposition were estimated using the ratio produced-to-accumulated litter, and the correlation between litter fall and rainfall was calculated. Precipitation data were provided by the water and climate agency of Pernambuco (APAC). Soil samples (0–15 cm) were also taken quarterly, simultaneously with the litter accumulation samples, and soil microbial respiration was assessed using the capture, by a KOH solution, of the evolved CO2. The annual production of leaf litter was stable in the 3 years of study in this agroforestry system, and the monthly input of litter to the soil was influenced by rainfall, being higher in the dry seasons. The accumulated litter on the ground was constant, as was microbial activity (respiration) through time. The estimated litter decomposition rates were 1.49 (first year), 1.33 (second year) and 1.42 (third year), being considered rapid rates of decomposition. This guarantees (to the farmer) that this system is capable of maintaining soil fertility and eliminates the need for chemical fertilizers.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9789-4
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Environmental degradation and economic growth: evidence for a developing
           country
    • Authors: Rafael Alvarado; Elisa Toledo
      Pages: 1205 - 1218
      Abstract: Abstract This paper examines the relationship between economic growth and environmental degradation in Ecuador from 1971 to 2010. We estimate this relationship in a country with a heavy reliance on revenue from the exploitation of natural resources, the depletion of vegetation cover in recent decades and a low level of participation of industry in GDP. We show the existence of an inverse relationship between real GDP and vegetation cover, indicating that the output of this country is based on environmental degradation. Through Johansen co-integration tests, we check that there is a relationship of long-term equilibrium between the first differences of real GDP, vegetal cover and the urbanization rate. The ECM shows that there is a short-term relationship between vegetation cover, the GDP and the rate of urbanization. Finally, we did not found Granger causality between the variables. A policy implication based on our findings is that policies to protect the environment should not jeopardize economic growth and not limit the rapid urbanization in the country.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9790-y
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • The effect of bidirectional opinion diffusion on social license to operate
    • Authors: Kyle Bahr; Masami Nakagawa
      Pages: 1235 - 1245
      Abstract: Abstract This is a companion paper to an earlier work in which an agent-based model is proposed by Nakagawa et al. for exploring the emergent phenomena of social license to operate (SLO) of a mining company. In this paper, the structure of the original model is described, along with the enhanced ability for the two-way diffusion of information and opinion among agents. This is achieved through the addition of a global “dialogue” variable, which dictates the extent to which higher influence agents accept opinion from agents of lower influence. Initial findings suggest that the bidirectional diffusion of information has a large effect on the time that the modelling population takes to reach a Social License consensus, and the effect is especially pronounced for low dialogue values. In other words, the Social License of communities characterized by a low preference for dialogue (as opposed to “top-down” mandated communication) will be largely affected by small changes in the preference for dialogue. Findings also suggest that as a modelling community becomes more and more open to dialogue, the effect on the time to consensus becomes less and less pronounced until it becomes negligible at a fairly low dialogue level.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9792-9
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Improvement in irrigation water use efficiency: a strategy for climate
           change adaptation and sustainable development of Vietnamese tea production
           
    • Authors: Nguyen Bich Hong; Mitsuyasu Yabe
      Pages: 1247 - 1263
      Abstract: Abstract Irrigation is indispensable to overcome insufficient rainfall and to achieve a stabilized yield for tea production. As the severe scarcity of water resources because of climate change, water conservation through efficient irrigation has turned into a vital strategy for tea sector in solving this rising challenge. This paper analyzes irrigation water use efficiency of small-scale tea farms in Vietnam and identifies its determinants applying stochastic frontier analysis. Results showed that under decreasing returns to scale, the mean irrigation water use efficiency was 42.19 %, indicating the existence of substantial water waste. If farmers become more efficient in using water, saving 57.81 % of irrigation water is possible unaccompanied by reducing the observed output. The factors affecting tea farms’ irrigation water use efficiency were investigated by Tobit model. Gender, water shortage awareness, soil and water conservation practice, off-farm income share, extension services access and well water utilization showed significant influence on the efficiency of irrigation water. The study’ results provide insights to policymakers in implementing better water resource management amid climate change.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9793-8
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Optimal design of additional sampling pattern for drinking-water quality
           control
    • Authors: Mohammad Safa; Saeed Soltani-Mohammadi; Milad Kurdi
      Pages: 1265 - 1278
      Abstract: Abstract A crucial step in complementary studies of the water quality determination is to design the additional sampling pattern or, in other words, to determine the number and location of the additional samples. Since location and number of samples highly affect decisions’ uncertainties, and because sampling process is quite costly and time-consuming, optimization of the sampling pattern will enhance the efficiency and productivity. Solution of such an optimization problem requires defining an objective function and constraints. There exist many previous studies regarding locating additional samples in other environmental problems wherein the objective function is defined as the minimization of the kriging variance (based on the problem nature), but the point is that kriging variance is not sensitive to local variability. Since manner and extent of small-scale variations are both important and necessary in water quality studies, it is required to resolve this shortcoming of the traditional objective function. Solution is to make use of the combined variance consisting of kriging and local variances. In this study, the applicability and efficiency of the minimization of combined variance as the objective function of the additional sampling was adopted and proved for a salt marsh (east of Iran) on the basis of a simulated annealing-based algorithm. It was shown, practically, that the locational distribution of additional sampling points is quite logical and more compatible with experts’ proposed methods using this objective function (compared to the traditional one).
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9794-7
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Experimental investigation of solar-powered desiccant cooling system by
           using composite desiccant “CaCl 2 /jute”
    • Authors: Amit Kumar; Avadhesh Yadav
      Pages: 1279 - 1292
      Abstract: Abstract A solar-powered composite desiccant cooling system has been experimentally investigated. It consists of evacuated tube solar water heater, composite desiccant bed heat exchanger (CDBHE), direct evaporative cooling unit and cooling tower. The composite desiccant material has been synthesized by using iron mesh and jute layer impregnated with calcium chloride solution, and this composite desiccant is placed in shell- and tube-type heat exchanger to make CDBHE. In this desiccant cooling system, the evacuated tube solar water heater is used to produce required hot water for regeneration of composite desiccant material. A cooling tower is used to produce cooling water which is pumped into CDBHE during dehumidification process to remove heat of adsorption. Direct evaporative cooling unit is used to cool the outlet process air of CDBHE. It has been found that the average dehumidification rate increases by 54.1 % when using circulating cooling water. The COPth of desiccant cooling system has been found to be 0.46 with a cooling capacity of 353.8 W.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9796-5
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • The impacts of the waterfront development in Iskandar Malaysia
    • Authors: Suk-Wah Woo; Abdelnaser Omran; Chee-Leong Lee; Mohd Hanizun Hanafi
      Pages: 1293 - 1306
      Abstract: Abstract The increasing number of waterfront projects shows that the concept of waterfront development has contributed to the advancement of the Malaysian construction industry. This study seeks to assess the impacts of the implementation of waterfront development in Iskandar Malaysia eliciting the perceived relative importance of these impacts. A comprehensive literature review has been conducted to collate the potential impacts of the waterfront development. A total of 363 sets of questionnaires were distributed to the contractors and developers registered under G7 category of the Construction Industry Development Board in Malaysia. Results show that the most significant influence of the waterfront development is related to economic benefits, while environmental impacts are not considered as a priority for this category of stakeholders. In addition, this study also indicates that the implementation of the waterfront projects has generated numerous job opportunities within the developed region. Moreover, exchanging knowledge in the planning and managing of the waterfront development is imperative to the development of the waterfront projects. Nevertheless, the shortcomings of these developments, such as the negative environmental impact on natural beaches and the coastline (i.e. pollution) as well as human-related issues (i.e. excessive human settlement), should not be taken lightly. This research confirms that the reclamation of land for waterfront development is closely correlated with the destruction of these natural structures.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9798-3
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Economic potential for conversion to organic farming: a net present value
           analysis in the East Mau Catchment, Nakuru, Kenya
    • Authors: Eric Kiprotich Bett; David Michael Ayieko
      Pages: 1307 - 1325
      Abstract: Abstract This paper discusses the economic potential in terms of income changes that may result from conversion to low-external-input agriculture (LEIA) organic farming in a Kenya’s catchment area. A spreadsheet model applying the gross margin and net present value analysis was developed to estimate economic returns to labour and land of alternative smallholder cropping systems in the East Mau Catchment. The income and costs over a 10-year horizon associated with current cropping practices of a typical farm household cultivating 1.12 hectares of maize–bean intercrop, Irish potato, carrots, tomatoes, cabbages and kales mix were characterized based on field work conducted in 2008–2010. An “average” smallholder LEIA organic farm was simulated based on the conventional one, and its income discounted. A comparison was then made of the two farm types. Results indicate annual net present value returns to cropped land average Ksh 21,878/ha ($ 267/ha) and Kshs 22,561/ha (€ 275/ha) in 2010 values for conventional and prototype LEIA organic farming systems, respectively. Net returns are particularly sensitive to crop yields and price and cost of fertilizers and seeds. Further efforts should be made to provide an economic analysis of other LEIA organic farming practices such as composting, double digging and agroforestry in terms of additional labour costs resultant. The model can be extended to build more scenarios on the role of price premiums. Additionally, further research should be done to exploit the socio-demographic factors affecting the adoption of low-external-input systems.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9800-0
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • When experts disagree: the need to rethink indicator selection for
           assessing sustainability of agriculture
    • Authors: Evelien M. de Olde; Henrik Moller; Fleur Marchand; Richard W. McDowell; Catriona J. MacLeod; Marion Sautier; Stephan Halloy; Andrew Barber; Jayson Benge; Christian Bockstaller; Eddie A. M. Bokkers; Imke J. M. de Boer; Katharine A. Legun; Isabelle Le Quellec; Charles Merfield; Frank W. Oudshoorn; John Reid; Christian Schader; Erika Szymanski; Claus A. G. Sørensen; Jay Whitehead; Jon Manhire
      Pages: 1327 - 1342
      Abstract: Abstract Sustainability indicators are well recognized for their potential to assess and monitor sustainable development of agricultural systems. A large number of indicators are proposed in various sustainability assessment frameworks, which raises concerns regarding the validity of approaches, usefulness and trust in such frameworks. Selecting indicators requires transparent and well-defined procedures to ensure the relevance and validity of sustainability assessments. The objective of this study, therefore, was to determine whether experts agree on which criteria are most important in the selection of indicators and indicator sets for robust sustainability assessments. Two groups of experts (Temperate Agriculture Research Network and New Zealand Sustainability Dashboard) were asked to rank the relative importance of eleven criteria for selecting individual indicators and of nine criteria for balancing a collective set of indicators. Both ranking surveys reveal a startling lack of consensus amongst experts about how best to measure agricultural sustainability and call for a radical rethink about how complementary approaches to sustainability assessments are used alongside each other to ensure a plurality of views and maximum collaboration and trust amongst stakeholders. To improve the transparency, relevance and robustness of sustainable assessments, the context of the sustainability assessment, including prioritizations of selection criteria for indicator selection, must be accounted for. A collaborative design process will enhance the acceptance of diverse values and prioritizations embedded in sustainability assessments. The process by which indicators and sustainability frameworks are established may be a much more important determinant of their success than the final shape of the assessment tools. Such an emphasis on process would make assessments more transparent, transformative and enduring.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9803-x
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Impacts of predicted sea level rise on land use/land cover categories of
           the adjacent coastal areas of Mumbai megacity, India
    • Authors: Malay Kumar Pramanik
      Pages: 1343 - 1366
      Abstract: Abstract Physical and ecological responses of the coastal areas in the vicinity of Mumbai, India, due to relative sea level rise are examined by different inundation scenarios. Evaluation of potential habitat loss under sea level rise was made by incorporating the land use/land cover (LULC) adopted from the digital elevation model with the satellite imagery. LULC categories overlaid on 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 m coastal elevation showed that the coastal areas of Mumbai were mostly covered by vegetation followed by barren land, agricultural land, urban areas and water bodies. For the relative sea level rise scenarios of 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 m, the tidal inundation areas were estimated to be 257.85, 385.58, 487.56 and 570.63 km2, respectively, using GIS techniques. The losses of urban areas were also estimated at 25.32, 41.64, 54.61 and 78.86 km2 for the 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 m relative sea level rise, respectively, which is most alarming information for the most populated city on the eastern coast of India. The results conclude that relative sea level rise scenario will lead profound impacts on LULC categories as well as on coastal features and landforms in the adjoining part of Mumbai. The sea level rise would also reduce the drainage gradients that promote flooding condition to rainstorms and subsequently increase saltwater intrusion into coastal regions. Alterations in the coastal features and landforms correlated with inundation characteristics that make the coastal region more vulnerable in the coming decades due to huge development activities and population pressures in Mumbai.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9804-9
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Determination of appropriate service quality attributes for household
           toilets in rural settlements of India based on user perception
    • Authors: Mohammad Rashid; Debapratim Pandit
      Pages: 1381 - 1406
      Abstract: Abstract In many developing countries, including India, governments have implemented programs for improvement of environment and health in rural settlements through the provision of a subsidized household toilet with specifications selected and benchmarked from the experts’ perspective with only partial consideration of users’ perception. Provision of household toilets with specifications or service quality as perceived by users is a requirement for the sustainability and sustained use of toilet infrastructure. Users do not judge only the overall quality of a service but also base their judgment on a few attributes which are either perceived to be relatively more important or where there is a wider gap between expectation and perception . This paper presents a review of the service quality attributes of the household toilet as found in the relevant literature and provides a step-by-step approach for identifying appropriate attributes based on users’ perspective. While an initial list of attributes was developed based on literature review, initial selection and modifications of the attributes’ definition and units were carried out as per our judgment. This list was further modified through focus groups discussions and incorporating expert opinions. The final list of attributes is selected based on the stated importance level of attributes as perceived by users. The study finds that the attributes prioritized by the users are different from the experts. While government policies emphasize on the construction of toilet, maintenance of toilet is found an important issue for the users.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9807-6
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Exploring the causal relationship between carbon emissions and land
           urbanization quality in China using a panel data analysis
    • Authors: Wenjing Zhang; Hengzhou Xu
      Pages: 1445 - 1462
      Abstract: Abstract Land use and carbon emissions have long been a heated topic in China as well as developing countries. This paper contributes to the study of the related area as to investigate the causal relationship between the land urbanization quality and carbon emissions using panel data from 30 provinces in China over the period of 2004–2013. The empirical results show that: There exists bidirectional causality between land urbanization quality and carbon emissions across the country; land urbanization quality has negative effects on carbon emissions in all areas, with its effects largest in the Central region, followed by the Eastern, and the Western ranked at last; causal relationship exists in all regions, in addition to Eastern China; Central region has the highest potential of energy conservation. These findings provide new insights and valuable information for optimizing land use and urban development in China. In particular, to actively adjust the industrial structure, innovation in science and technology, and separate policy focus can contribute to energy conservation and urban land use.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9813-8
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Opportunity to restore irrigation tanks in the Cauvery delta by mining and
           deepening
    • Authors: T. R. Neelakantan; C. R. Suribabu; R. Selvakumar
      Pages: 1463 - 1472
      Abstract: Abstract Delta region of the Cauvery river in India is well known for paddy cultivation for centuries. Due to increased competition on river water sharing over the past century, availability and reliability of water in this region is dwindling. Changes in management practices, which caused the deterioration of traditional tank (relatively small reservoir) irrigation systems, and the difficulties in reviving them are discussed. Increasing the storage capacity of irrigation tanks for augmenting water availability for irrigation is discussed in detail. Managing the huge cost involved in deepening the heavily silted tanks in a sustainable manner is suggested through allowing mining activities in the tanks. Sample study on the suitability of soil for commercial uses indicates the possibility of mining in the tanks.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9814-7
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Scenario of future e-waste generation and recycle-reuse-landfill-based
           disposal pattern in India: a system dynamics approach
    • Authors: Dipsikha Dasgupta; Anupam Debsarkar; Tumpa Hazra; B. K. Bala; Amitava Gangopadhyay; Debasish Chatterjee
      Pages: 1473 - 1487
      Abstract: Abstract The fundamental requirements of the e-waste management system are the forecasting of the future generation of e-waste and in situ planning to minimize the risk. The prediction analysis (a simulation exercise with base year 2012 and end year 2025) for several e-waste items (desktop, notebook, refrigerator, television and washing machine) reflects an increasing waste generation pattern. The present study deals with the prediction of e-waste generation and the percentage distribution of e-waste through different disposal pathways (landfill, second-hand market and recycling) based on the system dynamics approach (using STELLA software, version 8.0) for the purpose of improved management practice in near future in India. During the prediction of disposal options, the role, importance and functionality of various pathways are also critically analyzed. The simulation results indicate that the specific route of e-waste disposal will largely control the e-waste generation in India as informal sectors, in future, will solely utilize recycle and reuse pathways due to the economics of the specific components of the generated e-waste. On the other hand, the percentage of landfillable e-waste will decrease from 8.06 to 6.54 % within a decade (2012–2025). Finally, the study emphasizes on delineation of a well-composed guideline for policy orientation to protect the human health and environment, as e-waste items and their various components often emit toxic substances particularly during informal trade chain practices.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9815-6
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Local communities’ belief in climate change in a rural region of
           Sub-Saharan Africa
    • Authors: Albert Ayorinde Abegunde
      Pages: 1489 - 1522
      Abstract: Abstract A survey among adult residents (n = 416) was designed to understand their belief in and concern for climate change (CC) across three rural community groups in Osun State, Nigeria. This was with a view to understand their perspectives and to assist in Sub-Saharan Africa CC policy formulation. Over half (52.6 %) of the residents who did not believe in CC were illiterate (55.3 %) but were aware, especially through radio (43.0 %). Awareness through government agents, newspaper and information from weather stations were poorly reported. The residents observed variability in their local climate conditions over the decades and were highly concerned (69.2 %) of the effects of this on their farming activities. Residents’ belief in and concern for CC in hamlet (r = 0.303) and compact (r = 0.406) rural communities were significant (P < 0.001), though below moderate and weak in dispersed (r = 0.058, P = 0.000) areas. Despite the weak relationship in the latter settlement category, its regression coefficient of determination (R 2) showed that the level of awareness was responsible for just 0.3 % of the variation in the concern for it but increased by 9.8 % when adjusted by education. Scientific opinions on farm chemicals (2.64), automobile exhaust (2.35), fuel-based generator fumes (2.56) and burning of logs (2.38) were rated below CC causal mean index (3.0), while traditional belief that CC occurs as a natural phenomenon (4.37) was highly rated. The Sub-Saharan African governments must raise policies that can address rural adult education to increase their level of awareness and positively influence local residents’ belief about CC in their local communities.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9816-5
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Playing by whose rules' Community norms and fisheries rules in
           selected beaches within Lake Victoria (Kenya) co-management
    • Authors: C. A. Etiegni; K. Irvine; M. Kooy
      Pages: 1557 - 1575
      Abstract: Abstract Co-management of natural resources has developed within the premise that sustainable management is more likely achieved through decentralized and participatory governance. For Lake Victoria (Kenya), the introduction of co-management through the establishment of beach management units (BMUs) coincided with apparent increases in unsustainable fishing practices associated with concurrent decline in fish stocks. In this article, we identify what institutions at the community level influence practices and how these shape the interpretation and application of formal rules laid down by fisheries policies. Primary data collected from four beaches on the Kenyan side of Lake Victoria document local fishing practices. We found fishing practices are often contrary to government regulations, despite the creation of BMUs that were established to implement government regulations. Instead, fishing practices regulated by the BMUs are highly influenced by kinship ties and corruption. This analysis uses the concept of institutional bricolage to discuss how norms and rules interact to affect resource management. The findings build on existing evidence which challenges the view that devolution of natural resource management to local institutions, even those that follow national guidelines for participatory management, provides for more sustainable fishing. We suggest the need for a perhaps radical rethink of the design of participatory fisheries within Lake Victoria if sustainable management goals are to be realized.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9799-2
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Assessment of groundwater contamination in a suburban area of Chennai,
           Tamil Nadu, India
    • Authors: Nattanmai Swaminathan Elangovan; Vaithyanathan Lavanya; S. Arunthathi
      Abstract: Abstract Groundwater source is the major source of drinking water in most of the suburban areas of India. Groundwater quality was analyzed for pH, TDS, hardness, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, ammonia, phosphate, total coliform and E. coli for the period of January–December 2013. Samples were collected from 10 locations that include 10 shallow wells and 10 deep wells in each location. The quality variation between both shallow and deep wells during pre- and post-monsoon was analyzed. The improper disposal of solid waste and the distance of septic tank were pronounced on E. coli count. The analysis reveals that groundwater contamination is influenced by seasonal changes, environmental condition of the well and maintenance of the well. The high contamination was observed in the wells which are near to the Pallikaranai marsh, and during post-monsoon season, the total dissolved solids and nitrite parameters are slightly increased, whereas chloride increases during pre-monsoon season. Correlation analysis reveals that the chloride and nitrite have a significant relation. The results suggested that the groundwater immediately needs broader protection.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-0007-9
       
  • Phosphate removal by activated carbon–silica nanoparticles
           composite, kaolin, and olive cake
    • Authors: Kamel K. Al-Zboon
      Abstract: Abstract This work aimed to utilize four low-cost materials, namely activated carbon (AC), activated carbon–nanoparticle composite, kaolin, and olive cake, for phosphate removal. Batch mode tests were used to evaluate the performance of the adsorbents. The parameters affecting the adsorption process such as pH, initial concentration, mixing time, dosage, and temperature were studied. The obtained results showed that the removal efficiency of the adsorbents followed the order of: activated carbon–nanosilica > activated carbon > kaolin > olive cake. The addition of silica nanoparticles significantly enhanced the removal efficiency of activated carbon by 18.1% reaching a removal efficiency of 98% at 15wt% nanosilica loading. The adsorption isotherm data fitted well with Langmuir and Redlich–Peterson models with a correlation coefficient of >0.98, which indicates a monolayer homogenous adsorption. The fitness of the kinetic models was ranked as: pseudo-second-order > pseudo-first-order > intraparticle model. The calculated values of ΔH° = 23.4 kJ/mole, ΔS° = 0.11 kJ/mole, and ΔG = −7.4 to −11.8 kJ/mole indicated the endothermic and spontaneous nature of adsorption. The positive value of activation energy (17.66 kJ/mole) and the very low value of the sticking probability (2.4 × 10−4) suggest high indefinite sticking of the phosphate ions to the adsorbent surface. The removal efficiency increased with time, dosage, and temperature, while it decreased with the increase in the initial concentration at an optimum pH of 7. The obtained results buttressed the benefit of using silica nanoparticles to enhance activated carbon capacity for phosphate removal, while kaolin and olive cake provided lower removal.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-0012-z
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
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