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Journal Cover Stiinta Agricola
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1857-0003 - ISSN (Online) 2587-3202
   Published by State Agrarian University of Moldova Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Evaluarea rezistenţei unor genotipuri de floarea-soarelui la mană şi
           rugină în condiţii naturale de infectare

    • Authors: Aliona CUCEREAVÎI
      Pages: 3 - 10
      Abstract: In field experiments conducted in 2013-2014 sunflower breeding material (maternal and paternal lines of different origin) and hybrids from the collection of the company “AMG-Agroselect Comert” (Republic of Moldova) were evaluated for their resistance to natural infection by downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii) and rust (Puccinia helianthi). During the experiments the number of attacked plants and the percentage of attack per plant were recorded as well as disease frequency and intensity and the degree of disease attack were calculated. The data of the field observations were correlated with the results of the molecular studies on the presence or absence of downy mildew and rust resistance genes (Pl6, Pl5/8 and R1), which were performed previously. Thus, the genotypes which contain Pl6, Pl5/8 genes were not infected at all or exhibited an insignificant level of infection by Plasmopara halstedii (maximum 2.4%). The infection by Puccinia helianthi was detected in all maternal lines with cytoplasmic male sterility which lack rust resistance gene (R1). The degree of attack ranged from 0.1 to 93.5%. The paternal lines and the hybrids that possess R1 gene were not attacked by the pathogen. The established correlations denote the effectiveness of molecular screening in rapid and accurate evaluation of the material used in plant breeding and of the obtained hybrids. The native MS-2570C line (adapted to the pedoclimate and cultivation conditions specific to the region and characterized by a low degree of attack or the complete lack thereof) is of a particular interest to plant breeding programs as a source of downy mildew and rust resistance. Key words: Helianthus annuus; Genotype; Disease resistance; Downy mildew; Rust; Plasmopara halstedii; Puccinia helianthi. Rezumat. În experienţe de câmp realizate în a. 2013-2014 s-a testat materialul de ameliorare (linii materne şi paterne de provenienţă diferită) şi unii hibrizi de floarea-soarelui din colecţia companiei „AMG-Agroselect Comerţ” în scopul evaluării rezistenţei la infecţia naturală cu mană (Plasmopara halstedii) si rugină (Puccinia helianthi). In cadrul experienţelor s-a evaluat numărul de plante atacate, procentul de atac corespunzător fiecărei plante şi s-a calculate frecvenţa, intensitatea şi gradul de atac al bolilor. Datele observaţiilor din câmp au fost corelate cu rezultatele studiului molecular privind prezenţa sau lipsa genelor de rezistenţă la mană (Pl6 şi Pl5/8) şi rugină (R1), publicate anterior. Astfel, genotipurile, la care sunt prezente genele Pl6, Pl5/8 nu au fost infectate sau au manifestat un nivel nesemnificativ de infecţie cu Plasmopara halstedii (maxim 2,4%). Infecţia cu Puccinia helianthi a fost detectată la toate liniile materne cu androsterilitate citoplasmatică, lipsite de gena de rezistenţă la rugină (R1). Valorile gradului de atac au variat între 0,1 şi 93,5%. Liniile paterne şi hibrizii care posedă gena R1, nu au fost atacaţi de patogen. Corelaţiile stabilite denotă eficienţa screeningului molecular în aprecierea rapidă şi corectă a materialului utilizat în ameliorare şi a hibrizilor obţinuţi. Interes deosebit pentru programele de ameliorare în calitate de sursă de rezistenţă la mană şi rugină prezintă linia autohtonă MS-2570C, care este adaptată la condiţiile pedoclimaterice şi de cultivare specific regiunii şi se caracterizează printr-un grad scăzut de atac sau lipsa acestuia. Cuvinte-cheie: Helianthus annuus; Genotip; Rezistenţă la boli; Mană; Rugină; Plasmopara halstedii; Puccinia helianthi.
      PubDate: 2018-01-25
       
  • Aspecte morfometrice ale meiocitelor şi grăuncioarelor de polen la
           plantele de floarea–soarelui cu androsterilitate indusă

    • Authors: Victoria NECHIFOR
      Pages: 11 - 15
      Abstract: Morphometric characterization is an important element in the study of dynamic cellular behavior in
      plant responses to biotic and abiotic stimuli. The aim of study was to determine the morphometric parameters of meiocytes and pollen grains in different phases of microsporogenesis in fertile and induced androsterility sunflower plants. Thus, the comparative morphometric analysis revealed the gametocidal effect of gibberellin that is manifested as abnormal changes in shape and volume of cells. These modifications lead to deficiencies in the integrity/rigidity and, respectively, in the functionality of the cell wall, as well as in the physical properties of the protoplasm. The low values of morphometric parameters were also correlated with the degree of sterility of pollen grains.
      Key words: Helianthus annuus; Cell morphology; Pollen fertility; Induced androsterility.
      Rezumat. Caracterizarea morfometrică este un element important în studiul proceselor celulare dinamice ca răspuns la stimulii biotici şi abiotici. Scopul studiului constă în determinarea parametrilor morfometrici ai meiocitelor şi grăuncioarelor de polen în diferite faze ale microsporogenezei la plantele de floarea-soarelui fertile şi cu androsterilitate indusă. Astfel, analiza morfometrică comparativă a relevat efectul gametocid al giberelinei exprimat prin schimbările anormale ale formei şi volumului celulelor. Aceste modificări induc deficienţe atât în integritatea/rigiditatea şi, respectiv, în funcţionalitatea peretelui celular, cât şi în proprietăţile fizice ale protoplasmei. De asemenea, valorile scăzute ale parametrilor morfometrici au fost corelate cu gradul de sterilitate al grăuncioarelor de polen.
      Cuvinte-cheie: Helianthus annuus; Morfologie celulară; Fertilitatea polenului; Androsterilitate indusă.
      PubDate: 2018-01-25
       
  • Influenţa lupoaiei asupra cantităţii şi calităţii uleiului de
           floarea-soarelui

    • Authors: Ion GÎSCĂ
      Pages: 16 - 22
      Abstract: Among the factors that cause significant yield losses in sunflower is the infestation with broomrape.
      The parasite affects a number of yield components, namely plant height, head diameter, number of seeds per head, lipid and protein content in seeds, oil quality and quantity, etc. The present study carried out in 2012-2013 dealt with the influence of broomrape on oil yield and oleic acid content in various sunflower genotypes (commercial and experimental hybrids) cultivated in 6 distinct localities on uninfested and infested fields where the degree of broomrape attack varied from 0 to 70%. Oil content in the hybrids Favorit, Performer and LG 5661 was affected to some extent by the degree of parasite attack. The difference between the oil content in sunflower seeds from the uninfested/ poorly infested fields and those from the heavily infested fields was about 2-3% (Favorit, LG 5661) and 5-6% (Performer). The content of oleic acid in the hybrids Sandrina, HS 5034, HS 3045, with mean resistance and LG-3, Favorit and HS 3655, with a high resistance to broomrape, varies mainly in relation to the genotype and cultivation conditions, and less depends on the attack of the parasite.
      Key words: Helianthus annuus; Orobanche cumana Wallr.; Genotype; Attack degree; Oil content; Oleic acid.
      Rezumat. Printre factorii care produc pierderi considerabile de recoltă la cultura de floarea-soarelui se numără infestarea cu lupoaie Orobanche cumana Wallr. Parazitul afectează mai multe elemente de productivitate, precum înălţimea plantei, diametrul calatidiului, numărul de seminţe per calatidiu, conţinutul de lipide şi proteine în seminţe, calitatea şi cantitatea uleiului etc. În prezentul studiu, pe parcursul a doi ani (2012-2013) s-a evaluat influenţa lupoaiei asupra productiei de ulei şi conţinutului de acid oleic la diverse genotipuri de floarea-soarelui (hibrizi comerciali sI experimentali), cultivaţi în 6 localităţi distincte, pe terenuri neinfestate şi infestate, gradul de atac al lupoaiei variind între 0 şi 70%. Conţinutul de ulei la hibrizii Favorit, Performer şi LG 5661 a fost influenţat într-o oarecare măsură de gradul de atac al parazitului. Diferenţa dintre conţinutul de ulei în seminţele de floareasoarelui
      de pe câmpuri neinfestate/slab infestate şi de pe terenurile puternic infestate, este de cca 2-3% (Favorit,
      LG 5661) şi 5-6% (Performer). Conţinutul de acid oleic la hibrizii Sandrina, HS 5034, HS 3045, cu nivel mediu de rezistenţă la lupoaie şi LG-3, Favorit şi HS 3655, cu nivel ridicat de rezistenţă la lupoaie, variază în funcţie de genotip şi condiţii de cultivare şi, în măsură mai mică, în funcţie de gradul de atac al parazitului.
      Cuvinte-cheie: Helianthus annuus; Orobanche cumana Wallr.; Genotip; Grad de atac; Conţinut de ulei; Acid oleic.
      PubDate: 2018-01-25
       
  • Влияние биопрепаратов на особенности
           водопотребления бобовых культур в
           условиях Южной Степи Украины

    • Authors: Валентина ГАМАЮНОВА, Максим ТУЗ, Сергей БАЗАЛИЙ
      Pages: 23 - 29
      Abstract: The article presents the results of an experiment on pea (Tsarevich and Oplot varieties) and chickpea (Pamyat and Rosanna varieties), carried out in 2013-2016 on southern chernozem at the Educational, Scientific and Practical Center of Mykolayiv National Agrarian University (Ukraine). We studied the effect of modern biological products used for presowing seed treatment and plant fertilization in their main developmental stages on pea and chickpea productivity as well as on the total water consumption by these plants in relation to weather conditions during the cultivation year. Also, water use efficiency per ton of grain with associated amount of byproducts was studied. It was established that soil moisture reserves and the precipitation during vegetation period are used much more effectively when biological products are used. In the plots without applied biopreparations water consumption coefficient in Tsarevich pea variety was 1285 m3/t while in the Oplot variety was 1270 m3/t. Even only because of presowing treatment with the preparations Mochevin-Kb and Escort-Bio this coefficient decreased and ranged from 1119 to 1171 m3/t, depending on the variety and the used product. If also foliar fertilization was performed, it was 895-952 m3/t. Soil incorporation of absorbents (AgroHydroGel, Aquasave) at seeding did not significantly influence on the coefficient of water consumption by the pea varieties under study. Similar results were also obtained with chickpea. If chickpea plants without applied biopreparations consumed (on average over 2015-2016 years) 4160 m3 of water per ton of grain, then on N15 P15 K15 background and with Biomag preplantig treatment followed by two foliar treatments this coefficient decreased to 2700 m3/t or it was lower by 36,6% . This is extremely important for the conditions of Ukrainian Southern Steppe where it is precisely the moisture that is first of all required during crop cultivation. Key words: Peas; Chickpeas; Varieties; Biological products; Total water consumption; Water use efficiency; Water consumption coefficient. Реферат. В статье представлены данные исследований (2013-2016 гг) с горохом посевным (сорта Царевич и Оплот) и нутом (сорта Память и Розанна), выращенных на черноземе южном в условиях учебно-научно-практического центра Николаевского национального аграрного университета. Изучали влияние современных биопрепаратов, использованных для предпосевной обработки семян и подкормок растений в основные фазы их развития, на продуктивность и суммарное водопотребление в зависимости от погодных условий года возделывания. Также исследовали влияние биопрепаратов на эффективность использования этими культурами влаги на формирование 1 т зерна с соответс...
      PubDate: 2018-01-25
       
  • Роль ресурсосберегающих элементов
           технологии в увеличении
           зернопроизводства в условиях южной
           Степи Украины

    • Authors: Валентина ГАМАЮНОВА, Владимир ДВОРЕЦКИЙ, Андрей ЛИТОВЧЕНКО, Наталья МУЗЫКА, Татьяна КАСАТКИНА, Анна КУВШИНОВА, Татьяна ГЛУШКО
      Pages: 30 - 36
      Abstract: The paper presents the results of studies on winter crops, namely on wheat (five varieties), barley, triticale and rye (two varieties), which were cultivated after: 1. black fallow 2. corn for silage and 3. winter wheat as a
      stubble preceding crop, with and without use of fertilizers. It was established that the highest grain yield was obtained when winter cereal crops are sown on fallow land. With the application of mineral fertilizers crop productivity significantly increases, especially after non-fallow – maize and winter wheat. In connection with the reduction of organic and mineral fertilizers used in recent years and with the upsetting of crop sequences we are developing new approaches to optimize plant nutrition. They are based on the use of modern biological growth-regulating substances for presowing seed treatment and plant treatment in the main vegetation periods. These preparations were investigated on a number of spring and winter cereals (wheat, barley, triticale, etc.). Their use contributes to a significant increase in grain yield, to the improvement of its quality, and allowes to significantly increase the efficiency of the use of moisture reserves, which is very important for the arid conditions of the Southern Steppe of Ukraine.
      Key words: Winter crops; Spring crops; Preceding crop; Growth-regulating substances; Productivity; Grain quality; Resource efficient use.
      Реферат. В статье изложены результаты исследований с озимыми зерновыми культурами: пшеницей (пятью сортами), ячменем, тритикале и рожью (по два сорта), которые возделывали по разным
      предшественникам (черный пар, кукуруза на силос, стерневой – пшеница озимая), без применения и с применением удобрений. Установлено, что наиболее высокая урожайность зерна формируется при
      размещении озимых зерновых культур по пару. При применении минеральных удобрений продуктивность растений значительно увеличивается, причем в большей степени по непаровым предшественникам –
      кукурузе и озимой пшенице. В связи с уменьшением в последние годы обьемов применения органических и минеральных удобрений, а также в связи с нарушением чередования сельскохозяйственных ку...
      PubDate: 2018-01-25
       
  • Reglarea încărcăturii de rod la pomii de măr de soiul Golden Reinders
           prin diverse metode de rărire

    • Authors: Ananie PEȘTEANU, Oleg CALESTRU
      Pages: 37 - 42
      Abstract: The experiment was carried out in the orchard of the company “Codru-ST” (Republic of Moldova),
      established in 2009 with trees of ”knip boom” type. The object of the research was Golden Reinders apple variety grafted on M9 rootstock. Planting distance is 3,5 x 1,2 m. For adjusting crop load different thinning methods were used: 1. without thinning (control); 2. manual thinning of fruits, which was performed after their physiological fall when they were 1.5-2.0 cm in diameter; 3. Spraying with Geramid New, 1.5 l/ha, after the fall of 80% of the petals + 2-3 days; 4. Spraying with Geramid New, 2,0 l/ha, after the fall of 80% of the petals + 2-3 days; 5. Two sprayings with Geramid New, 1.0 l/ha +1.0 l/ha: the first spraying was done when 80% of the petals had fallen + 2-3 days; the second spraying was performed when the diameter of the central fruit was 6 mm. The research was conducted during the years 2015-2016. The number of blossom clusters before and after the thinning, the number of fruits per tree and per 100 flower clusters as well as the yield and average fruit weight and diameter were evaluated. It was established that, the treatment with Geramid New reduced the amount of fruit-bearing inflorescences by 41.9-51.5%, which eventually allowed a more rational placement of the fruits in an inflorescence. The highest average fruit production was recorded in the Geramid New variant at the rate of 1.5 l/ha - 50.69 t/ha. It was by 85.2% higher compared to the control variant.
      Key words: Apple; Malus pumila; Thinning; Inflorescence; Fruit; Weight; Diameter; Yield.
      Rezumat. Cercetările s-au efectuat în livada companiei „Codru-ST”, înfiinţată în anul 2009, cu pomi cu coroană formată după metoda „knip boom”. Obiectul cercetărilor a fost soiul Golden Reinders altoit pe portaltoiul M9. Distanţa de plantare – 3,5x1,2 m. Pentru reglarea încărcăturii de rod s-au utilizat diverse metode de rărire: 1) fără rărire (martor); 2) rărire manuală a fructelor, care s-a efectuat după căderea fiziologică a lor, când aveau 1,5-2,0 cm în diametru; 3) stropire cu Geramid New, 1,5 l/ha, la căderea a 80% de petale +2-3 zile; 4) stropire cu Geramid New, 2,0 l/ha, la căderea a 80% de petale +2-3 zile; 5) două stropiri cu Geramid New, 1,0 l/ha +1,0 l/ha: prima stropire – la căderea a 80% de petale +2-3 zile, a II-a – la dimensiunea de 6 mm în diametru a fructului central. Cercetările s-au efectuat pe parcursul anilor 2015–2016. Pe parcursul cercetărilor s-a studiat cantitatea de inflorescenţe până la rarire şi după, cantitatea de fructe pe pom şi la 100 de inflorescenţe, producţia, greutatea şi diametrul medii ale
      unui fruct. S-a stabilit că tratarea cu Geramid New a diminuat cu 41,9-51,5% cantitatea de inflorescenţe legate, ceea ce a permis şi o amplasare mai raţională a fructelor într-o inflorescenţă. Cea mai mare producţie medie de fructe a fost înregistrată în varianta tratată cu Geramid New în doza de 1,5 l/ha – 50,69 t/ha ori cu 85,2% mai mult în comparaţie cu varianta martor.
      Cuvinte-cheie: Măr; Malus pumila; Rărire; Inflorescenţă; Fruct; Greutate; Diametru; Producţie.
      PubDate: 2018-01-25
       
  • Modificările calităţii cireşelor (Prunus avium L.)
           în timpul maturării

    • Authors: Valerian BALAN, Igor IVANOV, Vasile ŞARBAN, Petru BALAN, Sergiu VAMAŞESCU
      Pages: 43 - 49
      Abstract: The aim of this research was to investigate how the quality of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) undergoes
      changes during their maturation. The orchard was created in the autumn of 2011 with cherry trees of the Ferrovia and Regina varieties grafted on the Gisela 6 rootstock, at a planting distance of 4 x 2.5 m. The trees were trained according to the slender spindle system (improved). The experiment included four replications of eight trees each. Fruit recording and evaluation was performed during the maturation period, and were based on the content of soluble dry substances and on the color of the fruit peel according to the color palette developed by the Interprofessional Technical Center for Fruit and Vegetables (yellowish pink, very light red, red, bright ruddy, dark red, dark brown reddish and dark brown). The period when fruits begin to mature and fruit peel color turns from green to yellowish pink and than to dark brown reddish and dark brown is the one that determines the development of cherries and the productivity of orchards. As the fruits grow, their diameter increases, but at a much slower pace.
      Key words: Cherry tree; Prunus avium; Maturation stage; Fruit; Soluble dry substance; Mass; Diameter; Colour.
      Rezumat. Obiectivul cercetării actuale a fost de a investiga modul în care calitatea fructelor de cireş (Prunus avium L.) suferă modificări în timpul maturizării lor. Livada s-a înfiinţat în toamna anului 2011 cu pomi de cireş din soiurile Ferrovia şi Regina, altoite pe portaltoiul Gisela 6, la distanţa de plantare de 4x2,5 m. Pomii sunt formaţi după sistemul fus subţire ameliorat. Experienţa include 4 repetiţii a câte 8 pomi fiecare. Evidenţa şi aprecierea fructelor s-a efectuat în perioada de maturare în baza conţinutului de substanţe uscate solubile şi în baza culorii pieliţei, conform fişei de culori elaborate de Centrul tehnic interprofesional al fructelor și legumelor CTIFL (rozgălbui, roşu foarte deschis, roşu, rumen-aprins, roşu-închis, brun-roşietic-închis, cafeniu-închis). Perioada în care fructele încep să se maturizeze şi culoarea pieliţei se transformă din verde în roz-gălbui până la brun-roşiatic-închis şi cafeniu-închis este acea care determină dezvoltarea cireşelor şi productivitatea livezilor. Pe măsura creşterii masei fructelor se măreşte şi diametrul lor, dar într-un ritm mult mai lent.
      Cuvinte-cheie: Cireş; Prunus avium; Perioadă de maturare; Fruct; Substanţă uscată solubilă; Masă; Diametru; Culoare. 
      PubDate: 2018-01-26
       
  • Genul Kniphofia Moench în colecția de plante netradiționale a Grădinii
           Botanice (Institut) a Academiei de Ştiinţe a Moldovei

    • Authors: Irina SFECLĂ
      Pages: 50 - 56
      Abstract: This article includes the bio-ecological and morphological description of the Kniphofia species in the non-traditional perennial plant collection of the Botanical Garden (Institute) of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova. Six species of the genus Kniphofia Moench were used in the study: Kniphofia uvaria (L.) Hook., K. ensifolia Bak., K. tukii Bak., K. nelsonii Mast, K. sarmentosa (Andr.) Kunth, K. citrina Bak. Under the pedo-climatic conditions of the Republic of Moldova, all species retain their biomorph, which demonstrates a high adaptation capacity. The most prolific species have been shown to be K. sarmentosa, K. tukii and K. ensifolia, which have the highest percentages of seed germination and vegetative multiplication.
      Key words: Kniphofia Moench; Taxonomy; Adaptation; Multiplication; Cultivation.
      Rezumat. Acest articol include descrierea bioecologică şi morfologică a speciilor de knifofii în colecţia de
      plante perene netradiţionale a Grădinii Botanice (Institut) a Academiei de Ştiinţe a Moldovei. Obiect de studiu au servit şase specii din genul Kniphofia Moench: Kniphofia uvaria (L.) Hook., K. ensifolia Bak., K. tukii Bak., K. nelsonii Mast, K. sarmentosa (Andr.) Kunth, K. citrina Bak. În condiţiile pedoclimatice ale Republicii Moldova, toate speciile îşi păstrează biomorfa, fapt ce demonstrează o capacitate de adaptare înaltă. Cele mai prolifice specii s-au dovedit a fi K. sarmentosa, K. tukii şi K. ensifolia, care prezintă cele mai înalte valori ale procentului de germinare a seminţelor şi ale coeficientului de multiplicare vegetativă.
      Cuvinte-cheie: Kniphofia Moench; Taxonomie; Adaptare; Multiplicare; Cultivare. 
      PubDate: 2018-01-29
       
  • Влияние метеорологических условий на
           продуктивность клонов технических
           

    • Authors: Алина МЫНЗУЛ
      Pages: 57 - 62
      Abstract: This article presents the results of a field experiment (2014-2016) in which a comparative analysis of
      the influence of weather conditions on the productivity of the grapevine clones of Chardonnay, Sauvignon Green and Rhine Riesling varieties was performed. The data of meteorological observations on air temperature and precipitation during the period of the research, as well as the results of the field experiment on biometric (leaf area) and economic (yield) indices of seventeen grapevine clones in the subsidiary enterprise “Agro-Koblevo” (Ukraine), were used in the study. The comparative analysis of moisture conditions during 2014 – 2016 showed that in 2014 the amount of precipitation was only 77.3% of the norm. In 2015 the amount of precipitation was 92.5% of the norm, and in 2016 it was higher than the normal rainfall rate, namely 113.4%. According to the biometric parameters the most beneficial
      weather conditions for Chardonnay clones were in 2015, which favoured the formation of a foliar surface area (one bush) within a range of 5.26 to 13.77 m2, and annual increment volume within 689.05 – 1840.18 cm3. The maximum yield per bush (4.1 kg) was recorded in 2014. In the Sauvignon Green variety, the higher values of leaf area (6.47 -10.8 m2/bush) and productivity (3.5-4.6 kg/bush) were recorded in 2015, while the highest value of the annual increment volume (1613.84 cm3) was recorded in 2016. In the Rhine Riesling variety, all the analyzed parameters were the highest in 2016, except for the R-2 clone harvest, which had the highest level in 2015.
      Key words: Grapevines; Precipitation; Temperature; Leaf surface area; Yield.
      Реферат. В статье приведены результаты полевого эксперимента (2014-2016) по сравнительному
      анализу влияния погодных условий на формирование продуктивности клонов сортов винограда Шардоне, Совиньон зеленый и Рислинг рейнский. В работе использовались данные метеорологических наблюдений по температуре воздуха и количеству осадков за период проведения исследований, а также результаты полевого опыта по биометрическим (площади листовой поверхности) и хозяйственным (урожайности) показателям 17 клонов винограда в ДП «Агро-Коблево» (Украина). Сравнительный анализ условий увлажнения в 2014-2016 годах показал, что в 2014 году количество осадков было лишь 77,3% от нормы. В 2015 году осадков выпало 92,5% нормы, а в 2016 году – выпало больше нормы и...
      PubDate: 2018-01-26
       
  • Подбор регуляторов роста растений для
           предпосевной обработки семян
           пастернака посевного (Pastinaca sativa L.) в
           условиях правобережной Лесостепи
           Украины

    • Authors: Владимир ХАРЕБА, Александр КОМАР
      Pages: 63 - 66
      Abstract: The research deals with crop capacity and quality of roots of domestic parsnip (Pastinaca sativa L.)
      in relation to growth regulators (Emistim C, Biolan, Stimpo and Regoplant). The study was aimed to select effective plant growth stimulants for the presowing treatment of parsnip seeds in the conditions of the Right Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. The research was conducted on the Stimul variety on the experimental field of the Department of Vegetable Growing, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine in 2015–2016. The following methods were applied: field method – to study the influence of growing technology and weather conditions on the object of the research; biochemical method – to determine the quality of roots; statistical method – to verify the obtained data. It was determined that the highest crop capacity is assured by Emistim C (49.8 tons/hectare) and
      Regoplant (50.1 tons/hectare) growth regulators. Regoplant proved to be the most effective in terms of a complex of biochemical parameters. When Regoplant was used, the content of dry matter was 26.64 %, total sugar – 6.51 %, and vitamin C – 10.17 %. The application of plant growth regulators did not influence the accumulation of nitrates. The content of nitrates in roots did not exceed the maximum residue limits (MRL 250 mg/kg).
      Key words: Pastinaca sativa; Parsnip; Crop yield; Dry matter; Total sugar; Vitamin C; Nitrates.
      Реферат. Представлены результаты исследований урожайности и качества корнеплодов пастернака
      посевного (Pastinaca sativa L.) в зависимости от регуляторов роста (Эмистим С, Биолан, Стимпо и
      Регоплант). Целью исследований был подбор эффективных стимуляторов роста для предпосевной обработки семян пастернака посевного в условиях правобережной Лесостепи Украины. Исследования проводились в 2015-2016 годах на опытном поле кафедры овощеводства Национального университета биоресурсов и природопользования Украины, на посевах пастернака сорта Стимул. Применены методы исследований: полевой – для исследования влияния элементов технологии выращивания и погодных условий на объект исследований; биохимический – для определения качества корнеплодов; статист&#...
      PubDate: 2018-01-26
       
  • Продуктивность ежевики (Rubus subg. Eubatus focke) в
           условиях Лесостепи Украины

    • Authors: Юлия ТЕЛЕПЕНЬКО
      Pages: 67 - 70
      Abstract: The productivity of twenty-five blackberry cultivars of Ukrainian and foreign breeding in the conditions
      of Right-Bank part of the western Forest-Steppe of Ukraine has been evaluated. The trailing Thornfree cultivar,
      characterized by an average shoot–forming ability and a large number of fruit-bearing branches and berries on
      them, had the highest productivity, namely 5,14 kg/bush; 9,59 t/ha on average, over the years of research (2016-
      2017). The semi-erect blackberries Asterina, Heaven can Wait and Orkan were also found to be high-yielding.
      The remontant cultivars Reuben and Black Magic, characterized by late fruit setting, gave low yields (020/kg/
      bush; 0,47 t/ha and 0,38 kg/bush; 1,00 t/ha respectively). The Black Butte Blackberry and Kiowa varieties were
      distinguished by the highest average mass per berry, namely 9,5 g and 8,22 g, respectively. Most of the studied
      blackberry cultivars have medium-sized berries ranging from 4,4 to 5,8 g.
      Key words: Blackberry; Cultivar; Potential productivity; Yield; Berry; Average weight.
      Реферат. Проведена оценка продуктивности 25 сортов ежевики украинской и зарубежной селекции в
      условиях Правобережной части Западной Лесостепи Украины. Стелющийся сорт Thornfree, для которого
      характерна средняя побегообразовательная способность и образование большого количества плодонося-
      щих веточек и ягод на них, имеет самый высокий показатель производительности: 5,14 кг/куст; 9,59 т/га в
      среднем за годы исследований (2016-2017). Также высокоурожайными оказались полупряморослые сорта
      Asterina, Heaven can Wait и Orkan. Сорта ремонтантного типа Reuben и Black Magic, характеризующиеся
      поздними сроками завязывания плодов, отличились низкой урожайностью (020/кг/куст; 0,47 т/га и 0,38 кг/
      куст; 1,00 т/га соответственно). Наибольшей средней массой одной ягоды отличились сорта Black Butte
      Blackberry (9,5 г.) и Kiowa (8,22 г.). Большинство исследуемых сортов ежевики имеют ягоды среднего раз-
      мера от 4,4 до 5,8 г.
      Ключевые слl...
      PubDate: 2018-01-26
       
  • Особенности роста и
           смолопродуктивность реликтовой сосны
           обыкновенной (Pinus sylvestris L.) в Украинских
           Карпатах

    • Authors: Олег ПОГРИБНЫЙ, Леонид ОСАДЧУК, Василь ЗАЯЧУК
      Pages: 71 - 77
      Abstract: Relict populations of common pine (Pinus sylvestris L) which have grown in the territory of the
      Ukrainian Carpathians since the early Holocene period, can be found over an area of 738.2 hectares and occupy an important place in forest ecosystems, since they have preserved, in addition to the common pine, a large number of relict herbaceous plants, which are not typical for this region. The distribution of these populations is very uneven above the sea level. In this paper, the growth features and resin productivity of two ecotypes of the relict common pine are investigated, namely the marsh ecotype (286 ha) concentrated in foothill areas at an altitude of 400-500 m above the sea level, and the upland ecotype (319 ha), located in the range of 700-900 m above the sea level. For comparison, the common pine climatype in the geographic cultures of Roztochya Hills (Lviv region, Ukraine) was evaluated. The study on resin productivity (using the method of micro tapping) was carried out in mature and overmature plantations, which were formed in different geographic and ecological conditions. Under the best growth conditions, in wet fir-spruce-pine forest (sugrud) the relict common pine (upland eco-type) shows a high resin productivity (3.68±0.46 g/day). Nonetheless, resin productivity of relict pine is significantly lower if compared with the pine from Roztochya Hills (5,63±1,15-6,94±0,81 g/day). Resin productivity of the relict pine of marsh ecotype is low (2.46±0.30-2.49±0.25 g/day).
      Key words: Соммоn pine; Relict populations; Growth; Resin productivity; Taxation indices; Forestry indices.
      Реферат. Реликтовые популяции сосны обыкновенной (Pinus sylvestris L), оставшиеся на территории
      украинских Карпат еще со времен раннего голоценового периода, распространены на площади 738,2 га и занимают важное место в лесных экосистемах, поскольку в них сохранилось, кроме сосны обыкновенной, большое количество реликтовых травянистых растений, не характерных для данного региона. Распределение этих популяций над уровнем моря очень неравномерное. В данной работе исследованы особенности роста и смолопрoдуктивность реликтовой сосны обыкновенной двух экотипов: болотный экотип (286 га), сосредоточенный на предгорных территориях на высоте 400-500 м н. у. м. и нагорный экотип (319 га), расположенный в диапазоне 700-900 м н. у. м. Для с ...
      PubDate: 2018-01-26
       
  • Состояние парков-памятников
           садово-паркового искусства Винницкой
           области в контексте проектирования
           региональной экологической сети

    • Authors: Юрий ЕЛИСАВЕНКО
      Pages: 78 - 83
      Abstract: The article presents data on the state of the parks-monuments of landscape art in the Vinnytsia region
      and the state of preservation of their biotic diversity. As a result of the surveys, the causes of changes in the state of the parks were identified and a system of measures to preserve the state of their biotic diversity in the context of the formation of the regional ecological network was proposed.
      Key words: Parks; Landscape art; Natural reserve fund; Вiodiversity; Ecological network.
      Реферат. В статье представлены данные о состоянии парков-памятников садово-паркового искусства
      Винницкой области и состояние сохранности их биотического разнообразия. В результате обследований определены причины изменений состояния парков и предложена система мер по сохранению состояния их биотического разнообразия в контексте формирования региональной экологической сети.
      Ключевые слова: Парки; Садово-парковое искусство; Природно-заповедный фонд; Биоразнообразие;
      Экологическая сеть.
      PubDate: 2018-01-29
       
  • Применение естественного и
           искусственного холода для охлаждения
           молока

    • Authors: Ливиу ВОЛКОНОВИЧ, Михаил КУШНИР, Аугустин ВОЛКОНОВИЧ, Александр УЧЕВАТКИН, Наталья КУШНИР, Викторин СЛИПЕНКИ, Анатол ДАЙКУ, Онорин ВОЛКОНОВИЧ, Александр Попа
      Pages: 84 - 91
      Abstract: Mathematical models of the processes of cold accumulation and milk cooling by water-ice accumulators
      of seasonal and year-round action in heat exchangers of flow and capacitive types have been developed, in
      order to ensure the functioning of the line in an optimal energy regime with new technical means, and to substantiate
      the main parameters of energy-saving systems of milk cooling. These tasks are solved in the context of the
      system approach using the theory of operations, probability theory and mathematical statistics, automatic control
      theory, mathematical and physical modeling, and the analysis and synthesis of electrical equipment.
      Key words: Milk cooling; Energy-saving technological processes; Natural cold; Artificial cold; Seasonal action
      units; Combined action installations; Flow-through cooler; Capacitive cooler.
      Реферат. В данной работе разработаны математические модели процессов аккумулирования холода и
      охлаждения молока водо-ледяными аккумуляторами сезонного и круглогодового действия в теплообменниках
      проточного и емкостного типов с целью обеспечения функционирования линии в оптимальном энергетическом
      режиме с новыми техническими средствами и с целью обоснования основных параметров энергосберегающих
      систем охлаждения молока. Поставленные задачи решены с позиций системного подхода с использованием
      теории операций, теории вероятностей и математической статистики, теории автоматического регулирования,
      математического и физического моделирования, анализа и синтеза системы электрооборудования.
      Ключевые слова: Охлаждение молока; Энергосберегающие технологические процессы; Eстественный холод; Искусственный хол...
      PubDate: 2018-01-28
       
  • Комплексный анализ автоматизированных
           энергосберегающих технологических
           процессов для охлаждения молока

    • Authors: Ливиу ВОЛКОНОВИЧ, Михаил КУШНИР, Аугустин ВОЛКОНОВИЧ, Александр УЧЕВАТКИН, Наталья КУШНИР, Викторин СЛИПЕНКИ, Анатол ДАЙКУ, Онорин ВОЛКОНОВИЧ, Александр Попа
      Pages: 92 - 99
      Abstract: This article provides a comprehensive analysis of automated energy-saving technological processes
      of milk cooling. It has been established that the most effective energy-saving milk cooling systems for production
      lines are combined modular-type all-year-round operation systems that include natural cold receivers with
      standardized multi-stage spray units and water-ice accumulators of natural and artificial cold in combination with
      refrigeration compressors of the vapor compression type.
      Key words: Milk cooling; Energy saving technology; Electrical equipment system; Natural cold; Artificial cold; Refrigeration compressor.
      Реферат. В работе приводится комплексный анализ автоматизированных энергосберегающих технологи-
      ческих процессов для охлаждения молока. Установлено, что наиболее эффективными энергосберегающими
      системами охлаждения молока технологических линий являются комбинированные системы круглогодового
      действия модульного типа, включающие приемники естественного холода с унифицированными многосту-
      пенчатыми распылительными блоками, водо-ледяные аккумуляторы естественного и искусственного холода
      в сочетании с холодильно-компрессорными подзарядными агрегатами парокомпрессионного типа.
      Ключевые слова: Охлаждение молока; Энергосберегающие технологии; Система электрооборудования; Естественный холод; Искусственный холод; Холодильно-компрессорные агрегаты. 
      PubDate: 2018-01-28
       
  • Техническое обеспечение
           программирования урожайности пропашных
           культур

    • Authors: Катерина ВАСИЛЬКОВСЬКА
      Pages: 100 - 103
      Abstract: The article proposes a new approach in the search for technological solutions in the programming of
      crop yields. The initial stage of crop programming is the improvement of technical means for sowing, which will allow to increase the competitiveness of plant products and to implement the fundamentals of the soil-conservation farming and the resource-saving agricultural system. For this purpose, a new design was proposed for the seed distributor with a peripheral arrangement of cells on the seeding disk and a passive device for removing unnecessary seeds in an inertial way, for precise sowing of row crops. Experimental studies of the proposed seed distributor using sugar beet, soybean, sunflower and corn seeds have been carried out without changing the seeding disc, which confirms the versatility of this seed distributor. The proposed design allows a significant reduction of the vacuum in the system, increasing the circumferential speed of the sowing disc cells up to the values of forward speed of the seeding unit at high quality filling of cells.
      Key words: Crop yield programming; Pneumomechanical seed distributor; Disc; Cell; Cell filling ratio.
      Реферат. В статье предложен новый подход в поиске технологических решений по программированию урожайности. Начальным этапом программирования урожая является усовершенствование технических средств для посева, что позволит повысить конкурентоспособность продукции растениеводства и ввести основы почвозащитного и ресурсосберегающего земледелия. Для этого была предложена новая конструкция высевающего аппарата с периферийным расположением ячеек на высевающем диске и пассивным устройством для удаления лишних семян инерционным способом для точного посева пропашных культур. Проведен ряд экспериментальных исследований предложенного высевающего аппарата на семенах сахарной свеклы, сои, подсолнечника и кукурузы без смены высевающего диска, что полностью под ...
      PubDate: 2018-01-28
       
  • Теоретический анализ теплопередачи при
           воздухообмене в птичниках

    • Authors: Татьяна ЛОХВИНСКАЯ
      Pages: 104 - 110
      Abstract: This work considers the regularities of the heat transfer process at air exchange in poultry houses with
      detailed boundary conditions and proposes a physico-mathematical model of heat and moisture processes with the parameters of “air and bird” subsystem. It also establishes the characteristics determining the stability of the thermodynamic system: the indicator of the indoor convective heat exchange and the density of the convective heat flux.
      Key words: Poultry houses; Heat transfer; Сonvective heat flux; Radiant heat flux; Model.
      Реферат. Рассматриваются закономерности процесса теплопередачи при воздухообмене в птичниках с детализацией граничных условий и предложена физико-математическая модель тепловлажностных процессов с параметрами подсистемы ”воздух и птица”. Установлены характеристики, определяющие устойчивость термодинамической системы: показатель конвективного теплообмена помещения, плотность конвективного теплового потока. Ключевые слова: Птичники; Теплообмен; Конвективный тепловой поток; Лучистый тепловой поток; Модель. 
      PubDate: 2018-01-28
       
  • Impactul preparatului BioR asupra statusului clinico–hematologic la
           iepuroaice în diferite stări fiziologice

    • Authors: Vasile MACARI, Dumitru MAŢENCU, Ana ROTARU, Sergiu DIDORUC
      Pages: 111 - 118
      Abstract: An extensive study has been conducted to highlight the impact of the bioactive remedy BioR (obtained from Spirulina platensis) on the evolution of the basic clinical parameters: body temperature, frequency of cardiac contractions and respiratory movements, as well as the main haematological indices during different physiological states in female rabbits. The BioR preparation was administered twice, intramuscularly, in different doses (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ml/head), namely about five days before mating, and on the fourteenth day of gestation. It was established that the tested remedy improves female rabbits’ health, especially their haematopoietic function (the increase of haemoglobin and the number of erythrocytes, platelets, etc.). This positive impact is reflected in the productive and reproductive parameters.
      Key words: Female rabbits; BioR remedy; Spirulina platensis; Lactation; Clinical status; Haematological
      status; Haematopoiesis.
      Rezumat. Studiul este orientat spre evidenţierea impactului remediului bioactiv BioR (obţinut din Spirulina platensis) în evoluţia parametrilor clinici de bază: temperatura corporală, frecvenţa contracţiilor cardiace şi mişcărilor respiratorii, precum şi a principalilor indici hematologici în diferite stări fiziologice la iepuroaice. Produsul BioR a fost administrat iepuroaicelor intramuscular de 2 ori: cu cca 5 zile până la montă şi la a 14-a zi de gestaţie, în diferite doze (1,0; 1,5; 2,0 ml/cap). S-a stabilit că remediul testat ameliorează starea de sănătate a iepuroaicelor, îndeosebi funcţia hematopoietică (creşterea hemoglobinei, a numărului de eritrocite, trombocite etc.), impactul pozitiv fiind reflectat în parametrii productivi şi reproductivi.
      Cuvinte-cheie: Iepuroaice; Remediu BioR; Spirulina platensis; Lactaţie; Status clinic; Status hematologic;
      Hematopoieză. 
      PubDate: 2018-01-29
       
  • Incubaţia ouălor de diferite specii de păsări în incubatorul de
           suprafaţă

    • Authors: Elena SCRIPNIC, Iurie SCRIPNIC, Cecilia POP
      Pages: 119 - 124
      Abstract: Egg incubation is largely practiced by poultry breeders in household conditions. They use surface
      incubators which are different from the volume incubators used in the industrial sector. The purpose of this work was a comparative study of the incubation regimes and incubation indices of hen eggs (the Kucinsky Jubilee breed), turkey eggs (the Converter breed) and quail eggs (the English White breed), using surface incubators. All the physical parameters (temperature, humidity, and the duration of the incubation) were different, depending on the specific needs of each species. The quail eggs were a few days old (3 days) and had the highest fecundity rate (88% of fertilized eggs of all the incubated eggs) and maximum hatching rate (90.9% of hatched eggs of all the fertilized eggs). Incubation indices of hen eggs also had high values (82.2% and 85.1% respectively). Most of the chicks resulted from hen and quail eggs corresponded to quality category I. Turkey eggs, which had the longest pre-incubation storage length (9 days), showed the lowest values of incubation indices and turkey chicks obtained from them were predominantly of quality categories II and III.
      Key words: Eggs; Incubation regime; Incubation indices; Hatching rate.
      Rezumat. Incubaţia ouălor este practicată în mare măsură de crescătorii de păsări în condiţii de casă şi se
      realizează cu ajutorul incubatoarelor de suprafață, care se deosebesc de incubatoarele de volum folosite în sectorul industrial. Scopul prezentei lucrări este studiul comparativ al regimurilor şi indicilor de incubaţie a ouălor de găină (rasa Cucinsc jubiliară), de curcă (rasa Converter) şi de prepeliţă (rasa Albă englezească), în incubatorul de suprafaţă. Toţi parametrii fizici (tempertura, umiditatea, inclusiv şi durata incubaţiei) au fost diferiţi, în funcţie de necesităţile specifice speciei. Ouăle de prepeliţă au avut o vechime mică (3 zile) şi au înregistrat cea mai mare rată de fecundiţate (88% de ouă fecundate din totalul de ouă incubate) şi ecloziune maximă (90.9% de ouă eclozate din totalul de ouă fecundate). Indicii de incubaţie a ouălor de găină deasemenea au avut valori ridicate (82.2% de ouă fecundate şi 85.1% de ouă eclozate). Majoritatea puilor obţinuti din ouăle de găină şi de prepelită s-au încadrat în categoria I de calitate. Ouăle de curcă, care au avut cea mai îndelungată durată de păstrare (9 zile) înainte de a fi puse la incubat, au înregistrat cele mai reduse valori ale indicilor de incubaţie şI din ele s-a obţinut preponderent tineret de calitatea a II-a şi a III-a.
      Cuvinte-cheie: Ouă; Regim de incubație; Indici de incubație; Rată de ecloziune. 
      PubDate: 2018-01-29
       
  • Indicii microbiologici ai familiilor de albine înaintea iernatului

    • Authors: Veronica BUGNEAC
      Pages: 125 - 128
      Abstract: Bee colonies are exposed to a wide variety of actions of the agricultural ecosystem and to a multitude
      of variations of the environment throughout the year. All these factors can affect the bees’ microbial balance. This study aimed to determine the microflora of bee families before the wintering period. The bees for the research were randomly collected at two apiaries of 17 and 24 bee families. Under laboratory conditions, insemination was performed on common, selective and differential growth media using material of the bees’ intestines. As a result of the investigations, an intensive growth of bacterial colonies was noticed on all microbial culture media. They were predominantly formed by different forms of bacteria such as streptococci, staphylococci, E. coli, Salmonella and microscopic fungi. Most colonies of microorganisms developed on Endo and Peptonate Agar media, being represented by the microbial colonies of E. coli and streptococci, respectively.
      Key words: Honey bees; Intestinal microflora; Nutrient media; Microbial colonies.
      Rezumat. Coloniile de albine pe tot parcursul anului sunt expuse la o varietate largă de acțiuni ale ecosistemelor agricole și la o multitudine de variații ale mediului, care le pot afecta echilibrul microbian. Studiul de faţă îşi propune de a stabili varietatea microflorei familiilor de albine înaintea perioadei de iernat. Albinele pentru cercetare au fost colectate în mod aleatoriu de la două stupine, cu 17 şi 24 de familii de albine. În condiții de laborator, din intestinele albinelor au fost efectuate însămânțări pe medii nutritive obișnuite, selective și diferențiale. În rezultatul investigațiilor s-a stabilit o creștere intensivă de colonii bacteriene pe toate mediile microbiene nutritive. Acestea au fost constituite preponderent din formele bacteriene precum streptococi, stafilococi, E. coli, salmonele și fungi microscopici. Cele mai multe colonii de microorganisme s-au dezvoltat pe mediile Endo și Agarul peptonat, fiind reprezentate de coloniile microbiene E. coli și, respectiv, streptococi.
      Cuvinte-cheie: Albine melifere; Microfloră intestinală; Medii nutritive; Colonii microbiene. 
      PubDate: 2018-01-29
       
  • Влияние препаратов БиоР и Бутофан на
           функциональное состояние печени и
           некоторых показателей продуктивности у
           перепелов на откорме

    • Authors: Vasile MACARI, Валериу РУДИК, Валентин ГУДУМАК, Наталья ПАВЛИЧЕНКО, Ана РОТАРУ, Виктор ПУТИН, Ион КОЖОКАРУ
      Pages: 129 - 137
      Abstract: The paper presents the results of the influence of the BioR remedy, obtained through modern technologies
      from Spirulina platensis, as well as of the alternative preparation Butofan on the functional state of the
      liver and certain productive parameters in fattening quails. The study was carried out on 3 batches of quails, 50
      birds each. The positive impact of the researched BioR remedy on liver is shown through the analysis of multiple marker parameters of the functional status of liver, such as alkaline phosphatase and its fractions (thermolabile and thermostable), bilirubin, and its fractions (direct and indirect) as well as alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and the activity of these transaminases in liver tissue.
      Key words: Quails; BioR remedy; Liver; Liver tissue; Alkaline phosphatase; Bilirubin; Transaminases; Fattening.
      Реферат. В работе представлены результаты влияния препарата БиоР, полученного с помощью
      современных методов из Spirulina platensis и также альтернативного препарата Бутофан на функциональное состояние печени и некоторые показатели продуктивности у перепелов на откорме. Опыт проводился на 3-х группах перепелов, по 50 голов в каждой. Положительное влияние препарата БиоР на функцию печени представлено посредством большинства маркеров, характеризующих состояние печени, такие как – щелочная фосфатаза и ее фракции: термолабильная и термостабильная, билирубин и его фракции: прямой и непрямой, аланинтрансаминаза и аспартаттрансаминаза и их функции в печеночной ткани.
      Ключевые слова: Перепела; Препарат БиоР; Печень; Печеночная ткань; Щелочная фосфатаза; Билирубин; Трансаминазы; Откорм. 
      PubDate: 2018-01-29
       
  • Milk value chain analysis: the case of the Republic of Moldova

    • Authors: Artur GOLBAN, Rita GOLBAN
      Pages: 138 - 144
      Abstract: Competitivitatea unui produs poate fi evaluată utilizînd analiza lanţului valoric care reprezintă totalitatea
      activităţilor necesare pentru a aduce un produs de la faza sa conceptuală la faza finală de folosire. Lanţul
      valoric include designul, producţia, marketingul, distribuţia şi suportul de a duce produsul spre consumatorul final. Producţia de lapte reprezintă un sector important al economiei naţionale, fiind produs în mare parte în gospodăriile populaţiei (95% din volumul total de lapte) şi aproximativ cinci procente din volumul total de lapte este produs în întreprinderile agricole. Articolul are obiectivul de a prezenta o analiză a lanţului valoric al laptelui, principalele probleme cu care se confruntă producătorii de lapte la nivelul lanţului valoric, de a propune soluţii în vederea sporirii competitivităţii laptelui. Pentru studiu s-au utilizat date statistice colectate de la Biroul Naţional de Statistică al Republicii Moldova şi baze de date internaţionale. Rezultatele investigaţiilor oferă posibilitatea de a înţelege rolul fiecărui element al lanţului valoric al laptelui în sporirea competitivităţii acestuia.
      Cuvinte cheie: Producţie de lapte; Lanţ valoric; Competitivitate, Întreprinderi agricole.
      . The competitiveness of a product can be evaluated using the value chain analysis which represents the needed steps of the development cycle or process through which a product proceeds from its initial concept to production and final sale. The value chain includes the design, production, marketing, distribution and support to bring the product to its final consumer. Milk production sector is of great importance to the national economy. However, the milk is produced mostly in private households (95% from total volume of milk) and approximately five percent is produced in agricultural enterprises. The paper has the purpose to present the value chain analysis of milk, the major problems the milk producers face at the value chain level and to propose solutions in order to increase the competitiveness of milk production. For this study, data provided by the National Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Moldova and international commercial databases, were used. The results of the research give the possibility to understand the role of each element of the milk value chain in increasing the competitiveness of this product.
      Key words: Milk production; Value chain; Competitiveness; Agricultural enterprises. 
      PubDate: 2018-01-29
       
  • Публичноое администрирование
           ресурсного обеспечения устойчивого
           эколого-социоориентированного
           экономического развития агросферы

    • Authors: Татьяна СОКОЛЬСКАЯ
      Pages: 145 - 151
      Abstract: The article highlights the scientific fundamentals of the resource supply for sustainable ecological
      and socially-oriented economic development of the Ukrainian agrarian sector. A comprehensive analysis of the financial, innovation, logistic and human capital support of agriculture has been carried out, and the trends in socioeconomic and ecological processes in agriculture have been determined. On the basis of the analysis of the socioeconomic and environmental conditions for the development of the domestic agricultural sector, an ecological and socially-oriented model of agricultural management has been developed. This model is characterized by multi-vector goals, namely efficient and at the same time cost-effective use of resources, environment protection and the improvement of the quality of rural residents’ life. It has been proved that the administration of the resource supply for sustainable ecological and socially-oriented economic development of the agrarian sector is impossible without normative financing, education quality management and risk management. A comprehensive analysis and control by management bodies, in order to make prompt management decisions aimed at correcting or quickly eliminating existing shortcomings, are extremely important in solving the set tasks.
      Key words: Resources supply; Agrarian sector; Public administration; Sustainable development; Ecological
      and socially oriented development; Innovations.
      Реферат. В статье изложены научные основы ресурсного обеспечения устойчивого эколого-
      социоориентированного экономического развития агросферы Украины. Осуществлен комплексный
      анализ ресурсного обеспечения сельского хозяйства (финансовое, инновационное и материально-
      техническое, развитие человеческого капитала), определены тенденции социально-экономических и экологических процессов в сельском хозяйстве. На основании анализа социально-экономических и экологических условий развития отечественного аграрного сектора разработана эколого-социоориентированная модель агрохозяйствования, которая отличается многовекторностью целей: эффективное и одновременно экономное использование ресурсов, охрана ок...
      PubDate: 2018-01-29
       
  • Экономическая эффективность применения
           микробных препаратов на пшенице озимой
           в условиях Западной Лесостепи Украины

    • Authors: Галина БИЛОВУС, Игорь ВОЛОЩУК
      Pages: 152 - 157
      Abstract: The effect of the microbial preparations Diazofit and Polymixobacterin and mineral fertilizers on the
      yield of winter wheat have been studied. It was established that the presowing treatment of seeds with microbial preparations positively affects them, and increases the yield by 2.2- 2.5 t/ha, on average over the years of the research (2010-2015). As the result of such a treatment the plants are less affected by dark brown leaf spot, namely by 2.2- 4.6%. In the Western Forest-Steppe of Ukraine the profitability of elite seed production depended on the use of microbial preparations in combination with mineral fertilizers. A high level of profitability (91.0-93.0%) was achieved by the use of the phosphorus-mobilizing preparation Polymixobacterin (N30P90K90 and N30P45K90) and the total costs per ton of elite winter wheat seeds were 2.73-2.76 thousand hryvnia. When the nitrogen fixing preparation Diazofit was used (N30P90K90 ), these indices were 82.0% and 2.38 thousand hryvnia/ton, respectively.
      Key words: Winter wheat; Variety; Dark brown leaf spot; Fertilizers; Microbial preparations; Profitability.
      Реферат. Изучено влияние микробных препаратов диазофит и полимиксобактерин и минеральных удобрений на урожайность пшеницы озимой. Установлено, что предпосевная обработка микробными препаратами положительно влияет на семена, повышает урожай на 2,2-2,5 т/га, в среднем за годы исследований (2010-2015) и снижает поражение растений темно-бурой пятнистостью листьев на 2,2-4,6 %. В условиях Западной Лесостепи Украины рентабельность производства семян элиты зависела от применения микробных препаратов в сочетании с минеральным питанием. Высокий уровень рентабельности (91,0–93,0 %) обеспечило применение фосфоромобилизующего препарата полимиксобактерин (N30P90K90 и N30P45K90), при котором себестоимость 1 т семян элиты пшеницы озимой была 2,73-2,76 тыс. грн. При применении азотфиксирующего препарата диазофит (N30P90K90) эти показатели, соответстве...
      PubDate: 2018-01-29
       
  • Анализ практических аспектов контроля
           возбудителей пищевых зоонозов при
           выращивании птицы

    • Authors: Оксана КАСЬЯНЕНКО, Татьяна ФОТИНА, Анна ФОТИНА, Сергей ГЛАДЧЕНКО, Роман БЕЗРУК, Татьяна ГНИДЕНКО
      Pages: 158 - 165
      Abstract: The article presents an overview of literature data and EU regulations on the control measures of
      food-borne zoonotic agents (Campylobacter E.coli O157, Listeria, Salmonella, Enterococcus, Streptococcus and other pathogens) in the chain of poultry production. The strategic measures for the control of zoonoses in the conditions of poultry farms are considered: use of biosecuruty means to prevent the wide spread of pathogens; decontamination of feeds and drinking water; use of probiotics and prebiotics for the normalization of poultry intestinal microflora; vaccination; use of antibiotic alternatives: bacteriophages and bacteriocins (microbial peptides), and other control measures.
      Key words: Poultry; Food-borne zoonoses; Pathogens; Control measures; HACCP system.
      Реферат. Представлен обзор литературных данных и нормативных документов EC, регламентирующих мероприятия по контролю возбудителей пищевых зоонозов (Campylobacter E.coli O157, Listeria, Salmonella, Enterococcus, Streptococcusan и др.) на протяжении периода выращивания птицы. Рассматриваются стратегические мероприятиями контроля зоонозов в условиях птицеферм: применение средств биологической безопасности для предотвращения широкого распространения патогенов; обеззараживание корма и питьевой воды; применение пробиотиков и пребиотиков для нормализации кишечной микрофлоры птицы; вакцинация; применение альтернативных антибиотикам антимикробных средств: бактериофагов и бактериоцинов (антимикробных пептид) и др.
      Ключевые слова: Птица; Пищевые зоонозы; Возбудители; Контроль; Система HACCP. 
      PubDate: 2018-01-29
       
 
 
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