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Journal Cover International Journal of Research in Science
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2412-4389
   Published by Research Plus Journals Homepage  [4 journals]
  • Development of Science Motivation Scale

    • Authors: Mustafa Dogru; Tuna Gencosman, Cem Oktay Guzeller, Kevser Korumaz
      Abstract: Motivation is the most important factor which affects the academic success of the students. Students who have higher motivation engage more to the class activities. One of the reasons for having negative perspective and low academic success of student in science is that students have low motivation for science lessons. The purpose of the study is developing a scale to show motivation of middle school students towards science lessons. Data used in research gained from two independent study groups. The first study group (N=498) is used to determine the structure of factor of the study. The second study group (N=275) is used to test consistence of model and data. Total number of students in the study group is 773. The expression of the motivation of middle school students is shown with 52 items consisting of 2 sub-dimensions which are internal motivation and external motivation. 12 of these items are negative substances for the motivational elements of the science lessons. According to data obtained from the scales, explanatory and confirmatory factor analyzes were carried out during the process of testing the structural validity of the scale. As a result of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, model which consists of 21 items and 1 factor is appropriate for both theoretically and statistically. Reliability of the scale is examined by Cronbach Alpha coefficient calculated based on the internal consistency of the items and testing again. The Cronbach Alpha internal consistency reliability coefficient of the scale is 0.79. Considering the results of reliability, it can be said that the scale has sufficient level of reliability. It can be thought that the scale can show the motivation of the students.
      PubDate: Sun, 31 Dec 2017 00:00:00 -060
  • Profitability Analysis of Fresh Tomato Retail Marketing In Some Major
           Markets Of Kano State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Umar Shehu Umar; Abdu Muhammad Yaro
      Abstract: Small scale farmers in Nigeria can’t do without tomato production because of its special attributes and quick cash generation as tomato is being viewed as cash crop, despites it perishable and none storable nature. The study examined the profitability of fresh tomato retail marketing in major markets of Kano State. A total of 149 respondents were randomly selected from the four market sites selected purposively due to the high concentration of continuous retail marketing throughout the year, the market sites are; Tarauni, ‘Yan Kaba, Garin Dau and Wudil Market. Information was collected using structured questionnaire. Deconstructed marketing margin was used for the analysis, the results revealed the marketing margin to be N452.6 and –N374.5 per basket at the peak and the off season respectively. Transportation cost accounts for about 35% and 40% of the total marketing cost for on and off season respectively.  The study concluded that the retail marketing of fresh tomato is generally profitable and recommends that fresh tomato retail marketers should imbibe the idea of collective purchase in order to minimize transportation cost for maximum profit, it further recommends agricultural scientists to find ways of reducing postharvest losses at all levels of marketing so as to make the price of the commodity relatively stable throughout the year to ensure sustainability in the business.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Dec 2017 04:50:40 -060
  • Comparative Content of Harmful Substances Contained In the Raw Material
           for Various Types of Printing Ink

    • Authors: Norazli Othman; Liaw Lerk Lerk, Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan, Roslina Mohammad
      Abstract: Printing ink is one of the chemical industry that can be considered as a high risk industry due to it is a manufacture industry that involved all kinds of chemical materials. Thus, reliability data is important for the environmental safety in chemical industries. This study aims to compare the hazardous substances in raw materials for various printing ink production and propose the control measures in the ink production process. Three types of printing ink raw material i.e sheet-fed ink, cold-set ink and heat-set ink were considered in this study. This study was conducted by using a quantitative approaches. Data were collected through Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Hazardous substances were identified from the Chemical Service (CAS) registry number of the raw materials. The result of the study shown that there are eight hazardous chemical substances in sheet-fed ink, cold-set ink and heat-set ink. The hazardous raw materials identified are mainly from the category of pigment, solvents and additives. From the study of the three types of ink printing, sheet-fed inks contain harmful chemicals that are the lowest of 33.27%, followed by thermal ink-set of 41.73% and cold-set inks of 61.86%. The results also shown that solvents are identified to contribute highest percentage as hazardous chemical substances in the printing ink, followed by additives and pigment. The results of the research shown that the production workers in the printing ink production process are at highly exposed to the hazards. The hierarchy of hazard control based on Department Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) are proposed to control the hazardous chemical substances. The recommended control measures of possible hazards and risks based on the work activities are elimination, engineering control, administration control and personal protective equipment. This research is very important as it will enhance the precautions and safety knowledge of the employer and employee in handling the chemical substances in the printing ink production process.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Dec 2017 04:37:34 -060
  • Molecular Confirmation on the Synonymy of Phaeanthusebracteolatusand P
           Ophthalmicusincluding Biological Activities of Its Phytochemical

    • Authors: Porferio S. Bangcaya; Kristelle Marais A. Bordeos, Cyril S. Concico, Grecebio Jonathan D. Alejandro
      Abstract: The genus Phaeanthus Hook.f and Thomson of the family Annonaceae is a medicinal plant essentially characterized by inner petals that are longer than outer petals, numerous carpels and stamens, and monocarpous fruits. Previous studies have recognized Phaeanthus ebracteolatus as a synonym of P. ophthalmicus based on the morphological examination of limited herbarium specimens. In order to determine the validity of the finding, this study aims to verify the synonymy of P. ebracteolatusand P. ophthalmicus using combined matK and rbcL dataset, as well as computing its sequence divergence; and, to further explore the phytochemical and biochemical components of the plant.Collected plant samples were subjected to morphological characterization followed by molecular analysis through DNA extraction, amplification, purification, sequencing, sequence analysis and data analysis. The crude leaf extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening by thin layer chromatography and three colorimetric assays such as α-glucosidase inhibition, anti-tyrosinase and anti-Staphylococcus. This study confirms that the two Phaeanthus species are conspecific using combined matK and rbcL dataset which is strongly supported and computed sequence divergence which includes 5 bp (0.81%) and 3 bp (0.41%) in matK and rbcL regions, respectively. Overlapping morphological characters such as axillary inflorescence, valvate inner and outer petals, truncate stamens, club-shaped carpels, and globose monocarps also support the finding. The crude leaf extract yields positive to different antioxidant constituents and demonstrated a high potency in α-glucosidase inhibition. The study validated the synonymy of P. ebracteolatus and P. ophthalmicus using sequences and morphology, with P. ophthalmicus being acknowledged as its correct name. Furthermore, the plant extracts proved to be efficient as an α-glucosidase inhibitor.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Dec 2017 04:08:09 -060
  • Analysing Ship Nox Emissions with Hadoop A Case Study for the Port of

    • Authors: Frank Cremer; Muktha Muralee
      Abstract: Atmospheric emissions such as NOx from ship engines have a drastic impact on the environment. Controlling them is crucial for maintaining a sustainable growth for any logistics company. The Port of Rotterdam (The Netherlands) is using big data analytics to gain actionable insights into these emissions. Our case study deals with the implementation of the emission calculations and reporting implemented in Hadoop. In the analytical setup we introduce the method for estimating emissions based on recorded ship position data and information about its engines. We present a flexible approach that stores intermediate results allowing different levels of aggregation. These levels of aggregations are per geographical area, per grid or for a whole journey attributed to each visited berth. The results are visualized in a Geographical Information System (GIS). The estimated atmospheric emissions also serves as input for the deposition model. We present some selected results of emissions per grid as well as for pre-defined areas. These results are used by the port to make strategic decision. For future work we recommend to also implement the deposition model in Hadoop as this model is also calculative intensive and therefore it currently only accepts aggregated emissions as input, whereby its accuracy is most likely reduced.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Sep 2017 12:19:30 -050
  • Hydraulic Fracturing Designs For Low Permeability Gas Condensate
           Reservoirs Having Lean and Rich Condensate Compositions

    • Authors: Karanthakarn Mekmok; Jirawat Chewaroungroaj
      Abstract: Gas condensate reservoirs have been challenging many researchers in petroleum industry for decades because of their complexities in flow behavior. After dew point pressure is reached, gas condensate will drop liquid out and increase liquid saturation near wellbore vicinity called condensate banking or condensate blockage. Hydraulic fracturing in horizontal direction has been proved to be a reliable method to mitigate condensate blockage and increase productivity of gas condensate well by means of pressure redistribution in the near wellbore vicinity. In this paper the parameters of dimensionless fracture conductivity and Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV) designs of lean and rich condensate compositions are studied. Well productivity and saturation profile of each design had been observed. The results from this study indicate that the higher dimensionless fracture conductivity gives the higher well productivity in every studied parameter in lean condensate composition. However, in rich condensate composition shows different trend of results because it has higher heavy ends (C7+) that drop into liquid easier once pressure falls below dew point pressure. The maximum number of fracture and fracture permeability can be recognized in the study of rich condensate. In the study of SRV indicates that number of fracture is superior to fracture width in both gas and condensate productivity. Moreover, performing hydraulic fracturing can decrease pressure drawdown, production time and liquid dropout which leads to the mitigation of condensate banking near wellbore that can be recognized in the study of condensate saturation profile.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Sep 2017 12:08:45 -050
  • Formulation of Lipbutter Using Red Dragon Fruit's Extract
           (HylocereusCostaricensis)As Natural Dyes With Various Oil Phase

    • Authors: Yulita Sandriani; Bambang Hernawan Nugroho, Silmi Fauzi Izza Tsani, Yandi Syukri
      Abstract: Lipbutter is a cosmetic preparation used for people with dry and cracked lips problems. One example of a fruit that can be used as a natural dye is a red dragon fruit (Hylocereuscostaricensis) because it contains anthocyanin pigment that serves as a color pigment. Red dragon fruit is a fruit that has several properties such as antioxidants, antimicrobials, boost the immune system and contains some good vitamins for the skin such as vitamin E, vitamin C and vitamin B three. Red dragon fruit can be used as a lip moisturizer and can overcome dry skin that will effective when used regularly. The aim of this research is to make lipbutter preparation using red dragon fruit extract as natural dye, with oil phase concentration (Oleumricini). Red Dragon Fruit extracted using a method of escaping with the extract. Made with three formulas. Lipbutter preparation is evaluated pH, melting point, and organoleptys. The results showed that the lipbutter preparations were made to have good texture and aroma but the color was not stable.It can be concluded with the addition of the concentration of castor oil (Oleumricini) to the preparation to yield the highest average pH preparation. With the right melting point also produces a pH corresponding to the physiological pH of the lips.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Sep 2017 11:56:00 -050
  • Effects of Polymer Adsorption and Desorption on Polymer Flooding in
           Waterflooded Reservoir

    • Authors: Sukruthai Sapniwat; Falan Srisuriyachai
      Abstract: Polymer Flooding is one of the most well-known methods in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technology, resulting in favorable conditions for displacement mechanism to lower residual oil in the reservoir. Polymers can lower mobility ratio by increasing the viscosity of injected water, hereby increasing volumetric sweep efficiency. Moreover, polymer adsorption onto the rock surface can help decrease reservoir permeability contrast. Due to absolute permeability reduction, the effective permeability to water is also reduced. Once the polymer is adsorbed onto the rock surface, polymer molecules can be desorbed with a chaser. This study is performed to further evaluate the effects of the adsorption and desorption process of polymer solutions to yield benefits on the oil recovery mechanism. A reservoir model is constructed by the reservoir simulation program called STAR® from Computer Modeling Group (CMG). Various polymer concentrations, starting times of polymer flooding process and polymer injection rates were evaluated with selected degrees of polymer desorption including 0, 50 and 100%.
      According to the results, polymer desorption lowers polymer consumption, especially at low concentrations. Polymer desorption causes polymer re-employment that is previously adsorbed onto rock surface, resulting in an increase of sweep efficiency in the further period of polymer flooding process. Furthermore, the results show that waterflooding followed by earlier polymer flooding can increase the oil recovery factor whereas the higher injection rate also enhances the recovery. Polymer concentration has relationship with polymer consumption due to the two main benefits described above. Therefore, polymer slug size should be optimized based on polymer concentration.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Sep 2017 08:59:56 -050
  • Geophysical Investigation of Groundwater Level Using Vertical Electrical
           Sounding (A Case Study of Ewu in Edo State Nigeria)

    • Authors: Idiegbe Onoriode Gilbert; Atumah Oyibo Lawrence
      Abstract: In this research work, four Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) were carried out in Ewu Town at various locations: Eguare-Ewu, Idunwele-Ewu, Flour Mill Road-Ewu and Eko-Ewu using the ABEM terrameter, by employing the Schlumberger electrode configuration system to determine the level of groundwater.  From the analysis of field data and results of computer iteration, a maximum of four geoelectric layers were obtained. The first layer of geoelectric section was the lateritic top soil with thickness of 1.21m and 11.1m, for VES 1 and VES 2, with apparent resistivity of 438 ohm m and 183 ohm m.  The possible aquiferous zone for sustaining groundwater are within the second and third layers for VES 1 and the fourth layer for VES 2, at a depth of 2.67m to 47m and infinity respectively. The apparent resistivity of the aquiferous layers of VES 1 and VES 2 are 797 ohm m and 362 ohm m respectively, which is fine sand layer.  The apparent resistivity of the aquiferous layers of VES 3 and VES 4 are 5511 ohm m and 129 ohm m respectively with infinity thickness.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Jun 2017 07:09:48 -050
  • Electron Beam Lithography and Plasma Etching To Fabricate Supports for
           Studying Nanomaterials

    • Authors: Mona Alyobi; Richard Cobley
      Abstract: The fabrication processes of different nano- structures by electron beam lithography (EBL) and plasma dry etching are shown. The periodic circle and square patterns with different sizes were defined in the resist by EBL and then formed in the substrates by plasma etching. The holes were created with a diameter ranging from 1um to 5um and an etch depth from around 500nm to 1um. The quality and the size of fabricated patterns and their dependence on the etching time were investigated using top-down and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the structures are well-resolved in the patterns with high levels of quality and good size uniformity. The results show that the depth of the structures does not depend on their size or geometry but rather on the etch time.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Jun 2017 07:00:42 -050
  • Thermal Analysis of a Solar Cooling Adsorption System by a Dynamic Model

    • Authors: Roberto de Lieto Vollaro; Carmine Basilicata, Emanuele de Lieto Vollaro
      Abstract: In this paper is shown the possibilities to implement an energy solar system, without auxiliary elements, made to cool. The new technologies (vacuumpacked tube, tanks of build-up with variable volume, etc.), allow the possibility to obtain easily a stand-alone refrigerating system. Today it is always more and more the case where during the summer season there is a surplus of thermal energy whose use is to be assigned within the energy optimization system. The most immediate solution to this problem is the ability to produce cold by means of simple adsorption solutions, thus contributing to the cooling problem with low COP values. The most beneficial adsorbent both for its thermal/physical and low cost is the silica gel, a polymer of silicon dioxide, commonly used for its dehydrating properties, especially in the preservation of electronic material [1,3,13].
      In this study we have developed a dynamic model with the software trnsys to verify the obtaining of appropriate warm fluid for an innovative cooling system absorption with gel of silica and water and it is tested on a real building as case study. The dynamic model analyzes the performance thermodynamic balance of a small size system has been made (about 20-50 kW), adequate to cool a Building of 900 sq m. and allow to assess the conformation (surface, storage volume, etc.). of a  new generation solar power plant is able to guarantee a continuous operation during the summer period. We have tested a solar cooling system with solar vacuum collectors on a real Building with Meteo data  of three Cities as Rome Milan and Tunisi and we have tested the model comparing the results obtained. The model in fact allows to make a preliminary design of principal part of the plant and to evaluate function cost-benefit of a complex investment for innovative technology . The interesting results obtained allow at a later stage to make a prototype validating the theoretical results with experimental measures.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Jun 2017 06:51:17 -050
  • A Transportable Solar Power Generator

    • Authors: Azzeddine Ferrah; Fatima Yaqoob, Mariam Ismaeil, Dana Khalil, Amal Abdelrahman, Aisha Mohamed
      Abstract: This paper presents the design of a 2kW portable photovoltaic (PV) stand-alone facility (PV generator) that converts directly solar irradiance into electricity for immediate use or storage. The project aims to build a stand-alone solar power source for use in rural villages, mountainous and remote areas that are distant from the national grid. It can also be very useful for powering camping tents, fishing boats, small farms, and greenhouses. Equally, it could be used for disaster stricken areas and during power outages. However, the proposed generator will be more suited for camping trips that Emiratis take almost in weekly basis. The paper will focus on presenting the main features of the designed prototype. It will also investigate the performance of the proposed stand-alone PV generator. Parameters investigated include geographic location, climate condition, solar irradiance, load consumption, ambient temperature, array voltage, battery voltage, and energy output from the array. The work presented is based entirely on the work carried out by final year electrical engineering students, during their capstone design project. The project work, presented, is a manifestation of the students learning during earlier semesters. It puts into practice the application of solar energy technology, that the student learned in his course on renewable energy systems.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Jun 2017 06:41:24 -050
  • Alternative Solutions for Data Storage Using Magnetic Films
           Exchange-Coupled Through Non-Magnetic Layer

    • Authors: Alina Crisan; T. Klein, R. Rohlsberger, E. Burkel, O. Crisan
      Abstract: We describe an alternative solution to encode information in magnetic films that goes beyond the conventional way of digital magnetic recording. In our approach the information is stored via a continuous variable, namely the remanent coupling angle between two magnetic films that are separated by a nonmagnetic spacer layer. Using the technique of nuclear resonant scattering (NRS) [1, 2] we show with good precision, how this coupling angle can be conveniently adjusted with high degree of remanence by shortly applied external magnetic fields. Moreover this effect is explained using a micromagnetic model [3, 4]. Extremely important for future applications of this concept, we demonstrate, that the remanent coupling angles can be read out via magneto-optical or magneto-resistance effects. In principle, this approach allows to design novel memory cells for advance data storage devices, where multiple states per unit cell can be generated and recorded.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Jun 2017 00:00:00 -050
  • Optimizing Emulsion Liquid Membrane Process for Extraction of Nickel from
           Wastewater Using Taguchi Method

    • Authors: Elsayed Ali Fouad
      Abstract: --The main objectives of this research were focused on extracting nickel ions from waste water using emulsion liquid membrane as well as determining the optimal conditions for the extraction process. Taguchi experimental design method was applied to determine the optimum extraction conditions. The controllable factors of the emulsion liquid membrane process were carrier; surfactant; and internal phase concentration, treating ratio, stirring time, and feed phase acidity were optimized. The contribution of each controllable factor was also explored. The results indicated the greatest effect of the carrier concentration in comparison to other parameters. The five other parameters slightly affected the extraction percentage of nickel. The optimum conditions for the extraction was found to be carrier concentration (M) of 0.25, surfactant concentration (v %) of 10, internal phase concentration (M) of 0.1, external / emulsion ratio (v/v) of 5, stirring time (min.) of 1, and feed phase pH of 0.5.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Mar 2017 07:39:34 -050
  • Electrical and Structural Properties of PVDF/Mgo (7%) Nanocomposites Thin
           Films at Various Annealing Temperatures

    • Authors: Rozana Mohd Dahan, Arshad A.N; Wahid M.H, Sarip M.N, Rusop M.
      Abstract: —Poly (vinylideneflouride)/nano-magnesium oxide (PVDF/MgO) film with 7% MgO loading percentage was annealed at various annealing temperatures ranging from 70°C to 150°C. The PVDF/MgO thin film was fabricated using spin coating technique with a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) configuration. The dielectric and electric properties of PVDF/MgO with respect to annealing temperatures was studied. The PVDF/MgO nanocomposites thin films annealed at temperature of 70°C (AN70-PVDF/MgO) showed an improvement in the properties; dielectric constant value of 26 at 1 kHz frequency compared to un-annealed sample (UN-PVDF/MgO), which is 21 at the same frequency. As the annealing temperatures were increased from 90°C (AN90) to 150°C (AN150-PVDF/MgO), the dielectric constant values were found to gradually decreased from 25 to 12 respectively, which was lower than the UN-PVDF/MgO thin films. AN70-PVDF/MgO also produced relatively low tangent loss (tan δ). The resistivity value of AN70-PVDF/MgO was also found to increase from 3.08x104 Ω.cm (UN- PVDF/MgO) to 4.55x104 Ω.cm. The increased in the dielectric constant, with low tangent loss and high resistivity value suggests that 70°C was the favorable annealing temperature for PVDF/MgO film suitable for the application in electronic devices such as low frequency capacitor.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Mar 2017 00:00:00 -050
  • Persian Mining Product (PMP) Is Future of Iranian Minerals Branding

    • Authors: Keyvan Jafari Tehrani; Homa Moayed Jafari
      Abstract: — This electronic document is browsing across history of Iranian minerals export to clarify the key factors which helped to achieve the success or loose the chance on the subject. Iran with great reserve of minerals which consisting of 68 types has a great potential to substitute minerals export income instead of oil. This is the same scenario that Kingdom of Saudi Arabia also is planning to do so. To achieve this goal, need more attention and focus on mining activities such as exploration, extraction, production, processing of ore as well as export. During a last decade which Iran imposed under tremendous and hard European and United States sanctions, had less chance and hope to follow up this plan. But since beginning 2016 which the most of trading and business sanctions have been removed, Iran not only can equip its mines by brand new machinery and technology but may get much better interest from foreign mining companies and investors to do finance or invest as FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) in Iranian mines. Iran needs by proper planning increase share of GDP for mining production from some existing figure below 1% to above 5% to rely less on oil income, which has already had a share of 23% in Iran’s GDP. We believe to bypass this road need to create a professional brand for Iranian minerals. Hereby we are introducing for the first time a new abbreviation for branding of Iranian minerals named PMP (Persian Mining Product) as a solution for this purpose.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Mar 2017 00:00:00 -050
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