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Botanical Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.354
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2007-4476
Published by Sociedad Botanica de México Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Evaluation of the symmetric effect of antagonists in the floral morphs of
           the distylic shrub Bouvardia ternifolia: a field study

    • Authors: Luis Antonio Salinas-Esquivel, Carlos Lara, María del Coro Arizmendi
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Background: Heterostyly is a genetic polymorphism characterized by a system of sporophyte auto-incompatibility in which the plant populations show two (distyly) or three (tristyly) floral morphs. This reproductive system is known as a promoter of cross-pollination, assuming similar reproductive success between morphs.Hyphothesis: For this assumption to take place, the pollinators must respond in a similar manner to attraction floral traits in both morphs, maintaining a symmetric flow of pollen. We hypothesize that floral damage by antagonists should correspond to similarities or differences in atractiveness among floral morphs.Studied species: We tested this hypothesis in the distylous shrub Bouvardia ternifolia (Rubiaceae).Methods: we evaluated the magnitude of the nectar theft, foliar herbivory, and seed predation by assessing individual plants of both floral morphs throughout their flowering period (June-July 2015) under natural conditions. At the end of the flowering season, we quantified fruit and seed production.Results: The intensity of the herbivore and nectar thieves in this distylous population is similar between morphs, as well as the size of their floral displays. The number of seeds and fruits produced was also similar between morphs.Conclusions: Our study showed that selection pressures imposed by antagonists were similar to both floral morphs in the studied population of Bouvardia ternifolia.
      PubDate: 2018-03-15
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 1 (2018)
  • Mexican priority bamboo species under scenarios of climate change

    • Authors: Eduardo Ruiz-Sanchez, Gabriela Mendoza-Gonzalez, Octavio Rojas-Soto
      Pages: 11 - 23
      Abstract: Background: Worldwide only 45 bamboo species are considered economically important. Guadua inermis and Otatea acuminata are two bamboo species that are economically important in different areas of Mexico.Question: How climate change is affecting the distribution of these species and where are the priority areas that should be considered for conservation refuges.Studied species/ Data description: We consider Guadua inermis and Otatea acuminata, both endemic to Mexico, as potentially economic priority species. Both are used in rural communities for different purposes. Both inhabit tropical sub-deciduous, deciduous and dry oak forests, and are extracted exclusively from wild populations.Study site and years of study: Mexico and Central America. Data considered have different temporality depending on the source of collections and databases; localities were recorded until 2015.Methods: The potential geographic distributions of Guadua inermis and Otatea acuminata were modeled to investigate the possible effects of climate change under different scenarios and to identify their potential future distributions and potential plantation management.Results: Our results showed a likely reduction of the current potential distributions when both species are projected into future scenarios of climate change. G. inermis will lose between 9.5 and 42.3 % of its current distribution under RCP 4.5 and 8.5 respectively. Meanwhile, O. acuminata would lose between 14.2 and 22.3 % of its current distribution under the same climate scenarios.Conclusions: Fortunately, even with the potential loss of geographic distribution, both species are likely to remain in some suitable areas where the species will grow and could be used with appropriate management. 
      PubDate: 2018-03-15
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 1 (2018)
  • Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a coastal wetland in Yucatan, Mexico

    • Authors: Diana Fabián, Patricia Guadarrama, Laura Hernadez-Cuevas, José Alberto Ramos-Zapata
      Pages: 24 - 34
      Abstract: Background: The wetlands provide important ecosystem services, but also represent a limiting environment for the organisms which are distributed there. However, these limiting factors can be overcome thanks to the biotic interactions established by the organisms.Study species: Acoelorraphe wrightii is a palm inhabiting coastal wetlands and is found to be associated with arbuscular mycorrhzal fungi. On occasions, this palm is found to dominate and forms plant associations known as “tasistal” which are located close to the mangrove.Question: The dynamic of the colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi of A. wrightii roots was evaluated, as well as the production of spores and the richness of AM fungal species in A. wrightii rhizosphere.Study site: During the dry season (February-May), adult individuals of A. wrightii were selected in a “tasistal” located in Yucatan, Mexico.Methods: Roots and rhizospheric soil were collected from the A. wrightii individuals collected in order to evaluate mycorrhizal colonization of the roots and to estimate the amount and identity of spores.Results: Colonization by AMF in A. wrightii roots was found between 24 and 67 %. Significant differences were found in percentage of colonization for the different months sampled. Number of spores showed no variation in the time, and 22 species of AMF were identified, the most represented being Glomeraceae.Conclusions: The colonization of A. wrightii roots by AM fungi throughout all the sampling months suggests that the interaction is important for the plant. A high richness of AMF species in its rhizosphere was found (most likely colonizing its roots) with the presence of some exclusive species at the beginning and end of the rainy season. It is important to investigate the arbuscular mycorrhizal interaction in other phenological seasons of the palm, and to evaluate the biotic and abiotic factors influencing this interaction.
      PubDate: 2018-03-15
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 1 (2018)
  • Plant-herbivore interactions and secondary metabolites of plants:
           Ecological and evolutionary perspectives

    • Authors: Eunice Kariñho-Betancourt
      Pages: 35 - 51
      Abstract: Background: Throughout disciplines including paleontology and molecular biology, hence using the fossil record or DNA sequences, ancestral and current plant-herbivore associations mediated by secondary compounds have been assessed. The coevolutionary model of “escape and radiation” predicts adaptive patterns at micro- and macro-evolutionary scale, resulted from the plant-herbivore interaction.Questions:  The study of plant-herbivore interaction and secondary metabolites, has been bias for two main reasons: (1) the interdisciplinary study of the interaction has “atomized" the field. (2) The conceptual framework of coevolution favored analysis either within populations or across taxa.Methods: I review the evolutionary history of the interaction and secondary metabolites, from paleontological and palebiochemical data. Then, based on empirical evidence of quantitative genetics and comparative methods, I examine the main assumptions of micro- and macro-evolutionary postulates of the coevolutionary model. Further, I overview the analytical approach for the study of plant defense within-species and across phylogeny. Results:  Within species, (1) the coevolutionary dynamics shaping plants and herbivore phenotypes, and (2) the role of plant chemistry to constraint ecological interactions, are the most stressed patterns. Across phylogeny, (1) the role of plant chemistry to constraint insect host shifts, and (2) the implications of, and mechanism behind the evolutionary novelties, are more recently assessed.Conclusion: I suggest that future research should integrate both conceptual and analytical perspectives of micro- and macro-evolutionary approaches. One promising direction relies in modern molecular techniques that may open new research avenues by providing evidence for the function of complex genetic and genomic machineries behind biotic interactions.
      PubDate: 2018-03-15
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 1 (2018)
  • Resistance to Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus and its heritability in
           wild genotypes of Capsicum annuum

    • Authors: Jesús Enrique Retes-Manjarrez, Sergio Hernández-Verdugo, Benedicte Pariaud, Luis Alberto Hernández-Espinal, Saúl Parra-Terraza, Diana Lilia Trejo-Saavedra, Rafael Francisco Rivera-Bustamante, José Antonio Garzón-Tiznado
      Pages: 52 - 62
      Abstract: Background: Pepper huastecto yellow vein virus (PHYVV) is one of the main viruses affecting pepper (Capsicum spp.) plants in Mexico.Question: Why there are no pepper resistant cultivars to PHYVV currently' Could it be due for the lack of new pepper resistant sources and knowledge about the heritability of the resistant trait'Study species: Capsicum annuum, Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus and Bemisia tabaci.Study site: Culiacan Sinaloa, Mexico; January 2013 to August 2014.Methods: Two assays were performed in 2013 and 2014 with three resistant wild lines of Capsicum annuum in the S2 and S3 generation under greenhouse conditions to analyze the resistance to the Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus (PHYVV) and its heritability. Plants were inoculated with PHYVV through Bemisia tabaci G. and by grafting.Results: Line UAS12 showed a significantly higher proportion of resistant plants, longer incubation time, and less amount of viral DNA, followed by lines UAS13, UAS10 and the Maverick cultivar under both inoculation methods in both assays. Distribution of symptoms revealed a bimodal tendency in both assays. The novel gene "CchGLP" which confer resistance to PHYVV in pepper plants, was identified in the three lines evaluated on this study. Heritability of line UAS12 was of 0.35 and 0.26 in the insects and grafting inoculations, and of 0.58 and 0.10 in the first and second assays, respectively. Lines UAS13 and UAS10 showed close to zero heritability in the first and second assays with both inoculation methods.Conclusions: Line UAS12 is the most promising genetic resource for its high resistance and for showing heritability for the resistance trait. The intermediate resistance of lines UAS13 and UAS10 could be also useful for breeding programs. At least two genes are involved in the resistance trait to PHYVV. Part of the resistance shown in these lines may be due to the presence of the "CchGLP" gene. Line UAS12 count with variability for the resistant trait and can, therefore, be used to improve resistance and the other two lines possibly are stable as they did not show heritability.
      PubDate: 2018-03-15
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 1 (2018)
  • Ecology and distribution of macroscopic algae communities in streams from
           the Basin of Mexico

    • Authors: Rogelio Rodríguez-Flores, Javier Carmona-Jiménez
      Pages: 63 - 75
      Abstract: Background: Several studies of lotic ecosystems have provided important ecological information on the influence of environmental heterogeneity on macroscopic algae composition.Hypothesis: The highest species diversity will occur during the cold-dry season, correlated to low temperature and oligothrophic water, while the distribution of each species will be related to heterogeneity of habitat and its dispersal strategies.Studied species: Twenty-two species of macroscopic algae of different Phyla (Chlorophyta, Cyanobacteria, Heterokontophyta and Rhodophyta).Study site: The macroscopic algae composition was described for 35 permanent mountain streams in the Basin of Mexico from 2012 to 2015.Methods: Algae species, physico-chemical water conditions and microhabitat factors were recorded in situ at each contrasting season. The relationship between diversity and the environmental factors was statistically evaluated by Canonical Correspondence Analysis and a Spearman test. Results: Macroscopic algae recorded had biological features and environmental abilities that separated them into two groups. The first included the most frequent and abundant species: Nostoc parmelioides, Placoma regulare, Prasiola mexicana and Vaucheria bursata. The second included species restricted to certain habitats:  Draparnaldia mutabilis, Tetraspora gelatinosa, Batrachospermum gelatinosum and Paralemanea mexicana. Each Phyla responds differentially to the spatial heterogeneity of the streams, but the species does not change between contrasting seasons.Conclusions: Local and spatial environmental variables explain differences in richness and distribution of species on the studied area; however, species composition does not vary widely among sampling sites. Cyanobacteria and Chlorophyta are more affected by local environmental variables, whereas Rhodophyta is more influenced by spatial variables.
      PubDate: 2018-03-15
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 1 (2018)
  • Mobilization and synthesis of seed storage and LEA proteins during natural
           priming of Buddleja cordata and Opuntia tomentosa

    • Authors: Sandra Alvarado-López, Ximena Gómez-Maqueo, Diana Soriano, Alma Orozco-Segovia, Alicia Gamboa-de Buen
      Pages: 76 - 83
      Abstract: Background: In crop plants, the induction of seed storage protein mobilization and synthesis of LEA family proteins has been extensively described.Question: Natural priming promotes mobilization and synthesis of seed storage and LEA proteins in wild plants'Species studied: Buddleja cordata and Opuntia tomentosa. Study site: Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Angel (REPSA).Methods: Natural priming treatments were applied to B. cordata and O. tomentosa seeds during one and six months respectively. Phosphorylated proteins fractions were obtained by affinity chromatography from control and treated seeds. Differences in protein pattern between control and treated seeds were determined by electrophoresis and the treated seed proteins were identified by LS/LS/MALDITOF. Results: The phosphorylated fraction of B. cordata treated seeds presented two proteins that were absent in the control protein fraction. These two proteins were identified as two different 11S globulins.  The phosphorylated fraction of O. tomentosa treated seeds also presented two proteins that were absent in the control protein fraction. These two proteins were identified as a 12S globulin and a LEA protein.Conclusion: Seeds are subjected to changes in soil water content during their permanence in soil; this natural priming process promotes mobilization and synthesis of storage and LEA proteins that are involved in stress resistance. 
      PubDate: 2018-03-15
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 1 (2018)
  • Degree of domestication influences susceptibility of Theobroma cacao to
           frosty pod rot: a severe disease devastating Mexican cacao

    • Authors: Victor J. Albores-Flores, Graciela García-Guzmán, Francisco J. Espinosa-García, Miguel Salvador-Figueroa
      Pages: 84 - 94
      Abstract: Background: The three-main cacao (Theobroma cacao) varieties cultivated in México are: Criollo, Forastero, and Trinitario. Each variety has a different fruit setting time and has been subjected to several selection stages. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility of the three cacao varieties to Frosty pod rot caused by Moniliophthora roreri. We also analyzed the physicochemical properties of the pericarp of the three varieties and its domestication age.Question: Is there a relationship between the degree of domestication of the cacao variety and its susceptibility to Frosty pod rot'Studied species: Theobroma cacao fruits.Study site: A cacao plantation in Chiapas, Mexico.Methods:  The content of moisture, lignin, phenols, peroxidase activity and hardness of the pericarp were analyzed in the middle zone of healthy fruits at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of development. Number of healthy and infected fruits were recorded every week.Results: The highest susceptibility to Frosty pod rot was found in the immature stage of fruits from the Criollo variety. The disease was mostly found in the mid-zone of the fruit. The Criollo variety was the most susceptible. This variety showed the highest moisture values and the lowest values of the other measured parameters.Conclusions: The finest cacao is obtained from the Criollo variety, the one with the highest degree of domestication, and also the most susceptible to frosty pod rot. We suggest using material from wild Criollo populations and from the Forastero and Trinitario varieties in future breeding and selection programs.
      PubDate: 2018-03-15
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 1 (2018)
  • Evolution, growth and phenology of Phalaris minor biotypes resistant to
           ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in Mexico

    • Authors: Jesús Rubén Torres-García, Obdulia Segura-León, Ebandro Uscanga-Mortera, Carlos Trejo, Víctor Conde-Martínez, Josué Kohashi-Shibata, David Martínez-Moreno
      Pages: 95 - 102
      Abstract: Background: Herbicide application to control weeds can promote a rapid selection of resistant phenotypes in small geographic areas. Also, in areas with a spatial heterogeneous management, resistance may evolve independently, promoting local adaptation in weeds. In the Mexican region known as “El Bajio,” 100,000 ha are cultivated with wheat, and the weed  Phalaris minor, resistant to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides is present common.Question: We aim to identify the population structure of two genes in four different P. minor biotypes from “El Bajio” and to determine their association with phenology and plant growth differences (biomass and seed yield) that may contribute to survival in the agricultural environment.Studied species: Phalaris minor Retz.Study site and years of study:Methods: The diversity of the psbA gene and the sequence of two ACCase gene fragments as well as phenology, growth and biomass allocation were evaluated.Results: Results indicated different polymorphism levels for the two genes. There were no differences in the psbA gene between biotypes, although the ACCase gene exhibited high polymorphism level. In addition, each biotype showed differences in phenology, biomass accumulation and fecundity.Conclusions: The ACCase-inhibiting herbicide resistance in “El Bajio” region might be a resistance hotspot leading to the local adaptation of weeds.
      PubDate: 2018-03-15
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 1 (2018)
  • Vascular Plants and Vegetation of the Sayula sub-basin, Jalisco, Mexico

    • Authors: Miguel Ángel Macías-Rodríguez, Héctor Gerardo Frías-Ureña, Sergio Honorio Contreras-Rodríguez, Alfredo Frías-Castro
      Pages: 103 - 137
      Abstract: Background: The Sayula sub-basin presents a complex landscape composed of plants communities that to date have not been studied in a timely manner, so this study contributes to the knowledge of the flora and vegetation of the area and the State.Question: i) How many and which families, genera and species are in the Sayula sub-basin' ii) What are the main biological forms of the species' iii) Are there species under any category of protection' iv) How many vegetation types are present within the region'
      Studied species: Ferns, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms.
      Study site and years of study: The Sayula sub-basin, Jalisco, Mexico; from February 2012 to October 2015.
      Methods: Through the literature review and field work the floristic checklist was elaborated. In addition, with the use of geographic information systems, a map of land use and vegetation was made.
      Results: A total of 687 species were recorded, including 415 genera and 113 families. The five main families were Poaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae Solanaceae and Euphorbiaceae representing 42.6 % of the total species and 36.6 % of the genera. It should be noted that the predominant biological forms were herbs with 409, 105 shrubs and 74 trees. On the other hand, 47 species registered under some protection category of which, only one species Cleomella jaliscensis is endemic to the region. Finally, eight vegetation types were determined, being the tropical deciduous forest the one that occupies greater surface and presents greater floristic diversity.
      Conclusions: It is important to emphasize that during the realization of the work, agricultural activities were detected affecting the flora and vegetation, threatening the biodiversity and the natural balance of the region.
      PubDate: 2018-03-15
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 1 (2018)
  • Temporary freshwater wetlands floristics in central Mexico highlands

    • Authors: Tatiana Lobato-de Magalhães, Mahinda Martínez
      Pages: 138 - 156
      Abstract: Background: Mexico has a high diversity of aquatic and subaquatic plants that occur between 1,000 and 2,500 m of elevation, although a larger proportion of aquatic plants is concentrated at lower altitudes. Temporary wetlands harbor close to 73 % of the aquatic species in Mexico. These systems are under a strong anthropogenic pressure and suffer constant degradation.Questions: i) How many species grow in highland temporary wetlands' ii) Are they floristically similar' iii) Is there a latitudinal pattern of species richness'Studied groups: Charophyta, Pteridophyta, Angiosperms.Study site and years of study: Central Mexico (39 wetlands) from 2015 to 2016.Methods: We collected in 39 temporary wetlands for two years. We made a presence/absence list of species per locality, and calculated floristic similarities and correlations between wetlands. We include data characterizing life form, plant use, and conservation status.Results: We found 126 species belonging to 80 genera and 38 families. The richest families were Cyperaceae, Asteraceae, and Poaceae. As to genera, Eleocharis, Cyperus, and Juncus had more species. Species with the widest distributions were Persicaria mexicana, Marsilea mollis, Luziola fluitans, Heteranthera peduncularis, and Nymphoides fallax.  We found five different life forms – all herbaceous, including 27 threatened species, 24 species with economic use, 48 endemic species, and 19 cosmopolitan species. In addition, we found 20 species recorded for the first time in some states included in our study, and two species of Eleocharis that might represent undescribed species. The richest wetland harbors 40 species, the poorest has only five. Wetlands were comparable to each other in species composition, and species richness increases towards the south.Conclusions: Temporary wetlands harbor a high floristic diversity and are similar to each other. Lower latitudes host higher numbers of species.
      PubDate: 2018-03-15
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 1 (2018)
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