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Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 2451-9103
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3163 journals]
  • Concurrent measurements of neurochemical and electrophysiological activity
           with microelectrode arrays: New perspectives for constant potential
           amperometry
    • Authors: Nuno R. Ferreira; Ana Ledo; João Laranjinha; Greg A. Gerhardt; Rui M. Barbosa
      Pages: 142 - 150
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Ana Ledo, Cátia F. Lourenço, João Laranjinha, Greg A. Gerhardt, Rui M. Barbosa
      Our current understanding of neurotransmission and neuromodulation stands to gain from concurrent electrochemical and electrophysiological measurements, which have been attempted since the introduction of in vivo electrochemical techniques. Dual in vivo recordings evolved from parallel approaches using two distinct microelectrodes towards serial strategies encompassing “time-sharing” between two independent recording systems while using a single microelectrode. More recently, fast sampling amperometry has been demonstrated to allow concurrent measurement of rapid neurochemical and electrophysiological events using a single sensor and recording system. This is supported by the fact that the high-frequency component of an amperometric recording (>1Hz) resembles the local field potential while the low frequency component (<1 Hz) reflects the electrochemical signal resulting from the oxidation or reduction of electroactive species present in the milieu. This opens new avenues for constant potential amperometry, widening the application of this seamless electrochemical technique.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioelechem.2018.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2018)
       
  • Building switchable peptide-architectures on gold/composite surfaces: New
           perspectives in electrochemical bioassays
    • Authors: Mihaela Puiu; Camelia Bala
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Mihaela Puiu, Camelia Bala
      Peptide elements have emerged as building blocks for bio-inspired nanohybrids due to their stability and ability to fold in highly organized supramolecular aggregates. Nanomaterials decorated with peptide motifs are suitable for interfacing the electrode surface because they are able to combine the high-specificity of biomolecular interactions with the excellent conducting properties of metallic or carbon nanostructures. Herein, we present the latest achievements in electrochemical peptide-based bioassays, overviewing their multiple functionalities from ligand sensing, receptor detection to signal amplification.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.05.017
       
  • Deep eutectic solvents and applications in electrochemical sensing
    • Authors: Christopher M.A. Brett
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Christopher M.A. Brett
      This review focusses on deep eutectic solvents (DES) and their applications in the construction of electrochemical sensing platforms. The preparation and properties of DES are first described, with a brief survey of their applications, focusing on recent advances concerning materials and coatings prepared in DES as solvent. Their importance in the preparation of electrochemical sensors is then addressed in more detail, particularly regarding electroactive conjugated polymer and redox polymer modified electrodes. Future perspectives in the electrochemical sensing and biosensing fields are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.05.016
       
  • Wearable electrochemical alcohol biosensors
    • Authors: Alan S. Campbell; Jayoung Kim; Joseph Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Alan S. Campbell, Jayoung Kim, Joseph Wang
      The rapid development of wearable sensing platforms in recent years has led to an array of viable monitoring applications for various target analytes. As a significant biomarker with high impact in diverse areas, the reliable on-body detection and continuous monitoring of alcohol has become a focus of many such systems. Currently, several commercial sensing platforms are available that are capable of transdermal monitoring of alcohol consumption using insensible sweat. Drawbacks of existing alcohol sensing platforms that apply this sensing strategy have led to efforts in developing wearable biosensors capable of real-time alcohol detection in sampled biofluids such as sensible sweat and skin interstitial fluid. This review discusses the current trends in wearable electrochemical alcohol biosensing and highlights recent advances in such systems toward continuous, real-time monitoring of alcohol consumption. Our perspective on this important field is given with an outlook on the future of wearable electrochemical alcohol biosensors.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.05.014
       
  • New insights on hydrogen evolution at Au single crystal electrodes
    • Authors: Ludwig A. Kibler; Johannes M. Hermann; Areeg Abdelrahman; Ahmed A. El-Aziz; Timo Jacob
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 May 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Ludwig A. Kibler, Johannes M. Hermann, Areeg Abdelrahman, Ahmed A. El-Aziz, Timo Jacob
      The understanding of fundamental relationships between the structure of an electrode and its activity for a given reaction is crucial for catalyst development in electrocatalysis. The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) on Au single crystal electrodes belongs to the class of structure-sensitive processes. HER can be used to study dynamic processes of the electrode surface. It is shown that kinetics of surface reconstruction is significantly dependent on the electrode potential. The role of Au in binary electrocatalysts for HER is discussed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.05.013
       
  • Novel graphene materials for the oxygen reduction reaction
    • Authors: Luis Miguel Rivera; Gonzalo García; Elena Pastor
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Luis Miguel Rivera, Gonzalo García, Elena Pastor
      Herein, the general concepts of low temperature fuel cells (LT-FCs) are discussed, with special attention to the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on novel graphene materials. With the aim to solve the principal catalytic and economic problems at the cathode of LT-FCs, a fundamental understanding of the principal parameters that modify the ORR activity as well as the new advances in graphene-based catalysts are reviewed and discussed. Thus, the present manuscript may help to improve the fabrication of novel cathodes in order to decrease the cost and to enhance the performance of LT-FCs.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.05.009
       
  • Self-powered bioelectrochemical devices
    • Authors: Felipe Conzuelo; Adrian Ruff; Wolfgang Schuhmann
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Felipe Conzuelo, Adrian Ruff, Wolfgang Schuhmann
      Autonomous bioelectrochemical devices have been described since the beginning of the 21st century. The properties and broad potential applications of such devices encouraged the development of a plethora of examples. Self-powered biodevices have been mainly used for sensing applications with different strategies reported for the detection of various important analytes. Moreover, these devices had also inspired the design and fabrication of logic and biocomputing-based systems with further applications in logic-activated drug release for the development of sense-act-treat systems. In addition, their use as self-sustained systems for energy supply has been recently reported. This review summarizes the development and progress of self-powered biodevices with particular attention to latest advances and novel applications.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.05.010
       
  • Recent trends on the application of PGM-free catalysts at the cathode of
           anion exchange membrane fuel cells
    • Authors: Luigi Osmieri; Lorenzo Pezzolato; Stefania Specchia
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Luigi Osmieri, Lorenzo Pezzolato, Stefania Specchia
      Anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) are becoming more and more attractive due to their alkaline environment, being less aggressive and favorable to the use of low-cost materials. Furthermore, the alkaline medium displays enhanced alcohol oxidation reaction kinetics, which favors the use of fuels different from hydrogen, ranging from alcohols to polyols, and enhanced oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) kinetics. This allows the use of non-noble transition metals to synthesize cathodic catalysts, avoiding the costly platinum-group metals (PGM). In particular, the most active catalysts developed so far are mostly synthesized by sacrificial support method, which allows the fine tuning of the morphology, favoring oxygen transport, water removal, density of Fe–N x active sites, and thus an enhanced electrochemical ORR activity. This mini-review analyzes the best AEMFCs cell performance achieved so far in recent years when PGM-free catalysts based on Me–N–C (Me = Fe, Co) are used for ORR at the cathode side, for AEMFCs fed with hydrogen, methanol, and ethanol.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.05.011
       
  • Elucidation of role of graphene in catalytic designs for electroreduction
           of oxygen
    • Authors: Pawel J. Kulesza; Jerzy K. Zak; Iwona A. Rutkowska; Beata Dembinska; Sylwia Zoladek; Krzysztof Miecznikowski; Enrico Negro; Vito Di Noto; Piotr Zelenay
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Pawel J. Kulesza, Jerzy K. Zak, Iwona A. Rutkowska, Beata Dembinska, Sylwia Zoladek, Krzysztof Miecznikowski, Enrico Negro, Vito Di Noto, Piotr Zelenay
      Graphene is, in principle, a promising material for consideration as component (support, active site) of electrocatalytic materials, particularly with respect to the reduction of oxygen, an electrode reaction of importance to low-temperature fuel cell technology. Different concepts of utilization, including nanostructuring, doping, admixing, preconditioning, modification or functionalization of various graphene-based systems for catalytic electroreduction of oxygen are elucidated, as well as important strategies to enhance the systems’ overall activity and stability are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.05.012
       
  • Photoelectrochemical bioanalysis of protein biomarkers
    • Authors: Yuan-Cheng Zhu; Ling Zhang; Nan Zhang; Wei-Wei Zhao; Yan-Yu Liang; Jing-Juan Xu; Hong-Yuan Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Yuan-Cheng Zhu, Ling Zhang, Nan Zhang, Wei-Wei Zhao, Yan-Yu Liang, Jing-Juan Xu, Hong-Yuan Chen
      Photoelectrochemical (PEC) bioanalysis represents a unique and dynamically developing methodology that offers an elegant route for sensitive biomolecular detection. Protein biomarkers, generally refers to biomolecules whose presence or level of expression are indicative of the occurrence or severity of some diseases. With the development of PEC bioanalytical technique and ever-increasing demands for sensitive disease diagnosis, there is an increasing impetus for innovative PEC bioanalysis towards various protein biomarkers, especially those of cancer and heart diseases. Using illustrative examples, this brief review will highlight the current advances in this topic, and the future prospects are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.05.008
       
  • Redox active electrolytes in carbon/carbon electrochemical capacitors
    • Authors: Barbara Gorska; Elżbieta Frąckowiak; François Béguin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Barbara Gorska, Elżbieta Frąckowiak, François Béguin
      The application of redox-active electrolytes to realize carbon/carbon electrochemical capacitors has created a great opportunity to enhance the mediocre energy of these devices. Taking advantage of the faradic current from the redox transformation of electrolyte species, which generates a large capacity at one electrode, the resulting hybrid cells can store twice more energy than typical electrical double-layer capacitors based on the same carbon electrode material. However, among a relatively large number of tested redox active electrolytes, only few are acknowledged to provide ideally performing hybrid capacitors. This review critically discusses the literature data and provides clues for realizing optimized systems.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.05.006
       
  • Fuel cell-based breath-alcohol sensors: Innovation-hungry old
           electrochemistry
    • Authors: Kenneth I. Ozoemena; Suhail Musa; Refiloe Modise; Adewale K. Ipadeola; Lesego Gaolatlhe; Siwaphiwe Peteni; Guy Kabongo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Kenneth I. Ozoemena, Suhail Musa, Refiloe Modise, Adewale K. Ipadeola, Lesego Gaolatlhe, Siwaphiwe Peteni, Guy Kabongo
      Fuel cell-based breath-alcohol sensor (FCBrAS) remains the most widespread and reliable electrochemical device, for the detection of alcohol due to its inherent advantages such as portability, rapid detection, acceptable accuracy, sensitivity and selectivity. However, despite the advances in nanotechnology, FCBrAS still suffers from several technical challenges including the use of extremely high platinum loadings. In this short review, we opine that this old electrochemistry requires urgent innovative research interventions to be able to serve its purpose in the years ahead.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.05.007
       
  • Polycationic oxides as potential electrode materials for aqueous-based
           electrochemical capacitor
    • Authors: Olivier Crosnier; Nicolas Goubard-Bretesché; Gaëtan Buvat; Laurence Athouël; Camille Douard; Pierre Lannelongue; Frédéric Favier; Thierry Brousse
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Olivier Crosnier, Nicolas Goubard-Bretesché, Gaëtan Buvat, Laurence Athouël, Camille Douard, Pierre Lannelongue, Frédéric Favier, Thierry Brousse
      Since the early use of RuO2-based electrodes in electrochemical capacitors, so called supercapacitors, metal oxides have always attracted much attention as pseudocapacitive electrode materials for such energy storage devices. Although the literature is well documented about electrode materials based on single metal oxides, polycationic oxides have also drawn some attention upon the last five years. It is however still quite difficult to build a pertinent strategy to design polycationic architectures that can provide at the same time pseudocapacitive behavior, high capacitance and long term cycling efficiency. This review aims at providing more insight into these polycationic oxide materials as potential electrode materials for supercapacitor.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.05.005
       
  • Recent advances in spectroscopic investigations on ionic liquid/electrode
           interfaces
    • Authors: Kenta Motobayashi; Masatoshi Osawa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 May 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Kenta Motobayashi, Masatoshi Osawa
      Potential applications of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) for electrochemical energy devices motivate a better fundamental understanding of electrochemical interfaces of RTILs. Potential-dependent structural changes of RTILs/electrode interfaces and elementary processes of electrode kinetics must be elucidated. Interface-sensitive spectroscopic techniques, powerful probes for analyzing structures and dynamics of interfaces, have revealed hysteretic adsorption/desorption of ions on electrodes, interplay between the interfacial structures and reactions, and dynamics of intermediate species. Here, we briefly review selected publications reported over the past 3 years related to molecular-scale investigations on electrochemical interfaces of RTILs with the use of spectroscopic techniques.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.05.003
       
  • Future trends in the market for electrochemical biosensing
    • Authors: Marta Maria Pereira da Silva Neves; María Begoña González-García; David Hernández-Santos; Pablo Fanjul-Bolado
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Marta Maria Pereira da Silva Neves, María Begoña González-García, David Hernández-Santos, Pablo Fanjul-Bolado
      In the past years, research into electrochemical sensors and biosensors has been continuously growing and has especially focused on new materials and strategies to improve miniaturization and portability as an answer to new analytical paradigms. Moreover, important breakthrough achievements in terms of wearable and wireless technology with friendly operating systems and applications are also being accomplished, improving tremendously the user's experience. In this review, we summarize the current outline of electrochemical biosensors market and discuss some of the most recent advances, as well as the remaining challenges and future prospects, for electrochemical biosensing development that could make an impact on the future global market.
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      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.05.002
       
  • Advances in signal amplification strategies for electrochemical biosensing
    • Authors: Yujie Liu; Yixin Liu; Liang Qiao; Yun Liu; Baohong Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Yujie Liu, Yixin Liu, Liang Qiao, Yun Liu, Baohong Liu
      Signal amplified electrochemical (EC) biosensing has broad significance and practical values in the study of clinical medicine and genetic project. Using a variety of signal amplification strategies based on functional nanomaterials, enzyme catalysis, biological reactions, etc., one could effectively enhance biosensing response and reduce noise signals to detect trace number of analytes. To date, signal amplified EC biosensing has been widely used in the study of life science, biomedical research, food and environmental analysis, chemical analysis, etc. This review focuses on the advances during the last decade in the development and application of signal amplified EC , photoelectrochemical and electrochemiluminescence biosensing, using functional nanomaterials, enzyme catalysis and biological reactions. Perspectives of signal amplification strategies for EC biosensing are also addressed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.05.001
       
  • Fourier transformed alternating current voltammetry in electromaterials
           research: Direct visualisation of important underlying electron transfer
           processes
    • Authors: Ying Zhang; Alexandr N. Simonov; Jie Zhang; Alan M. Bond
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Ying Zhang, Alexandr N. Simonov, Jie Zhang, Alan M. Bond
      Recent advances in materials science have significantly broadened the range of electrodes available for use in dynamic forms of electrochemistry. In the modern era of dc voltammetry when the kinetic-based model of electron transfer with coupled chemical reactions was introduced, initial emphasis in theory-experiment comparison was placed on use of the ideal homogenous liquid mercury electrode with significant attention also given to polycrystalline and faceted metal electrodes. Nowadays, there are a plethora of carbon-based electrodes such as glassy carbon, edge and basal plane graphite, boron doped diamond, graphene and carbon nanotubes that may be extremely heterogeneous. These are supplemented by chemical modifications designed for example to improve the efficiency of electrocatalysis. In this review, it is shown that analysis of the higher harmonics available in large amplitude Fourier transformed alternating current voltammetry (FTacV) allows key processes to be detected, that are masked under commonly used dc voltammetric conditions. In particular it is shown how underlying fast electron processes that facilitate carbon dioxide reduction at tin electrodes and oxygen evolution at cobalt modified carbon-based electrodes can be directly detected and analysed for the first time. FTacV also experimentally reveals that structural defects or ad atoms can give rise to well-defined higher order ac harmonics suggesting that a fast electron transfer process is associated with the active sites during electrocatalytic oxidation or reduction. Importantly, electron transfer processes often can be evaluated by FTacV in the presence and absence of the electrocatalysts, unlike dc voltammetric methods. The ability to analyse third and higher order ac harmonics that are essentially devoid of background charging current and which allow the electron transfer and catalytic steps to be resolved presents new opportunities for fundamental advances in understanding complex electrochemical reaction mechanisms taking place at heterogeneous electrodes. Related advantages in studying electron transfer of surface confined metallo-enzymes or proteins in the presence and absence of their catalytically oxidised or reduced biologically relevant substrate partners are also surveyed. Finally, prospects for providing quantitative accounts of complex reactions at highly heterogeneous electrodes by FTacV are considered.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.04.016
       
  • Recent advances in electrochemical analysis of biomacromolecules.
           Catalytic hydrogen evolution and modification of glycoproteins and glycans
           by Os(VI) complexes
    • Authors: Emil Paleček; Hana Černocká
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Emil Paleček, Hana Černocká
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.04.017
       
  • Electrochemical detection of nitric oxide and S-nitrosothiols in
           biological systems: Past, present & future
    • Authors: Fethi Bedioui; Abdulghani Ismail; Sophie Griveau
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Fethi Bedioui, Abdulghani Ismail, Sophie Griveau
      Electrochemical detection of nitric oxide (NO) using different electrode materials and strategies exploded after the discovery of NO as important biological messenger. S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs), which result from interaction of NO with peptides and proteins, were shown to be important pools of NO that interfere in different physiological and pathological conditions. This led to the development of several decomposition methods to detect RSNOs electrochemically. This mini-review summarizes the beginning and the current investigations in electrochemical methods to detect NO and RSNOs. Indeed, it describes the latest trends using microfluidic technologies coupled to electrochemistry and discuss the future of NO and RSNOs detection.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.04.014
       
  • Current trends and challenges in bioelectrochemistry for non-invasive and
           early diagnosis
    • Authors: Susana Campuzano; Paloma Yáñez-Sedeño; José Manuel Pingarrón
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Susana Campuzano, Paloma Yáñez-Sedeño, José Manuel Pingarrón
      This short article reviews critically the latest advances, current trends, potentiality and existing challenges in electrochemical sensing of circulating biomarkers for early and minimally invasive diagnosis. The extensive literature in this field clearly demonstrates that electrochemical biosensors provide very interesting features and substantial advantages over more complex conventional strategies to perform, in a simple and rapid way, single or multiplexed determination of target biomarkers at low concentrations in minimally treated liquid biopsies, meeting also the requirements of point-of-care devices and applicability at different settings. Despite the numerous challenging issues to overcome before achieving the translation of these biosensing strategies into the clinic, the potentiality demonstrated so far for the accurate electrochemical determination of biomarkers at different molecular levels for early and non-invasive diagnosis permits to foresee they will take a privileged place together with the traditional methods in the clinical routine.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.04.015
       
  • Electrochemistry of membrane proteins and protein–lipid assemblies
    • Authors: Jan Vacek; Martina Zatloukalova; David Novak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Jan Vacek, Martina Zatloukalova, David Novak
      The electrochemistry of membrane proteins allows us to examine the association of proteins with membranes and low-molecular ligands, such as drugs, toxins and others. In addition, electrochemical methods are applicable for the quantification of transport phenomena, for monitoring the change in the structure of the protein, and determining its catalytic activity if the protein is an enzyme. In addition to approaches based on the concept of protein film voltammetry, methods based on the direct redox transformations or electrocatalytic reactions of the amino acid residues in the protein structure could be used. The above areas of interest fall under basic research, which is the main subject of this paper. However, the utilization of new immobilization strategies for proteins and the application of redox active polymers is an important part of the development of new biosensors and the construction of devices employing the principles of bioelectrocatalysis.
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      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.04.012
       
  • Innovative methods in electrochemistry based on polymers of intrinsic
           microporosity
    • Authors: Elena Madrid; Neil B. McKeown
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Elena Madrid, Neil B. McKeown
      Polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) are a new class of material that offer excellent processability and ion (semi-)permeability with great potential for applications in electrochemical technologies. The intrinsic microporosity is generated from inefficient packing of the rigid polymer backbone. Solutions of PIMs are used to form porous polymer matrices with embedded nano-particles and molecular catalysts for modified electrodes. Because of the hydrophobicity of PIMs, trapped liquid electrolyte and gas can coexist for “triphasic” electrochemistry and for electrocatalysis. Deposition of PIMs onto laser-drilled microholes in PET films enables ion conductivity studies that have revealed “ionic diode” effect. These ionic diodes have been proposed for applications in desalination and in sensing. Finally, mild carbonization of PIMs yield carbons without disrupting microporosity. This provides a new methodology for the development of functionalised conductive porous materials.
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      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.04.008
       
  • Durability challenges and perspective in the development of PGM-free
           electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction
    • Authors: Ulises Martinez; Siddharth Komini Babu; Edward F. Holby; Piotr Zelenay
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Ulises Martinez, Siddharth Komini Babu, Edward F. Holby, Piotr Zelenay
      Significant advancement in the development of highly active platinum group metal-free (PGM-free) electrocatalysts is giving rise to the possibility of a low-cost replacement for Pt electrocatalysts in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. However, before the successful implementation of PGM-free electrocatalysts, the challenge of long-term stability under fuel cell operating conditions needs to be addressed. In this opinion, the current status of PGM-free electrocatalyst performance and durability is reviewed. A perspective on the route for the study of degradation mechanisms in PGM-free electrocatalysts in both half-cell and membrane electrode assembly environments is presented. The analysis of proposed degradation mechanisms suggests classification into two relevant length scales: atomic scale and macro/mesoscale. Lastly, an overview of different characterization techniques (both experimental and theoretical) for studying different possible degradation mechanisms is outlined. Directly addressing the underlying mechanisms leading to loss of activity in PGM-free electrocatalysts will provide valuable insight necessary for the development of next-generation materials with improved durability capable of competing with Pt-based counterparts.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.04.010
       
  • Computer simulation studies of nanoporous carbon-based electrochemical
           capacitors
    • Authors: Zhujie Li; Trinidad Mendez-Morales; Mathieu Salanne
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Zhujie Li, Trinidad Mendez-Morales, Mathieu Salanne
      Among the various techniques that are used for understanding the operation of electrochemical energy storage devices, computer simulations are now playing a key role. In the case of electrochemical capacitors, the main driving force is the adsorption of ions at the surface of a nanoporous electrode, so that the most widespread simulation technique is molecular dynamics, which gives access to a microscopic picture. Here, we review the most recent advances in the elucidation of charging mechanisms for a wide range of electrode geometries, ranging from slit to amorphous nanopores. We also discuss the impact of surface functionalization, doping and oxidation on the performance of electrochemical devices as predicted using such computer simulation techniques. Finally, we provide a few perspectives on the difficulties that still need to be overcome for fully understanding the complex systems, which are used in electrochemical devices.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.04.007
       
  • Insight of electrolyte-free voltammetry at microelectrodes
    • Authors: Koichi Jeremiah Aoki; Jingyuan Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Koichi Jeremiah Aoki, Jingyuan Chen
      Electrode reactions without deliberately adding supporting electrolyte are complicated with electric migrations associated with redox reactions, formation of double layers and ion–ion interactions relevant to electrode reactions. The complications can be realized quantitatively through voltammetry at various sized microelectrodes, partly because of negligibly small solution resistance effects and partly because of steady-state voltammograms, which can be analyzed theoretically without capacitive time-dependent current. The present review deals with (i) techniques of fabrication of many sized microelectrodes, (ii) conditions of keeping low electrolyte concentrations, (iii) ionic contribution of forming double layers, (iv) participation in counter ions for electrode reactions and (v) change in ionic environment by redox reactions.
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      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.04.009
       
  • Searching for New Truths of Nature and Creating People-Serving Products
           Through Bio-electrochemistry: The Brain Interface
    • Authors: Adam Heller
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Adam Heller


      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.04.005
       
  • Is a major breakthrough in the oxygen electrocatalysis possible'
    • Authors: Aleksandar R. Zeradjanin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Aleksandar R. Zeradjanin
      As we are witnessing the renaissance of electrochemistry, particularly noticeable is emerging interest in the electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Today, general tendencies are intensive research activities in the material's science, what has been useful in the process of electrode design. However, papers offering in-depth conceptual understanding of electroctalytic processes are rare. One of the perpetual challenges in electrocatalysis is irreversibility of oxygen electrode. As complexity of oxygen electrochemistry requires comprehensive understanding of interfacial phenomena, within this critical review the boundaries of existing knowledge about the oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution are re-visited. Intention is to give diagnostics about the key challenges in oxygen electrocatalysis. Key conceptual contributions relevant to the electrochemistry of oxygen are reconsidered, as well as the core of the current theory of electrocatalysis. Finally, key questions are formulated and perspectives for future comprehensive analysis are given.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.04.006
       
  • All-solid-state potentiometric sensors: A new wave for in situ aquatic
           research
    • Authors: María Cuartero; Gastón A. Crespo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): María Cuartero, Gastón A. Crespo
      Over the last few years, all-solid-state potentiometric ion-selective sensors have demonstrated a huge potential for environmental water analysis. Beyond the excellent analytical performances exhibited in benchtop conditions for the detection of important targets (e.g. pH, species relevant to the carbon and nitrogen cycles, trace metals), the challenge now lies in bringing those sensors to in situ format and obtaining valuable chemical information directly in the field while minimizing or avoiding the need for sampling. Technically speaking, the instrumentation for potentiometric assessment is extremely simple, low cost and requires minimal space. In addition, the all-solid-state configuration seems ideal to fabricate miniaturized sensors with sufficient analytical performance to detect certain ions in water resources. Herein, we highlight the power of all-solid-state potentiometric sensors applied to environmental water analysis providing a threefold overview: (i) the recent materials used in the fabrication of all-solid-state polymeric membrane electrodes, both the solid contact and ion-selective membrane; (ii) a collection of the main targets explored during the last 5 years; and (iii) examples of the most recent and relevant in situ applications employing submersible equipment. Throughout the review, issues such as ‘What are the real implications of all-solid-state membrane electrodes in the environmental field?’ and ‘To what extent has the effort in developing new sensors over time been well-exploited?’ are addressed. Convincingly, all-solid-state potentiometric sensors are positioning as a unique in situ interface providing real-time data that allow for an understanding of ongoing biogeochemical processes and possible anthropogenic activities implications.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.04.004
       
  • Progress in all-organic rechargeable batteries using cationic and anionic
           configurations: Toward low-cost and greener storage solutions'
    • Authors: Philippe Poizot; Franck Dolhem; Joël Gaubicher
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Philippe Poizot, Franck Dolhem, Joël Gaubicher
      Our entry into the Fourth industrial revolution since the turn of the century is set to revolutionize our daily life notably with the blooming of digital technologies such as communications, artificial intelligence, technologies related to the Internet of Things, 3-D printing or nano/biotechnologies. It is however hoped this new paradigm shift will integrate sustainable development goals and actions to address the critical damage caused by the previous industrial revolutions especially the threat of global warming. We have to be particularly aware there remains the urgent need for cleaner energy technologies which calls for a radical change in the energy mix to favor renewable energy and environmentally responsible energy storage solutions. Organic materials should provide opportunities to further improve existing energy storage technologies while offering sustainable, versatile and potentially low-cost energy storage devices. This review seeks to provide an update on all-organic battery assemblies reported to date as well as some perspectives we can expect in the future notably for stationary applications.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.04.003
       
  • Metal organic frameworks as catalysts for oxygen reduction
    • Authors: Shmuel Gonen; Lior Elbaz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Shmuel Gonen, Lior Elbaz
      Non-precious metal catalysts for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells cathode are well studied for years in order to obtain commercial and durable fuel cell. First row transition metal complexes offer the most promising oxygen reduction reaction of this class. The attempts to increase the number of catalytic sites and surface area of catalysts lead to materials based on metal organic frameworks (MOFs). These highly organized inorganic materials show impressive catalysis when comparing other non-precious metal catalysts and platinum as well, especially in the case of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks derived materials. Currently, MOFs-based materials have very good opportunity to replace platinum and bring fuel cells technology to commercialization.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.03.035
       
  • New electrode materials and devices for thermoelectrochemical studies and
           applications
    • Authors: Gerd-Uwe Flechsig
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Gerd-Uwe Flechsig
      Heated electrodes have been introduced a few decades ago to perform thermoelectrochemical investigations in a very flexible manner. This review considers unusual materials and devices that have been introduced recently to create new heated and also actively cooled electrodes: carbon paste with ionic liquids as binder, carbon nanotubes, iridium, Hg films, Bi films, Bi–Au alloys, gold nanostructures, and indium-doped tin oxide. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) based on thermocouple tips, as well as SECM of heated electrode arrays, and hot-tip-SECM have been proposed to study surfaces. Thermo-responsive layers allow for rapid switching of heated electrode surfaces. Recent years have seen a broad variety of thermoelectrochemical studies enabled by actively heated and cooled electrodes based on new materials. Very quick temperature changes and very high energy efficiency are two very distinct advantages of directly heated electrodes over both isothermal electrochemical cells and indirectly heated electrodes that suffer from high heat capacity.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.04.002
       
  • Electrocatalytic oxygen reduction on transition metal macrocyclic
           complexes for anion exchange membrane fuel cell application
    • Authors: Kaido Tammeveski; José H. Zagal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Kaido Tammeveski, José H. Zagal
      This review discusses the electrocatalytic activity of MN4 macrocyclic complexes for the O2 reduction reaction. The main reactivity descriptors for these complexes, essentially the M(III)/(II) redox potential and the MO2 binding energies are considered. MNx pyrolysed catalysts are only discussed briefly as this will be covered in other articles of this issue. The performance of these catalysts in anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC) is thoroughly reviewed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.04.001
       
  • Pore-forming confined space for the innovative electrochemical methods
    • Authors: Kaipei Qiu; Xue-Yuan Wu; Jie Yang; Yi-Lun Ying; Yi-Tao Long
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Kaipei Qiu, Xue-Yuan Wu, Jie Yang, Yi-Lun Ying, Yi-Tao Long
      Pore-forming confined space, especially at nanoscale, creates a unique environment that is able to controllably and precisely influence the interaction between pores and analytes. Hence, nanopore-based methods offer the possibility to in-situ and operando characterize single particle or molecule at ultra-high temporal and spatial resolutions. This review is to highlight the latest research progress of a typical biological nanopore (aerolysin) as an example to demonstrate the capability of this technique, covering the direct use of wild-type aerolysin nanopores to detect and discriminate nucleotides of difference lengths or with various nucleobases, and the rational mutation of aerolysin nanopores to further enhance the sensitivity and selectivity. These progresses clearly demonstrate the great potential of nanopore or confined space approach in novel electrochemical sensing.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.03.037
       
  • Non-aqueous electrolytes for electrochemical capacitors
    • Authors: J. Krummacher; C. Schütter; L.H. Hess; A. Balducci
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): J. Krummacher, C. Schütter, L.H. Hess, A. Balducci
      This review supplies an overview about the most recent work which has been carried out toward the realization of innovative non-aqueous electrolytes for high energy electrochemical capacitors (EDLCs). The solvents, conducting salts and ionic liquids proposed in the past years are discussed, and their impact on the EDLC performance is critically analyzed. Furthermore, the actual status of the research dedicated to the identification, characterization and application of novel electrolytes is analyzed. The aim of this latter section is to supply indications about the most important aspects, which still need to be investigated in order to realize a novel generation of electrolytes suitable for the realization of high energy EDLCs.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.03.036
       
  • Approaching the self-consistency challenge of electrocatalysis with theory
           and computation
    • Authors: Mohammad Javad Eslamibidgoli; Michael H. Eikerling
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Mohammad Javad Eslamibidgoli, Michael H. Eikerling
      This opinion piece centers around challenges involved in developing first-principles electrochemical methods. In recent years, theory and computation have become indispensable tools to navigate the parameter space that controls the activity and stability of electrocatalytic materials and electrochemical devices. Viable methods process as input details on materials structure, composition and reaction conditions. Their output includes metrics for stability and activity, phase diagrams, as well as mechanistic insights on reaction mechanisms and pathways. The core challenge, connecting input to output, is a self-consistency problem that couples the electrode potential to variables for the electronic structure of the solid electrode, solvent properties and ion distributions in the electrolyte as well as specific properties of a boundary region in-between. We will discuss a theoretical framework and computational approaches that strive to accomplish this feat.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.03.038
       
  • Structure and activity of metal-centered coordination sites in pyrolyzed
           metal–nitrogen–carbon catalysts for the electrochemical reduction of
           O2
    • Authors: Jingkun Li; Frédéric Jaouen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Jingkun Li, Frédéric Jaouen
      Pyrolyzed metal–nitrogen–carbon (M–N–C) materials have become a mainstream research as inexpensive and sustainable catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in both acid and alkaline media for low and intermediate temperature fuel cells. Tremendous advancements in the initial activity and power performance of M–N–C catalysts and cathodes have been achieved, as driven by their possible application in e.g. automotive fuel cell stacks. Based on a selected number of recent studies, this review critically discusses the advancements, but also highlights the remaining scientific questions and technical issues important in this field. The nature of the active site(s) as well as their intrinsic activity toward ORR have been clarified in particular through the preparation of model catalysts comprising only MN x C y moieties. Recently developed methods hold promise to reliably enumerate the number of electrochemically accessible active sites in such materials, which would allow deconvoluting the activity into site density and turnover frequency.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.03.039
       
  • Stability and dissolution of electrocatalysts: Building the bridge between
           model and “real world” systems
    • Authors: Serhiy Cherevko
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Serhiy Cherevko
      This review gives a snapshot of the current state of the electrocatalyst stability research. The accent is put on the dissolution of the state-of-the-art oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) Pt- and Ir- or Ru-based catalysts, respectively. Two important aspects at the cutting edge of the ORR and OER catalyst stability research, viz. stability of the catalyst layers containing very small loadings of Pt and Ir/Ru and the question of the conformity of the model dissolution studies with degradation of the “real world” catalyst layers are highlighted. It is shown that in both systems catalyst degradation accelerates with decrease in catalyst loading. Situation is more complex though, when model and real systems are contrasted. Thus, while dissolution of Pt is comparable, no convincing comparison for Ir/Ru can be provided yet. The potential near future research directions are emphasized throughout the text.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.03.034
       
  • Engineering exoelectrogens by synthetic biology strategies
    • Authors: Feng Li; Lei Wang; Chenguang Liu; Deguang Wu; Hao Song
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Feng Li, Lei Wang, Chenguang Liu, Deguang Wu, Hao Song
      Highly efficient extracellular electron transfer (EET) of electroactive bacteria is essential for economically viability of a diverse array of bioelectrochemical systems (BES) in environmental and energy fields. However, the EET efficiency of exoelectrogens remained a primary bottleneck. Synthetic biology is a research field that combines the investigative nature of biology with the constructive nature of engineering, which offers great prospects in rationally engineering to facilitate highly efficient EET of electroactive cells. In this review, we firstly summarized the recent advances in synthetic biology strategies to enhance the EET efficiency of exoelectrogens, which included broadening feedstock spectrum, strengthening intracellular electron generation, optimizing conductive cytochromes systems, promoting biosynthesis and secretion of electron shuttles, and constructing conductive biofilms. Genetic technologies in engineering exoelectrogens, in particular the genomic editing tools, were then reviewed. Lastly, a number of fundamental questions to be addressed in this field were proposed as a perspective for further boosting the EET efficiency and practical applications of BES systems.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.03.030
       
  • Toward high lithium conduction in solid polymer and polymer–ceramic
           batteries
    • Authors: Basile Commarieu; Andrea Paolella; Jean-Christophe Daigle; Karim Zaghib
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Basile Commarieu, Andrea Paolella, Jean-Christophe Daigle, Karim Zaghib
      High-energy-density batteries use lithium electrodes because they provide the highest theoretical capacity and widest electrochemical potential window of all the possible anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. However, adoption of metallic lithium leads to safety problems and low cycling performance due to the reactivity of lithium with standard liquid electrolytes (LEs). Solid electrolytes (SEs) are a promising solution to replace LEs due to their high thermal and chemical stability. They also possess numerous other advantages such as light-weight, flexibility, low-cost and a high operating window voltage. The aim of this review is to present a summary of recent advances in polymer and inorganic SEs for all-solid lithium metal batteries (LMBs). We will discuss the replacement of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and the crucial parameters for achieving a suitable combination of polymer matrix with inorganic ceramic fillers to obtain viable SE composites for high-voltage and high-capacity cell.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.03.033
       
  • Is the Li–S battery an everlasting challenge for operando
           techniques'
    • Authors: J. Conder; C. Villevieille
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): J. Conder, C. Villevieille
      The promise of high-energy density and the predicted role of the Li–S batteries in electrochemical energy storage applications are largely based on sulfur's high theoretical specific charge. Unfortunately, to date the commercialization of Li–S battery is still hindered due to the complexity of the reaction mechanism involving a sequence of dynamically changing liquid and solid equilibria. Operando techniques have been widely employed to study these performance-limiting phase transformations; however, they often fall short in tracking and resolving simultaneously the solid and liquid phases. Here, we present a review summarizing the last efforts in the field.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.03.029
       
  • Non-aqueous potassium-ion batteries: a review
    • Authors: Christoph Vaalma; Daniel Buchholz; Stefano Passerini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Christoph Vaalma, Daniel Buchholz, Stefano Passerini
      Potassium-ion batteries using non-aqueous electrolyte currently face fast growing interest since they hold the promise of combining the advantageous properties of lithium- and sodium-ion batteries without having the individual drawbacks. In this review, recent studies are analyzed and the main material classes as well as novel research strategies are discussed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.03.031
       
  • Solvation-controlled ester-based concentrated electrolyte solutions for
           high-voltage lithium-ion batteries
    • Authors: Takayuki Doi; Michihiro Hashinokuchi; Minoru Inaba
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Takayuki Doi, Michihiro Hashinokuchi, Minoru Inaba
      Highly concentrated electrolyte solutions exhibit high stability against oxidation, and hence have a high potential for the high voltage operation of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, they are highly viscous and very costly due to an extensive use of lithium salts. These problems were solved by diluting the highly concentrated electrolyte solutions with a diluent that has a low donor number, a high miscibility, and a high stability against oxidation. The resultant electrolyte solutions suppressed the degradation of 5 V-class LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 positive-electrodes upon repeated charge/discharge cycling, and extended the reversible capacity of LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 electrodes to ca. 200 mAh g−1 by charging to a high voltage of 4.6 V.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.03.032
       
  • Electronic structure calculations on electrolyte–electrode interfaces:
           Successes and limitations
    • Authors: Ryosuke Jinnouchi; Kensaku Kodama; Yu Morimoto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Ryosuke Jinnouchi, Kensaku Kodama, Yu Morimoto
      Density functional theory calculations on electrolyte–electrode interfaces are briefly reviewed in this article. The calculation methods are roughly categorized into two types: calculations on electrically neutral surfaces and electrified surfaces. The former methods have been successfully applied to reproduce observed trends in catalytic activities and to design new materials. The methods, however, cannot evaluate any electrochemical properties originated from surface electrifications. By this reason, several theoretical methods on electrified interfaces have been proposed. The methods can provide properties originated from charge transfers, such as electrosorption valency values, symmetry factors and potential-dependent spectroscopies, within self-consistent manners. Many limitations, however, still exist, and further studies are necessary particularly on effects of dynamical atomic motions on free energies.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.03.024
       
  • Graphene-based bioelectrochemistry and bioelectronics: A concept for the
           future'
    • Authors: Sabine Szunerits; Rabah Boukherroub
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Sabine Szunerits, Rabah Boukherroub
      Situated at the interface of materials science, chemistry and the life sciences, graphene- based electronics and electrochemistry offer a broad palette of opportunities for researchers and clinicians for targeted theranostics as outlined in this article.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.03.028
       
  • Electrochemistry of surface-confined enzymes: Inspiration, insight and
           opportunity for sustainable biotechnology
    • Authors: Leon P. Jenner; Julea N. Butt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Leon P. Jenner, Julea N. Butt
      Redox enzymes can generate electricity from sunlight and produce valuable chemicals, including fuels, from low-value materials. When an electrode takes the role of an enzyme's natural redox partner, these properties inspire creative approaches to generate renewable resources. Enzymatic fuel cells produce electricity, enzyme electrosynthesis drives chemical transformations and biophotovoltaics harness solar energy. Underpinning rational development of these applications, time-dependent currents resolved by dynamic electrochemistry provide quantitative insight into the determinants of enzyme activity. This article reviews popular and emerging routes to sequester, study and exploit redox enzymes on two- and three-dimensional electrode materials. Studies are highlighted that draw on synergies of these different aspects of enzyme electrochemistry.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.03.021
       
  • Unfolding the versatile potential of EC-TERS for electrocatalysis
    • Authors: Jonas H.K. Pfisterer; Katrin F. Domke
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Jonas H.K. Pfisterer, Katrin F. Domke
      The rational design of electrocatalysts demands the in situ experimental identification of specific surface sites that are most active toward certain electrochemical reactions. Therefore, surface-sensitive techniques with high chemical specificity and the ability to resolve nanoscale features are required. Even more challenging is the requirement to operate in aqueous electrolytes under potential control. Electrochemical tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (EC-TERS) smartly comprises these prerequisites. To date, EC-TERS has been used to study the potential-dependent protonation/deprotonation, reorientation and redox reactions of self-assembled monolayers in contact with aqueous electrolytes. This review article highlights the pioneering work of EC-TERS and discusses the enormous potential that this spectro-electrochemical tool entails for the field of electrocatalysis.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.03.023
       
  • Does the breaking of adsorption-energy scaling relations guarantee
           enhanced electrocatalysis'
    • Authors: Nitish Govindarajan; Juan M. García-Lastra; Evert Jan Meijer; Federico Calle-Vallejo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Nitish Govindarajan, Juan M. García-Lastra, Evert Jan Meijer, Federico Calle-Vallejo
      The adsorption energies of numerous species on homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts scale linearly with each other. Such linear dependence lowers the degrees of freedom in multistep reactions, greatly simplifying computational electrocatalysis models. The downside of scaling relations is that they limit the efficiency of electrocatalytic reactions. For instance, the scaling relation between *OOH vs *OH supposedly limits the oxygen evolution and reduction reactions (OER, ORR): while the energetic separation of these intermediates should ideally be 2.46 eV, on most catalysts it is ∼3.20 eV. Thus, it is currently assumed that breaking such scaling relation might lead to significant enhancement of OER/ORR electrocatalysis. In this review, we evaluate this hypothesis using literature data. The analysis suggests that breaking the *OOH vs *OH scaling relation is a necessary yet insufficient condition to optimize OER/ORR electrocatalysts. Alternatively, we define a new descriptor: the electrochemical-step symmetry index (ESSI), the optimization of which effectively corresponds to low calculated overpotentials.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.03.025
       
  • Prospects for single-site interrogation using in situ multimodal
           electrochemical scanning probe techniques
    • Authors: Noah B. Schorr; Zachary T. Gossage; Joaquín Rodríguez-López
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Noah B. Schorr, Zachary T. Gossage, Joaquín Rodríguez-López
      New multimodal methodologies are required to ascertain detailed information that correlates spatially resolved electrochemical reactivity with composition and structural motifs. This strategy will allow a comprehensive understanding of single reacting sites and single entities within bulk electrodes. Electrochemical scanning probe microscopies (EC-SPM), with the inherent ability to resolve site-specific electrochemical heterogeneities, are the perfect platform to couple with techniques capable of resolving composition and structural information. Here we highlight the advantages of multimodal experiments, recent progress, and prospects toward pairing EC-SPMs simultaneously with vibrational spectroscopies, mass spectrometry and X-ray methods.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.03.022
       
  • Nanoparticle impacts in innovative electrochemistry
    • Authors: Laura K. Allerston; Neil V. Rees
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 March 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
      Author(s): Laura K. Allerston, Neil V. Rees
      Recent developments in the use of nanoimpacts as an investigative electrochemical technique are discussed. Highlights include literature on the imaging of nanoimpacts themselves and developments in the application of nanoimpacts such as, surface analysis of single particles including surface coverage and sizing. Also included are factors to consider which may affect the outcome of nanoimpact experiments.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T05:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.03.020
       
 
 
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