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Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2527-3442 - ISSN (Online) 2527-4384
Published by Cell and BioPharmaceutical Institute Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Naïve T Cells in Immunosuppression Diseases: Human Immunodeficiency
           Virus and Cytomegalovirus

    • Authors: Kent Wijaya Setiawan, Ferry Sandra
      Abstract: Dynamic changes of naïve T cells determine mature T cells activity in cell-mediated immune response. It is important to understand the mechanism of homeostasis maintenance affect response to novel antigen toward T cell receptor-major histocompatibility complex interaction. Most of the analysis of naïve T cells relies on flow cytometric immunophenotyping to observe surface antigen alteration within maturation stage. The combination of different surface molecules, such as the cluster of differentiation 62L (CD62L), C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7), CD27, CD28, and CD45, can give satisfied discrimination between naïve T cells and other subsets. This parameter can be used to monitor the dynamic change of naïve T cells in some chronic diseases, like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Most of the patient experience loss of naive T cells due to a chronic immune response, which related to apoptotic induction in proliferating cells by viral activity. Some pathogens trigger the migration of naive T cells into lymph nodes to facilitate direct contact with the host cells. The virus infects the cells, use cells proliferation to multiply, and induce apoptosis of host cells after the virions released. Alteration of naive T cells in chronic disease becomes a parameter to oversee the treatment and to determine the future prognosis of the disease. In highly active antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection, observation of naïve T cells and combination of surface molecules, CD45RO− and CD27+ is used to show the improvement and proliferation rate of total naïve T cells. On the other hand, the transformation of naïve T cells into CMV-specific T cells become really important in CMV prognosis. These conditions suggest that dynamic change of naïve T cells affect to the clinical condition of chronic disease patients.Keywords: naïve T cells, immunophenotyping, HIV, CMV
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Osteoclastogenesis in Periodontitis: Signaling Pathway, Synthetic and
           Natural Inhibitors

    • Authors: Ketherin Ketherin, Ferry Sandra
      Abstract: Osteoclast activities are responsible for the resorption of bone cells found in several bone diseases, one of which is periodontitis and arthritis. The downregulating signals of Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kB (RANK)-RANK Ligand and Tumor Necrosis Factor  (TNF)-a are the major cause of the bone destruction. Studies and experiments have been performed to overcome this matter. Various medications are now available to treat bone-related diseases, targeting the specific aspect of the signaling. Synthetic drugs such as denosumab and bisphosphonates have complex pharmacological action and have been the leading choice in treatment. Evidence in studies proved that natural resources including herbal products have potential application to therapy for bone loss, with caffeic acid and Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) showing significant inhibitory results and Chinese herbs such as Herba epimedii (Yín Yáng Huò) and Fructus psoraleae(Bǔ Gǔ Zhī) proved to contain components that give similar effects to estrogen. The purpose of this review is to discuss the therapy value of available synthetic and natural therapeutic agents. Understanding the mechanisms of both agents will not only clarify their function as therapeutic agents, but can also be the key to the treatment of diseases caused by bone resorption by targeting specific aspects of osteoclastogenesis.Keywords: osteoclastogenesis, TNF, RANKL, bone resorption, natural resource, signaling, treatment
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Role of Herbal Extract in Stem Cell Development

    • Authors: Ferry Sandra
      Abstract: Stem cell research has been developed and today we can witness some stem cell clinical trials are on going in Indonesia. To meet a successful stem cell treatment, several factors need to be considered, such as cell number. Cell number has been reported to be crucial, and therefore optimal cell number should be achieved. Meanwhile, in some circumstances, cell number is not enough, therefore, cell number should be enriched in an in vitro stem cell culture setting. In an in vitro stem cell culture, besides suitable and sterile equipment, reagents such as culture medium, serum and antibiotics are all important. Although all those criteria are fulfilled, somehow stem cell enrichment cannot be achieved, cell number is still below the target. Modification of stem cell microenvironment should then be an alternative. The addition of growth factors is a part of the strategies to reach a better enrichment. So that, stem cells could later be induced to proliferate at a higher rate. This strategy was then pursued by the scientist involved in herbal medicine. Herbal extracts were now highly investigated due to its potential to induce cell proliferation. Some herbal extracts inducing proliferation and differentiation of stem cell will be shown and described.Keywords: herbal extract, stem cell, progenitor cell, proliferation, differentiation
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Angiogenesis Intensity within Benign and Malignant Oral Mucosa Epithelial
           Tumor

    • Authors: Janti Sudiono, Sofia Thalib
      Abstract: Background: Angiogenesis is an important and fundamental process for new blood vessels to provide nutrients and oxygen needed by tumor cells to grow, develop, and in case of cancer also to metastasize into other organs. This study aims to evaluate the intensity of angiogenesis within benign (papillomas) and malignant (squamous cell carcinoma) epithelial tumors.Materials and methods:  This analytic observational study with cross-sectional design using histopathology slide sample that were clinically diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma (n=3) and papilloma (n=3). Microscopically, the angiogenesis characterized with lumen lined by endothelial cells with or without red blood cells inside within sub epithelial connective tissue of papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma by Hematoxylin Eosin stain. Angiogenesis intensity was counted from four areas under magnification of (10x10), each area was scored under (10x40) magnification.Results: Angiogenesis intensity of papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma are (45.17±14.573) and (55.18±6.26041) respectively. T-test analysis showed there was no significant difference (p=0.336>0.05).Conclusions: Angiogenesis intensity of papilloma is less than those of squamous cell carcinoma.Keywords: angiogenesis, oral epithelial tumor, benign, malignant
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Enucleation Induces Parvalbumin and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, but
           Not Calbindin D28k Protein Expression in Superior Colliculus of Wistar
           Rats

    • Authors: Daniel Gonzalez, Szeifoul Afadlal, Kristin Lizal, Yulius Hermanto, Takanori Miki, Yoshiki Takeuchi, Irawan Satriotomo
      Abstract: Background: It is known that eye enucleation causes various morphological and functional alterations in the central nervous system (CNS). The purpose of this study was to examine the sub-chronic effects of monocular enucleation on the distribution of the calcium binding proteins calbindin D28k (CB) and parvalbumin (PV) as well as the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity in the superior colliculus (SC) of Wistar rats.Materials and Methods: Thirty young adult (8 weeks) male Wistar rats from SLC (Shizuoka, Japan), weighing 200-250 grams, were housed in separate cages under controlled conditions with a constant temperature kept in 12:12 light/dark cycle and ad libitum water and food. In this study the rats were divided into two groups, a control and an enucleated groups. The experimental group received unilateral eye enucleation and was allowed 1, 4 or 12 weeks recovery before sacrificed.Results: Unilateral enucleation over a period of 1 week or more caused a decrease in the number CB-immunoreactive (CBIR) neurons. This loss was associated with an increase in GFAP-IR astrocytes in the superficial gray layer and the optic layer of the SC with contralateral side predominance. In addition, the CB-IR neurons illustrated a smaller soma and poor dendritic arborization. Conversely, the GFAP-IR astrocytes were hypertrophied with longer foot processes on the contralateral side of enucleation. Interestingly, the number of PV-IR neurons was elevated for up to 4 weeks in enucleated rats versus shamoperated rats.Conclusion: This study demonstrates the importance of calcium-binding protein homeostasis and reversible glial response for maintaining variability of neuronal function in sub-cortical visual centers following optic nerve deafferentation.Keywords: enucleation, superior colliculus, calbindin D28k, parvalbumin, glial fibrillary acidic protein
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2018)
       
 
 
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