Journal Cover Botanical Sciences
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   ISSN (Online) 2007-4476
   Published by Sociedad Botanica de México Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Words from the new editor

    • Authors: Salvador Arias
      Pages: 591 - 592
      PubDate: 2017-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 95, No. 4 (2017)
  • The knowledge of the flora de Mexico

    • Authors: Guillermo Ibarra-Manriquez, Abisai Josue Garcia-Mendoza, Hilda María Flores-Olvera
      Pages: 593 - 594
      Abstract: Editorial:The knowledge of the flora de Mexico
      PubDate: 2017-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 95, No. 4 (2017)
  • Restoration of a degraded oak forest in Mexico City by introducing tree
           native species

    • Authors: Elizabeth Chávez-García, Ana Mendoza
      Pages: 595 - 609
      Abstract: Background: Uncontrollable urban expansion and population growth converted Mexico City into one of the largest cities of the world. Ravines remain important oak forest relicts that should be conserved and restored to recover the biodiversity and the ecological services they provide.Question: Is an open area equally appropriate for ecological restoration as is the forest edge' Does plant performance of introduced species vary between the open area and the forest edge'Study species: Prunus serotina, Quercus rugosa, and Crataegus mexicana.Study site: Oak forest in Barranca de Tarango, Mexico City; July 2010 to July 2012.Methods: Plants of these species were planted in the forest edge and in an open area adjacent to it, where soil properties and light conditions were measured.Results: Soil properties and leaf area index were better and significantly larger, respectively, in the forest edge than in the open area. Stem height, basal area and number of sprouts of these plants did not differ between sites or years. Plants of C. mexicana produced the largest number of sprouts, followed by Q. rugosa. Survival of plants was similar in the open area and the forest edge; however, P. serotina had the lowest survival, and C. mexicana the highest.Conclusions: Q. rugosa and C. mexicana with higher survival are more likely to perform better in both sites than P. serotina,on account of their ability to produce more sprouts. The forest edge is better than the open area for introducing native species in Barranca de Tarango. Low performance of these species was mainly due to the construction of a highway that crosses the study area. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 95, No. 4 (2017)
  • Floristic, vegetational and geographic characteristics of the Sierra de
           Chiconquiaco, Veracruz, Mexico

    • Authors: Maite Lascurain Rangel, Sergio Avendaño-Reyes, Miguel Cházaro-Basañez, Daniel Geissert-Kientz, Rafael Villegas-Patraca, César Augusto Gallo-Gómez, Celso Gutiérrez-Báez
      Pages: 610 - 659
      Abstract: Background: Explored botanically from the 19th century, the Sierra de Chiconquiaco is recognized for its large vegetal and topographical heterogeneity. However, the available floristic information is sparse and its geographic characteristics remain undefined. The objective of this study was therefore to integrate floristic, vegetal and geographic information in order to identify areas that have experienced floristic exploration as well as potential sites for conservation.Question: Under which criteria can the Sierra be geographically delimited' What kind of floristic and vegetational studies have been carried out' How many species of plants have been registered' Which sites have been more widely explored' Which of them have conservation and research potentials'Study site and years of study: Sierra de Chiconquiaco, Veracruz, Mexico, 2010-2014.Methods: A bibliographical and records review of the XAL and MEXU herbariums, works and field survey were carried out. Through analysis of geomorphological attributes in a geographic information system, the boundaries of the Sierra were established, revealing an area of 3,632 km2, featuring 22 municipalities and an altitudinal range of 50 to 3,000 m a.s.l.Results: Seven vegetation types were described, as well as a floristic list of 3,019 species, including 72 type localities, 36 endemics, 57 registered in the NOM-059, 2010 and 195 in the CITES.Conclusions: Nine potential areas for conservation of flora were detected, as well as six that were scarcely documented in the herbaria. This study provides a relevant contribution to the knowledge, use and conservation of the vegetal resources of Mexico.
      PubDate: 2017-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 95, No. 4 (2017)
  • Distribution and diversity of Fagaceae in Hidalgo, Mexico

    • Authors: Susana Valencia-A., Gabriel Flores-Franco, Jaime Jiménez-Ramírez, Mauricio Mora-Jarvio
      Pages: 660 - 721
      Abstract: Background: The family Fagaceae is one of the most important in temperate regions of the Northern hemisphere. Fagus and Quercus are distributed in Mexico, the former in Northeastern Mexico, while the latter reaches a high diversity in the Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico. In Hidalgo state, located mainly in the Sierra Madre Oriental, knowledge of the Fagaceae diversity is still uncertain.Questions and/or hypothesis: We carried out a taxonomic revision of the genus and species of Fagaceae in Hidalgo state. We determined how many and which species are distributed in Hidalgo. We also present a morphological description and ecological characters of each one.Studied species: The species of the family FagaceaeStudy site: Hidalgo state, Mexico.Method: We collected herbarium specimens, made field observations and reviewed herbarium data of Fagaceae specimens at FCME, INEGI, MEXU, ENCB, SLPM, HUMO, XAL and partly BH herbaria. In addition, we checked taxonomic literature and protologues of each species.Results: We found one species of Fagus and 43 of Quercus, 22 of which belong to the section Quercus (white oaks) and 21 to section Lobatae (red oaks). Morphological descriptions, altitudinal and geographical distribution, vegetation types of each species and a dichotomous key for species identification are presented. Illustrations and photographs of the species are also included.Conclusions: A high diversity of Fagaceae species is present in Hidalgo state. In Mexico, Hidalgo ranks in fifth place for oak species diversity, just behind Oaxaca (50 species), Puebla (50), San Luis Potosí (45), and Jalisco (45).
      PubDate: 2017-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 95, No. 4 (2017)
  • Checklist of the vascular flora of a portion of the hyper-humid region of
           La Chinantla, Northern Oaxaca Range, Mexico

    • Authors: Jorge A. Meave, Armando Rincón-Gutiérrez, Guillermo Ibarra-Manríquez, Claudia Gallardo-Hernández, Marco Antonio Romero-Romero
      Pages: 722 - 759
      Abstract: Background: La Chinantla, a topographically and geomorphologically complex region, and probably the most humid in the country, hosts a diverse but largely unknown biota, particularly at higher elevations.Questions: How many plant species are present in La Chinantla' How are these species distributed along the elevational gradient encompassed in the region'Studied species: Lycopodiophyta, Pteridophyta, Gimnospermopsida, Magnoliidae, Eudicots,Monocots.Study sites and years of study: We studied the flora of the La Chinantla hyper-humid region, Northern Oaxaca Range, southern Mexico, from 1993 to 2017.Methods: We collected 2,654 specimens in 73 main localities distributed across an elevational range from 250 to 3,020 m (but concentrated above 800 m). Numerous experts in plant taxonomy examined the specimens and provided or confirmed identifications.Results: The checklist of the vascular plants includes 1,021 species, 471 genera and 162 families of vascular plants. The specimens/species ratio (2.6) reflected a satisfactory collecting effort. The most diverse families were Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, and Orchidaceae, whereas the most speciose genera were Peperomia, Miconia and Piper. Most listed species are herbs (47.3 % of the total) and trees (35.2 %), whereas the terrestrial (85.4 %) and epiphytic (15.9 %) growth habits were the most frequent ones (some species presented more than one growth form or growth habit category).Conclusions:Based on the magnitude of the current checklist, we estimate that the actual number of species in this region must be around 1,650. The recorded richness of vascular plant species of La Chinantla confirms the large diversity and uniqueness of its flora and calls for efficient conservations efforts to ensure its maintenance in the future. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 95, No. 4 (2017)
  • Diagnóstico del conocimiento taxonómico y florístico de las plantas
           vasculares del norte de México

    • Authors: M. Socorro González-Elizondo, Martha González-Elizondo, Irma Lorena López-Enríquez, Jorge Alberto Tena-Flores, Jesús Guadalupe González-Gallegos, Lizeth Ruacho-González, Alicia Melgoza-Castillo, José Ángel Villarreal-Quintanilla, Andrés Eduardo Estrada-Castillón
      Pages: 760 - 779
      Abstract: Antecedentes: El conocimiento taxonómico y florístico de las plantas vasculares del norte de México presenta avances relevantes, aunque disgregados. Por lo anterior, es crítico hacer un diagnóstico para definir estrategias que los unifiquen y complementen.Preguntas: ¿cuál es la riqueza y endemismo de las plantas vasculares en el norte de México', ¿en cuáles de sus áreas deben concentrarse los esfuerzos de exploración'Sitio de estudio: norte de México (Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango y Nuevo León).Métodos: Se desarrolló una base de datos de plantas vasculares del norte de México a partir de la del Herbario CIIDIR, complementada con registros provenientes de la Universidad de Chihuahua, Universidad Antonio Narro y Universidad de Nuevo León, así como de revisión de trabajos taxonómicos y de los herbarios ANSM, CFNL, CIIDIR y FZ-UACH. Se calculó la riqueza y endemismo por estado y por ecorregión; se definieron los grupos y áreas geográficas mejor conocidos y los huecos en conocimiento; y se elaboró una relación de los herbarios, programas en botánica y botánicos en la región.Resultados: Se registran 8,503 especies, 1,599 géneros y 210 familias de plantas vasculares; 15 géneros son endémicos estrictos de la región. La mayor riqueza se registra para Durango (4,954 especies, 58 % del total). La Sierra Madre Occidental (en su porción para la zona estudiada) es la ecorregión con más especies (3,565), seguida por la Sierra Madre Oriental (2,862) y el Desierto Chihuahuense (2,602). Chihuahua y la Sierra Madre Occidental son el estado y la ecorregión menos explorados, mientras que la ecorregión mejor explorada es el Desierto Chihuahuense.Conclusiones: Las cifras de riqueza y endemismo presentadas reflejan el estado del conocimiento actual, sin embargo, se requiere incrementar los inventarios florísticos, las revisiones taxonómicas y los estudios ecológicos para contar con información más precisa y exacta del panorama real.
      PubDate: 2017-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 95, No. 4 (2017)
  • Lamiaceae de México

    • Authors: Martha Juana Martínez-Gordillo, Brenda Bedolla-García, Guadalupe Cornejo-Tenorio, Itzi Fragoso-Martínez, María del Rosario García-Peña, Jesús Guadalupe González-Gallegos, Sabina I. Lara-Cabrera, Sergio Zamudio
      Pages: 780 - 806
      Abstract: Antecedentes: Lamiaceae es una de las familias con mayor riqueza de especies en México. Sin embargo, aún se carece de un estudio detallado sobre su diversidad en el país y de una revisión taxonómica global y actualizada. Como resultado, el aprovechamiento y conservación de los integrantes de esta familia es limitado.Preguntas: ¿Qué avances se han logrado en el estudio y entendimiento de la riqueza, endemismo y distribución de las Lamiaceae mexicanas' ¿Qué estrategias deben ejecutarse para consolidar el conocimiento de la familia en el país'Taxon: LamiaceaeSitio de estudio: MéxicoMétodos: Se hizo una revisión exhaustiva de las Lamiaceae mexicanas en la literatura, bases de datos y herbarios. Se sintetizó el estado de su conocimiento. Se aplicaron análisis cuantitativos para evaluar su riqueza, endemismo y distribución geográfica.Resultados: México cuenta con 33 géneros y 598 especies, de las cuales el 66.2 % son endémicas. El género más diverso es Salvia, con 306 especies. El estado más diverso es Oaxaca, mientras que Jalisco alberga el mayor número de especies endémicas.Conclusiones: En México, Lamiaceae es la octava familia más diversa y el número de sus especies representa el 5.5 % de la familia a nivel mundial, por lo que el país puede considerarse uno de los centros de diversificación más importante. Debido a lo anterior, y al endemismo elevado que presenta, México es crucial para la conservación in situ de la familia. Si bien se ha logrado un avance considerable de su conocimiento y en la actualidad hay un repunte en su estudio, es necesario diversificar los campos de investigación.
      PubDate: 2017-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 95, No. 4 (2017)
  • Leaf anatomical and biochemical adaptations in Typha domingensis Pers.
           ecotypes for salinity tolerance

    • Authors: Noreen Akhtar, Mansoor Hameed, Fahim Nawaz, Khawaja Shafique Ahmad, Abdul Hamid, Claudia Segovia-Salcedo, Muhammad Muslim Shahnaz
      Pages: 807 - 821
      Abstract: Background. Soil salinity is a major menace to plants. Salt tolerant plants have developed different morphological, structural and physiological characteristics, which enable them to survive and reproduce under high salt concentrations.Hypothesis. It was hypothesized that differently adapted ecotypes of T. domingensis may have different structural and biochemical response to various levels of salt stress.Studied species/Data description. Six ecotypes of Typha domingensis Pers. were evaluated for anatomical and biochemical response and to find out the mechanism of adaptation under salt stress.Methods. All the ecotypes of Typha domingensis were acclimatized for a period of six months. Four levels of salinity viz. 0, 100, 200 and 300 mM NaCl were maintained. The plants were carefully collected from the medium to study various anatomical and biochemical characteristics.Results. The most promising anatomical modifications were; reduced leaf thickness in Sheikhupura, Gatwala and Treemu ecotype, increased cell vacuolar volume in Sahianwala and Knotti ecotype, larger metaxylem vessel in Sheikhupura and Gatwala ecotype, aerenchyma formation in all ecotypes and high sclerification in Sahianwala and Knotti ecotype. Accumulation of osmolytes mainly proline and glycinebetaine in Treemu, Sahianwala, Jahlar and Knotti ecotype under different levels of salt stress may be defense mechanism of T. domingensis to prevent severe loss in turgor.Conclusions. The results demonstrate that genetic potential of T. domingensis to grow under salt stress could be used for the purpose of phytoremediation and reclamation of soil salinity.
      PubDate: 2017-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 95, No. 4 (2017)
  • Leaf morphoanatomy of the medicinal Maytenus imbricata (Celastraceae): an
           ecological approach

    • Authors: Silvia Ribeiro-de Souza, Izabel Cristina Trindade, Maria Olívia Mercadante-Simões, Lucienir Pains-Duarte, Grácia Divina de Fátima Silva, Maria Cristina Teixeira Braga Messias, Ariadna Conceição dos Santos, Sidney Augusto Vieira-Filho
      Pages: 822 - 829
      Abstract: Background. The leaves of many species of Maytenus are used to prepare herbal drugs to treat stomach ulcers.Questions. In order to define key anatomical characters for the unambiguous species identification, the present study aimed to describe the leaf morphoanatomy of M. imbricata.Species study. Maytenus imbricata Mart. ex Reissek (Celastraceae)Study site and dates. Collected in an area of ‘campo rupestre’ - one of the Brazilian Savannah vegetation (20º22’11.02”S, 43º30’22.81”W) in August 2015.Methods. The plant material was processed according to commonly used techniques in plant anatomy studies.Results. The major anatomical characters for several species of Maytenus identification also present in M. imbricata are marginal teeth, conspicuous epicuticular wax, ciclocytic stomata, thick external periclinal wall with large pits on epidermal cells and vascular system with a closed loop shape in cross-section. Strips on the anticlinal walls on epidermal cells and conspicuous gelatinous fibers sheath are diagnostic for M. imbricata.Conclusions. Strips on the anticlinal wall of the epidermal cell are reported for the first time for the genus. These xeromorphic traits help the species to survive in arid environments and may contribute to quality control of the raw material used in the production of herbal medicines.
      PubDate: 2017-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 95, No. 4 (2017)
  • The phaeophyte Hizikia fusiformis extracts suppress rhizoid and blade
           formation in seaweeds

    • Authors: Mehader Getachew, Paulos Getachew, Ji-Young Cho, Jae-Suk Choi, Yong-Ki Hong
      Pages: 830 - 838
      Abstract: Background: Plants, including marine algae, produce allelochemicals that influence the growth, survival, and reproduction of other organisms.Questions: To identify natural algicidal or antifouling allelochemicals, we screened 18 common seaweed extracts for suppression of rhizoid and blade production in a convenient Porphyra suborbiculata monospore assay.Species study and data description: Addition of extract from the most potent phaeophyte, Hizikia fusiformis, suppressed rhizoid formation, rhizoid number, rhizoid length, blade formation, and blade length.Study site and dates: Seaweed thalli for methanol extraction were collected on the coast of Korea from October 2012 to July 2015.Methods: Extracts were tested using the P. suborbiculata monospore assay system.Results: The 50 % suppression doses were 15 µg ml-1 for rhizoid formation, 2.4 µg ml-1 for rhizoid number, 13 µg ml-1 for rhizoid length, 6 µg ml-1 for blade formation, and 11 µg ml-1 for blade length. The H. fusiformis extract also suppressed rhizoid and blade production in leafy green (Ulva pertusa) and brown (Undaria pinnatifida and Ecklonia cava) seaweed spores, as well as suppressing diatom settlement.Conclusions: The allelochemicals that suppressed or eliminated competing seaweed species may be efficacious for new seaweed control technologies, including the development of antifouling or algicidal agents based on natural products.
      PubDate: 2017-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 95, No. 4 (2017)
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Heriot-Watt University
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