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Journal Cover Bioresource Technology Reports
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Online) 2589-014X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Utilization of glycerol by Bacillus sp. ISTVK1 for production and
           characterization of Polyhydroxyvalerate
    • Authors: Raj Morya; Manish Kumar; Indu Shekhar Thakur
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 2
      Author(s): Raj Morya, Manish Kumar, Indu Shekhar Thakur
      Plastic due to its light weight and low cost is a first choice for daily use product, which now can be replaced by Bioplastics. The current study demonstrates the screening of a previously reported thermotolerant bacterium strain Bacillus sp. ISTVK1 isolated from wastewater treatment plant for production of PHA by utilizing pure glycerol as carbon source. Primary screening of the selected bacterium strain was performed by Nile red staining and afterward visualization under a fluorescence microscope. Nile red fluorescence measurement of bacterial culture was also investigated based on absorbance of spectrofluorometer. GC–MS, 1H NMR, TEM, and FT-IR analysis revealed that the produced material is PHV, which is co-polymer of PHB. Optimization of process parameters was performed to enhance the production of PHA. A substantial increase in PHA production from 1.29g/L to 4.44g/L (85.19% of CDW) was observed after optimization of process parameters, shows the importance of optimization.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-13T11:19:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2018)
  • Influence of ferrous iron dosing strategy on aerobic granulation of
           activated sludge and bioavailability of phosphorus accumulated in granules
    • Authors: Wei Cai; Meishan Jin; Ziwen Zhao; Zhongfang Lei; Zhenya Zhang; Yasuhisa Adachi; Duu-Jong Lee
      Pages: 7 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 2
      Author(s): Wei Cai, Meishan Jin, Ziwen Zhao, Zhongfang Lei, Zhenya Zhang, Yasuhisa Adachi, Duu-Jong Lee
      Two different Fe2+ dosing strategies (with the same daily Fe2+ dosage of 19.5mg/d), i.e. constant (R1 with fixed 5mgFe/L in influent) and pulse dosing (R2 with 30mgFe/L in influent only during the first cycle every day) were tested in two identical reactors and their comparison was conducted on granule formation, stability and performance on pollutants removal and P accumulation. Results showed that granules appeared earlier and relatively smaller in R2 (day 9), while biomass increased faster in R1. Relatively high and stable P removal could be achieved, averagely 92% in R1 and 81% in R2. The granules in R1 accumulated more P (45.6mg/g-SS) with higher bioavailability (95%) after 48days' operation, especially with high non-apatite inorganic P content (36.2mg/g-SS). This work also suggests that Fe2+ dosing strategy can be applied in conventional activated sludge processes when high bioavailable P recovery is targeted.

      PubDate: 2018-04-13T11:19:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2018)
  • Optimization of Chlorella sorokiniana cultivation condition for
           simultaneous enhanced biomass and lipid production via CO2 fixation
    • Authors: Meilian Xie; Yiting Qiu; Chunfeng Song; Yun Qi; Yang Li; Yutaka Kitamura
      Pages: 15 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 2
      Author(s): Meilian Xie, Yiting Qiu, Chunfeng Song, Yun Qi, Yang Li, Yutaka Kitamura
      In this work, the cultivation condition of Chlorella sorokiniana was investigated to optimize biomass and lipid production. The influence of initial biomass content, nitrogen sources and concentration, phosphorus concentration, pH and CO2 concentration was tested. The experimental results indicated that 1.0g/L glycine could be a suitable nitrogen source for Chlorella sorokiniana. Meanwhile, KH2PO4 with the concentration of 11.4mg/L at the pH of 9 was preferable phosphorus source for biomass and lipid accumulation. The maximum lipid concentration and content could achieve 173.73mg/L and 44.1%. When CO2 was added as inorganic carbon source with the gas flow rate of 6sccm, the maximum biomass concentration was 1.0g/L on the fourth day.

      PubDate: 2018-04-13T11:19:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2018)
  • Microbiology community changes during the start-up and operation of a
           photosynthetic bacteria-membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment
    • Authors: Meng Peng; Anqi Yang; Yang Chen; Guangming Zhang; Fan Meng; Xu Ma; Yuanyuan Li
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 1
      Author(s): Meng Peng, Anqi Yang, Yang Chen, Guangming Zhang, Fan Meng, Xu Ma, Yuanyuan Li
      A pilot-scale photosynthetic bacteria-membrane bioreactor was applied to treat wastewater and culture photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) cells, and microbial communities at different stages were analyzed to reveal the underlying roles of efficient long-time operation of this reactor. After 40days start-up, the reactor was successfully operated for 180days. The results showed that the PSB-membrane bioreactor operated stably, with high COD and NH3-N removal efficiency of 95%. The PSB biomass could maintain a high cell concentration with a 10% harvest each day. Analysis of the microbial community showed that bacterial communities changed dramatically at different stages. The dominant bacteria were Ectothiorhodospira in the beginning to Caenispirillum and Pannonibacter during the stable operation. The Shannon index from 1.876 dropped to 1.477 after 6months. The diversity of PSB community decreased during the process. It revealed that the microbial community on the membrane was more diverse than that inside the bioreactor.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 1 (2018)
  • Desorption trials and granular stability of chromium loaded aerobic
           granular sludge from synthetic domestic wastewater treatment
    • Authors: Kaifei Chen; Ziwen Zhao; Xiaojing Yang; Zhongfang Lei; Zhenya Zhang; Shicheng Zhang
      Pages: 9 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 1
      Author(s): Kaifei Chen, Ziwen Zhao, Xiaojing Yang, Zhongfang Lei, Zhenya Zhang, Shicheng Zhang
      This study investigated Cr (VI) adsorption from aqueous solution onto aerobic granular sludge (AGS) and then its desorption to recover Cr and regenerate AGS. AGS adsorption was conducted using batch experiments. Alkaline (CH3COONa, NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and Na2CO3 containing Na2HPO4 or KCl) and HCl solutions were attempted to desorb Cr (VI) and Cr (III), respectively. Their effects on microbial activity and granular stability were also explored. 0.5M NaHCO3 was found to be the best desorption agent with desorption ratios of 62% for Cr (VI) and 10% for Cr (III). 0.1M HCl could further desorb the remaining Cr (III), resulting in totally 81% of desorption ratio. Adsorption under acidic conditions decreased microbial activity, while desorption using alkaline solutions negatively affected granular stability to some extent, most probably attributable to cations release from AGS. These results for the first time suggest the possibility of Cr-loaded AGS regeneration by weak alkaline solutions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 1 (2018)
  • Brewers' spent grains: Drying kinetics and biodiesel production
    • Authors: Elliot Mallen; Vesna Najdanovic-Visak
      Pages: 16 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 1
      Author(s): Elliot Mallen, Vesna Najdanovic-Visak
      Enormous amounts of brewers' spent grains (BSGs) per year are generated to produce bear worldwide. BSGs can be used as a carbon source, biofuel to generate energy and as a source of biogas. Typically, BSGs contain >60mass% of water and, therefore, drying kinetics is a paramount for the development of any of these valorisation processes. In this work, we reveal the main parameters and mechanism of drying kinetics of BSGs at isothermal conditions (60°C–90°C), measured by thermogravimetric analysis. Diffusion coefficients ranged from 1.42×10−9 m2 s−1 to 2.67×10−9 m2 s−1 while the activation energy was 26.6kJmol−1. Furthermore, for the first time, biodiesel production from BSGs is reported. We employed acid catalysed in situ transesterification process, at different catalyst concentrations, methanol to BSGs ratios, reaction time and temperature. The outcomes of our study show promise for alternative valorisation of brewers' spent grains, an abundant waste spread around the world.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 1 (2018)
  • Evaluation of the potentials and feasibility of microalgae production in
    • Authors: Alireza Aslani; Mohammad Mohammadi; Maria Jose Ibañez Gonzalez; Tania Mazzuca Sobczuk; Mohsen Nazari; Asieh Bakhtiar
      Pages: 24 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 1
      Author(s): Alireza Aslani, Mohammad Mohammadi, Maria Jose Ibañez Gonzalez, Tania Mazzuca Sobczuk, Mohsen Nazari, Asieh Bakhtiar
      Supplying affordable, acceptable, and adequate sources of energy is one of the most important concerns of the communities. Due to the unbalanced distribution of fossil fuels, as well as their environmental effects, the utilization of renewable energies sources has been one of the main strategies. Due to the importance of transportation for societies, biofuels technologies is important part of researches, in particular algae. Algae are a type of single or multi-cellular organisms that are multiplying rapidly, and have photosynthesis-based growth and evolution. In this paper, after classifying and determining the main factors affecting the production of liquid fuels from microalgae, the feasibility and the best regions for production are discussed in the case study, Iran. The analysis method is multi criteria decision making in order to rank the best locations for microalgae growing. The results show that Iran has a high potential for microalgae utilization and the coastlines of Oman Sea and the Persian Gulf are the best regions for large-scale algae cultivation and processing projects.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 1 (2018)
  • Bioremoval of nutrients from wastewater by a denitrifier Paracoccus
           denitrificans ISTOD1
    • Authors: Kristina Medhi; Indu Shekhar Thakur
      Pages: 56 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 1
      Author(s): Kristina Medhi, Indu Shekhar Thakur
      The introduction of plant nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus in water bodies cause a natural ageing process called eutrophication. In the present study, 71.9% NO3 −N and 93% ortho-P removal was achieved within 72h by an aerobic denitrifier P.denitrificans ISTOD1, suggesting the strain as a potential denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organism (DPAO). To make wastewater treatment cost-effective, different concentration of molasses were optimized for maximum EPS production. Application of strain ISTOD1 in real wastewater samples with 5% molasses resulted in NH4 +-N, NO2 −N, NO3 −N, TN, COD and TP removal efficiencies of 99.6%, 79.2%, 83.8%, 97.3%, 84.2% and 100%. Moreover, 1.9g/L EPS production was also observed between late exponential- stationary phase. Assessment on wastewater demonstrated the capability of ISTOD1 in overall nutrient removal along with EPS production. Bioflocculation efficiency of the domestic wastewater produced EPS makes the strain an efficient candidate for enhanced wastewater remediation.

      PubDate: 2018-03-13T07:15:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 1 (2018)
  • Triggering of fatty acids on Tetraselmis sp. by ethyl methanesulfonate
           mutagenic treatment
    • Authors: S. Dinesh Kumar; Kang Sojin; P. Santhanam; B. Dhanalakshmi; S. Latha; Min S. Park; Mi-Kyung Kim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): S. Dinesh Kumar, Kang Sojin, P. Santhanam, B. Dhanalakshmi, S. Latha, Min S. Park, Mi-Kyung Kim
      The present study aimed to triggering of growth, lipid and fatty acids production of oceanic microalgae Tetraselmis sp. for biofuel production under mutagenic treatment with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). The maximum optical density (0.51 ± 0.02), cells concentration (138 ± 6.9 × 104 cells mL−1), biomass (0.63 ± 0.03 g L−1), chlorophyll ‘a’ (3.91 ± 0.19 mg L−1) were found in DKMK06 in first generation which was treated with EMS at 50 μmol mL−1 for 60 min. DKMK06 was exhibited the highest lipid productivity (48 ± 0.9%) during first generation and DKMK05 during second and third generations and percentages of lipid were 46.5 ± 1.1 and 41 ± 1.1%. The same trend has been observed in FAME contents and highest saturated and mono unsaturated fatty acid combinations were found in DKMK05 in 2nd generation (42.49%) followed by third generation (41.5%) which were higher than the first generation produced by DKMK06 (39.98%).

      PubDate: 2018-04-13T11:19:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.04.001
  • Experimental validation of biochar based green Bronsted acid catalysts for
           simultaneous esterification and transesterification in biodiesel
    • Authors: Suchith Chellappan; Vaishakh Nair; Sajith V; Aparna K
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Suchith Chellappan, Vaishakh Nair, Sajith V, Aparna K
      In this study, a variety of novel biochar based Bronsted acid catalysts were prepared from low cost potential feedstocks viz., cassava peel, irul sawdust, coconut shell and their catalytic activity for biodiesel production were compared. The optimization studies of biochar generation were carried out based on the influence of pyrolysis temperature and heating duration, for the preparation of acid catalyst with superior activity. The elemental analysis, surface functional groups, thermal stability, crystallographic structure, surface morphology and pore size distribution of all biochars and its sulfonated catalysts were characterized thoroughly. The performance of the sulfonated biochar catalysts for the synthesis of biodiesel from Derris indica L. seed oil was evaluated and compared. The cassava peel biochar based catalyst with a total acid density of 2.9 mmol/g and sulfonic acid group density of 1.7 mmol/g showed the best result among the sulfonated biochar catalysts for the enhanced biodiesel production.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-13T11:19:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.04.002
  • Systematic investigation of anode materials for microbial fuel cells with
           the model organism G. sulfurreducens
    • Authors: Elena Kipf; Johannes Erben; Roland Zengerle; Johannes Gescher; Sven Kerzenmacher
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Elena Kipf, Johannes Erben, Roland Zengerle, Johannes Gescher, Sven Kerzenmacher
      Different carbon and metal-based anode materials for microbial fuel cells were systematically investigated with a pure culture of the model organism G. sulfurreducens. The highest limiting current density of 756 ± 15 μA cm−2 at −0.253 ± 0.037 V vs. SCE was achieved with graphite foil using a step-wise galvanostatic technique. But also the application of completely different anode materials such as activated carbon cloth, stainless steel and graphite felt led to similar high limiting current densities, suggesting that G. sulfurreducens is able to use a large range of substantially different anode materials as external electron acceptor. Additionally, we could show that a step-wise galvanostatic technique to record polarization curves yields similar current densities as potentiostatic control at −0.400 V vs. SCE with the investigated carbon-based materials. In case of stainless steel these techniques yield slightly different results, presumably due to an effect related to the material's surface properties.

      PubDate: 2018-04-13T11:19:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.03.005
  • Editorial for bioresource technology reports
    • Authors: Duu-Jong Lee; Wehshan Guo; Deepak Pant; Reeta Rani Singhania
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Duu-Jong Lee, Wehshan Guo, Deepak Pant, Reeta Rani Singhania

      PubDate: 2018-04-13T11:19:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.03.003
  • A review on management of Hydrilla verticillata and its utilization as
           potential nitrogen-rich biomass for compost or biogas production
    • Authors: Mayur Shirish Jain; Ajay S. Kalamdhad
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Mayur Shirish Jain, Ajay S. Kalamdhad
      Hydrilla verticillata, an invasive aquatic weed is found to be a complex worldwide. Chemical and biological treatments can be applied for its growth retardation, but it may affect the quality of water, ultimately affecting aquatic lives. Previously reported studies proposed that the H. verticillata can be managed and utilized using advanced techniques that changed the approach towards it from nuisance to useful resource. It has been proved to be protein-rich and hence can be used as fodder for cattle. Exploring the feasibility of H. verticillata has become prime importance in any of the application of it. However, there is a need to research on large-scale management and utilization of H. verticillata to benefit the agriculture field. This paper provides a summary of growth, harvest and recent development for the management and use of H. verticillata. Based on the present scenario, possible forthcomings are discussed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-13T07:15:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.03.001
  • A two-stage biological gas to liquid transfer process to convert carbon
           dioxide into bioplastic
    • Authors: Israa Al Rowaihi; Benjamin Kick; Stefan W. Grötzinger; Christian Burger; Ram Karan; Dirk Weuster-Botz; Jörg Eppinger; Stefan T. Arold
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Israa Al Rowaihi, Benjamin Kick, Stefan W. Grötzinger, Christian Burger, Ram Karan, Dirk Weuster-Botz, Jörg Eppinger, Stefan T. Arold
      The fermentation of carbon dioxide (CO2) with hydrogen (H2) uses available low-cost gases to synthesis acetic acid. Here, we present a two-stage bio logical process that allows the g as t o l iquid transfer (Bio-GTL) of CO2 into the biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Using the same medium in both stages, first, acetic acid is produced (3.2 g L−1) by Acetobacterium woodii from 5.2 L gas-mixture of CO2:H2 (15:85 v/v) under elevated pressure (≥2.0 bar) to increase H2-solubility in water. Second, acetic acid is converted to PHB (3 g L−1 acetate into 0.5 g L−1 PHB) by Ralstonia eutropha H16. The efficiencies and space-time yields were evaluated, and our data show the conversion of CO2 into PHB with a 33.3% microbial cell content (percentage of the ratio of PHB concentration to cell concentration) after 217 h. Collectively, our results provide a resourceful platform for future optimization and commercialization of a Bio-GTL for PHB production.

      PubDate: 2018-03-13T07:15:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.02.007
  • NiO and CoO nanoparticles mediated biological hydrogen production: Effect
           of Ni/Co oxide NPs-ratio
    • Authors: Puranjan Mishra; Lakhveer Singh; M. Amirul Islam; Mohd Nasrullah; A.M. Mimi Sakinah; Zularisam Ab Wahid
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Puranjan Mishra, Lakhveer Singh, M. Amirul Islam, Mohd Nasrullah, A.M. Mimi Sakinah, Zularisam Ab Wahid
      The impact of nickel and cobalt oxide nanoparticles (NPs) additive to palm oil mill effluent (POME) on hydrogen production was investigated using different Ni/Co oxide NPs-ratio. The Ni/Co oxide NPs-ratio of 1:0, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3 and 0:1 was added in batch mode operation. Experimental results suggested the H2 production dependency on the Ni/Co oxide NPs-ratio. The Ni/Co oxide NPs-ratio of 3:1 had better performance with the cumulative H2 and H2 production rate of 2844 ml H2 and 45 ml H2/h, respectively. This increased by ~37% and ~14, respectively in compared with the controlled one. The maximum CODremoval efficiency of 74% was observed at 3:1, which accounted for ~45% increment. These results suggested the improved performance of Bio-H2 can be fulfilled by additive of proper Ni/Co oxide NPs-ratio to the POME.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.02.004
  • Winterization studies of different vegetable oil biodiesel
    • Authors: Sandhya K. Vijayan; Mary NaveenaVictor; Abinandan Sudharsanam; Velappan Kandukalpatti Chinnaraj; Nagarajan Vedaraman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Sandhya K. Vijayan, Mary NaveenaVictor, Abinandan Sudharsanam, Velappan Kandukalpatti Chinnaraj, Nagarajan Vedaraman
      At low temperature, the presence of oleaginous compound with fatty acids bound to crystallize and cause operability problems with compression engines. In this present investigation, seven different fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) biodiesel from vegetable oils (such as sunflower, coconut, jatropha, rice bran, palm, neem and mahua) were prepared by transesterification and were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). Winterization of these synthesized biodiesel were carried out to find their usability at low temperatures (0 °C–20 °C) and the crystals formed were separated. Further, the differential scanning colorimetry (DSC) was employed to identify the onset of melting point of the biodiesel from vegetable oils. The results showed that crystal formation was observed for various biodiesel except sunflower oil that recorded no crystal formation with minimum temperature of 0 °C. These findings suggest that biodiesel synthesized from sunflower can be used as such at low temperatures compared to the other synthesized biodiesel from vegetable oil.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.02.005
  • Benchmark study of photosynthetic bacteria bio-conversion of wastewater:
           Carbon source range, fundamental kinetics of substrate degradation and
           cell proliferation
    • Authors: Fan Meng; Anqi Yang; Guangming Zhang; Panyue Zhang; Jie Ye
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Fan Meng, Anqi Yang, Guangming Zhang, Panyue Zhang, Jie Ye
      Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB)-bioconversion is a novel method for wastewater treatment and resource recovery. But fundamental knowledge on effective substrate range, cell proliferation and substrate degradation kinetics are lacking. This paper studied the efficient range of carbon source (in terms of COD) and the fundamental kinetics of COD degradation and cell proliferation of this technology. Results showed that the efficient concentration range of carbon source was 500–40,000 mg·L−1 COD for PSB, which covers most organic wastewaters. Then the substrate degradation and cell proliferation kinetics were studied using Michaelis-Menten equation and Monod equation. The V max, Km, μmax and Ks was 4.80 d−1, 7382 mg·L−1, 1.23 d−1 and 7714 mg·L−1 under light-anaerobic condition, and they were 4.27 d−1, 4813 mg·L−1, 0.59 d−1 and 21,295 mg·L−1 under dark-aerobic condition; which fell in the range of conventional biological wastewater technologies. This benchmark study lays foundation for further study and scale-up of this novel technology.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.02.003
  • A novel way of assessing C dynamics during urban organic waste composting
           and greenhouse gas emissions in tropical region
    • Authors: R.F. Pereira; E.J.B.N. Cardoso; F.C. Oliveira; G.A. Estrada-Bonilla; C.E.P. Cerri
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): R.F. Pereira, E.J.B.N. Cardoso, F.C. Oliveira, G.A. Estrada-Bonilla, C.E.P. Cerri
      Composting process is considered one of the main sustainable methods for treatment of the organic waste from urban centers. Our study aimed to evaluate the decomposing dynamics and the environmental conditions during urban waste composting measuring the temperature, pH and microbial activity. We also decided to follow the carbon and nitrogen dynamics by physical fractionation and determined greenhouse gas emissions. During composting, C accumulation in the heavy fraction indicated that a great and intimate association of C with minerals had occurred in the pile together with microbial or chemical decomposition. This is a novel way to determine how great amounts of OM are maintained in the mature compost and its structure, including the main reason for the great stabilization of the organic matter during the composting process. The emissions analysis showed methane as the most environmentally impacting greenhouse gas during urban waste composting.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.02.002
  • Co-gasification of empty fruit bunch in a downdraft reactor: A pilot scale
    • Authors: Minhaj Uddin Monir; Azrina Abd Aziz; Risky Ayu Kristanti; Abu Yousuf
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Minhaj Uddin Monir, Azrina Abd Aziz, Risky Ayu Kristanti, Abu Yousuf
      Biomass gasification shows great potential to displace fossil fuels. This paper states the steady state simulation for the gasification of palm oil empty fruit brunch (EFB) in pilot plant downdraft reactor and modelled using Aspen Plus®. The biomass was characterized to evaluate the degree of feedstock's structural order. The effect of reactor temperature and pressure on syngas production of downdraft gasification of EFB at the constant steam flow rate of 186.37 mol/h were investigated. The results revealed the concentration of hydrogen and CO increased from 12 to 17.5 mol% and 55–60.6 mol% respectively, but the CO2 concentration decreased from 30 to 19.4 mol% with increasing temperature (875–975 °C) and pressure (25–35 bar). The results indicated that the product gas from co-gasification with charcoal has higher H2 and CO concentrations in comparison with the EFB gasification. Therefore, co-gasification of the feedstock has a significant potential to overcome the problem of disrupted feedstock supply in gasification.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.02.001
  • Extraction of arabinoxylan from corn cob through modified alkaline
           protocol to improve xylooligosaccharides synthesis
    • Authors: Pranati Kundu; Sandeep Kumar; Vivek Ahluwalia; Sushil Kumar Kansal; Sasikumar Elumalai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Pranati Kundu, Sandeep Kumar, Vivek Ahluwalia, Sushil Kumar Kansal, Sasikumar Elumalai
      A modified alkaline protocol involving a combination of NaOH and NH4OH was employed for the isolation of hemicellulose from corncob. During the extraction of hemicellulose, alkaline reagents promoted selective cleavage of ester and ether linkages in corncob biomass. It was possible to obtain a hemicellulose fraction consisted of considerable branching constituents (arabinose and uronic acid, and low lignin). Based on modeling analysis, reaction parameters such as alkali concentration and temperature significantly influenced the amount of total hemicellulose extracted. Subsequent hydrolysis of isolated hemicellulose in the presence of H2SO4 resulted in better conversion (69 wt%) with enriched XOs conc. (73.68% with DP up to 4) than other fractions under milder conditions. Advantageously, gas phase NH3 formation was achieved during the reaction, where NaOH and NH4OH mix was used at an equal ratio that could significantly help in reducing the overall processing cost of XOs production (through recycling and reuse) during large-scale manufacture.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.01.007
  • Use of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria enriched from sewage sludge to
           biologically remove H2S from biogas at an industrial-scale biogas plant
    • Authors: Yanfei Cheng; Tian Yuan; Yang Deng; Cong Lin; Jianhua Zhou; Zhongfang Lei; Kazuya Shimizu; Zhenya Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Yanfei Cheng, Tian Yuan, Yang Deng, Cong Lin, Jianhua Zhou, Zhongfang Lei, Kazuya Shimizu, Zhenya Zhang
      Anaerobic digestion has been widely used for organic waste and wastewater treatment to produce renewable energy, especially biogas. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) being harmful to human beings and the environment is one of the highly toxic compounds in the biogas. For the sake of health and safety, removal of H2S from biogas is necessary before further utilization. In this study, sewage sludge was used to enrich sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) quickly under weak alkaline condition (pH = 7.5–8.2) in the laboratory and then applied in an industrial-scale desulfurization system. The SOB was successfully enriched in the system within 10 days by addition of Na2S. The optimal dissolved oxygen (DO) for producing elemental surfer (S0) in the regeneration tank was 0.8–1.2 mg/L. The performance shows that the outlet H2S concentration could be reduced to the safety limit of 200 ppm after 2 months' operation, achieving a stable H2S removal up to 95%.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.01.006
  • Review of trends in biogas upgradation technologies and future
    • Authors: Shivali Sahota; Goldy Shah Pooja Ghosh Rimika Kapoor Subhanjan Sengupta
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Shivali Sahota, Goldy Shah, Pooja Ghosh, Rimika Kapoor, Subhanjan Sengupta, Priyanka Singh, Vandit Vijay, Arunaditya Sahay, Virendra Kumar Vijay, Indu Shekhar Thakur
      Biogas is a futuristic renewable energy with high market potential due to wide scale availability of organic biomass, and for facilitating countries in meeting sustainable development goals related with creating and providing access to renewable energy. It has potential of being developed as a vehicular fuel or for generating electricity that can be injected into power grids. Despite its prospect, it faces criticism, such as limited contributions in reducing carbon emissions as compared to solar and wind. Consequentially, for higher efficiency and for better commercialization, it is impending not only to upgrade raw biogas but also utilize the energy value of off-gas. Currently available methods have high operating costs and are energy intensive, limiting the commercial applications of biogas. This review is aimed at presenting the state-of-art upgradation technologies currently available and the ones which are promising. It also discusses the future perspectives for overcoming the challenges associated with upgradation.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:44:20Z
  • Integrated approach for extraction of xylose, cellulose, lignin and silica
           from rice straw
    • Authors: Meena Krishania; Vinod Kumar Rajendra Singh Sangwan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Meena Krishania, Vinod Kumar, Rajendra Singh Sangwan
      In this paper, a novel process for xylose production was developed and discovered with simultaneous extraction of other product like cellulose, silica, and lignin. The study explored the effect of chemicals on xylose yield, and the xylose production process was optimized as followings: After pre-impregnation with nitric acid at 140 °C for 15 min, rice straw was treated at 1 bar with 0.5% (v/v) nitric acid, followed by second hydrolysis by using 2.5%(w/v) sodium hydroxide with 2%(w/v) sodium hypochlorite at 121 °C for 1 h, decoloration and ionic impurities were removed by ion exchange. Using this process, 13.8 g of crystal xylose was produced from 100 g rice straw, simultaneously 26.01% (w/w) of cellulose, 10.11% (w/w) silica, and 6.21% (w/w) lignin were also extracted from rice straw respectively. All results indicated that this process is a more effective than the traditional method sulphuric acid hydrolysis process for lignocellulose biorefinery.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:44:20Z
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