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Journal Cover Journal of World Philosophies
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2474-1795
   Published by Indiana University Press Homepage  [27 journals]
  • The ‘Hau’ of Research: Mauss Meets Kaupapa Māori

    • Authors: Georgina Stewart
      Abstract: ‘The Gift’ is the English title of a small book first published in French in 1925 by sociologist Marcel Mauss, which catalyzed an ongoing debate linked to a wide range of scholarship. Mauss’s gift theory included the Māori example of the ‘hau of the gift’ which Mauss explained as a spiritual force, seeking to return to its original owner or place of origin. This article brings a critical Māori perspective to Mauss’ notion of the hau of the gift, in an indigenous philosophical response to Eurocentric social science that combines critical discourse analysis (CDA) with Kaupapa Māori theory and principles of research. The paper introduces Mauss’ arguments about gifting, and the role of hau in those arguments, before turning to a close examination of the concept of ‘hau’ as presented in the original Māori letters, the primary data used by Elsdon Best to write his anthropological articles, from which Mauss developed his ideas about hau. These letters, which sparked the whole debate, are material artefacts of the cross-cultural educational relationship between Tamati Ranapiri as teacher, and Elsdon Best as student. Common-sense Māori readings of Ranapiri find no mystery in what he wrote about hau, but reinforce the significance of his correspondence, from the perspective of Kaupapa Māori versions of the history of Māori education. 
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2017)
  • The Problem of Being in Latin America: Approaching the Latin American
           Ontological sentipensar

    • Authors: Juan Cepeda H.
      Abstract: In the following, I endeavor to subvert the classical notion of being found in Western philosophy by following the logic of negation found in the work of Rodolfo Kusch. In order to develop a better understanding of cultural feelings as well as appreciate the natural, the rhythmic and the vital in the Latin American context, I propose that we follow the ontological sentipensar. By using this methodological framework, I seek to reveal a sense of being germane to Latin American intercultural philosophy. 
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2017)
  • Is Western Marxism Western' The Cases of Gramsci and Tosaka

    • Authors: Takahiro Chino
      Abstract: This paper aims to show that two eminent Marxists in the 1930s, the Italian Antonio Gramsci and the Japanese Tosaka Jun, shared three important characteristics of so-called Western Marxism: the methodological development of Marxism, the focus on the superstructure, and the pessimism about the impossibility of immediate revolution. Showing that Gramsci and Tosaka shared these characteristics enables us to revisit the framework of “Western Marxism,” which confusingly consists of both theoretical characteristics and geographical criteria. Looking at Gramsci and Tosaka on the same plane allows us to revisit Marxist thought different from the orthodox Marxism in Soviet Russia, and not strictly as a Western, but as a part of potentially global movement of thought.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2017)
  • How Do We Gather Knowledge Through Language'

    • Authors: Elisa Freschi, Malcolm Keating
      Abstract: N/A
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2017)
  • Understanding Prescriptive Texts: Rules and Logic as Elaborated by the
           Mīmāṃsā School

    • Authors: Elisa Freschi, Agata Ciabattoni, Francesco A. Genco, Björn Lellmann
      Abstract: The Mīmāṃsā school of Indian philosophy elaborated complex ways of interpreting the prescriptive portions of the Vedic sacred texts. The present article is the result of the collaboration of a group of scholars of logic, computer science, European philosophy and Indian philosophy and aims at the individuation and analysis of the deontic system which is applied but never explicitly discussed in Mīmāṃsā texts. The article outlines the basic distinction between three sorts of principles —hermeneutic, linguistic and deontic. It proposes a mathematical formalization of the deontic principles and uses it to discuss a well-known example of seemingly conflicting statements, namely the prescription to undertake the malefic Śyena sacrifice and the prohibition to perform any harm.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2017)
  • Metonymy and Metaphor as Verbal Postulation: The Epistemic Status of
           Non-Literal Speech in Indian Philosophy

    • Authors: Malcolm Keating
      Abstract: In this paper, I examine Kumārila Bhaṭṭa's account of figurative language in Tantravārttika 1.4.11-17, arguing that, for him, both metonymy (lakṣaṇā) and metaphor (gauṇa-vṛtti) crucially involve verbal postulation (śrutârthāpatti), a knowledge-conducive cognitive process which draws connections between concepts without appeal to speaker intention, but through compositional and contextual elements. It is with the help of this cognitive process that we can come to have knowledge of what is meant by a sentence in context. In addition, the paper explores the relationship between metonymy and metaphor, the extent to which putatively literal language involves metonymy, and the objective constraints for metaphorical interpretation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2017)
  • Does Asymmetric Signification Rely on Conventional Rules' Two Answers
           from Ancient Indian and Greek Sources

    • Authors: Valeria Melis, Tiziana Pontillo
      Abstract: The topic of asymmetry between the semantic and the phono-morphological levels of language emerges very early in Indian technical and speculative reflections as it also does in pre-socratic Greek thought. A well established relation between words and the objects they denote (the so-called one-to-one principle of correspondence) seems to have been presupposed for each analysis of the signification long before its earliest statement.The present paper aims at shedding light on two different patterns of tackling the mentioned problem. The first approach sees asymmetry as an exception to the regular correspondence between language and reality, whereas the second approach considers language in itself as a conceptualisation which does not faithfully represent reality. In the latter case, asymmetry is no longer an exception, but the rule.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2017)
  • Internalization of Speech: Pronunciation and Perception of the Word

    • Authors: Akane Saito
      Abstract: There are various philosophers who have discussed the role of language in ancient India. Among them, Bhartṛhari considered the relation between the superficial appearance of speech and its essential nature. In actual life, we pronounce and perceive the word. He held that there must be some link between ideal logic and worldly truth. His focus in the Brahmakāṇḍa of the Vākyapadīya, is on the process of communication, the process of the internalization of speech. He differentiates the perspective of the speaker and the hearer, and explains the movement of sounds. The sphoṭa theory addresses both how to pronounce the word and how to perceive it. Traces of his discussion are found in the works of his follower Maṇḍanamiśra in his book, Sphoṭasiddhi. 
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2017)
  • Symposium: Does Cross-Cultural Philosophy Stand in Need of a Hermeneutic

    • Authors: Douglas L. Berger, Hans-Georg Moeller, A. Raghuramaraju, Paul A. Roth
      Abstract: Does cross-cultural philosophy stand in need of a hermeneutical expansion' In engaging with this question, the symposium focuses upon methodological issues salient to cross-cultural inquiry. Douglas L. Berger lays out the ground for the debate by arguing for a methodological approach, which is able to rectify the discipline’s colonial legacies and bridge the hermeneutical distance with its objects of study. From their own perspectives, Hans-Georg Moeller, Paul Roth and A. Raghuramaraju analyze whether such a processual and hermeneutically-sensitive approach can indeed open up new hermeneutic horizons. Their responses shed light upon cross-cultural philosophy’s continued embedment in Euroamerican professional philosophy and how the locality of its knowledge-seeking endeavors may indeed have repercussions on attempts to bridge temporal and spatial distances.  
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2017)
  • What Does Comparative Philosophy Mean to the Social Existence of a Female
           Chinese Scholar'

    • Authors: Eva Kit Wah Man
      Abstract: In this short autobiographical essay, I reflect upon what comparative philosophy could mean to the social existence of a female Chinese scholar like me. I argue that comparative studies have been beneficial to people like me who live in hybrid, ex-colonial spaces. Comparative philosophy has allowed me to develop, and hone, my own understanding of issues pertaining to feminist theory and aesthetics. It has also aided me in recontextualizing and reappropriating some elements of my Confucian background.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2017)
  • The Excitement of Crossing Boundaries

    • Authors: David B. Wong
      Abstract: This is an intellectual autobiography that aims to explain how I am both an analytic philosopher who writes on questions of moral relativism and pluralism and also on classical Confucianism and Daoism.  I have written on the subjects of moral psychology and moral epistemology, articulating what I see to be a fruitful consilience between insights of both Confucian and Daoist thinkers and some of the latest findings in psychology and neuroscience.  I regard as synergistic and completely logical this combination of interests, but many find it surprising, so I identify the experiences and influences that brought me to where I am now.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2017)
  • Responses to James Tully’s “Deparochializing Political Theory
           and Beyond”

    • Authors: Garrick Cooper, Charles W. Mills, Sudipta Kaviraj, Sor-hoon Tan
      Abstract: In their responses to James Tully’s article “Deparochializing Political Theory and Beyond,” Garrick Cooper, Charles W. Mills, Sudipta Kaviraj and Sor-hoon Tan engage with different aspects of Tully’s “genuine dialogue.” While they seem to concur with Tully on the urgency of deparochializing political theory, their responses bring to light salient issues which would have to be thought through in taking this project forward.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2017)
  • Response to Commentators: ‘Does Comparative Philosophy Have a Fusion

    • Authors: Michael Levine
      Abstract: Mark Siderits, Michael Nylan and Martin Verhoeven were invited to respond to Michael Levine’s discussion paper ‘Does Comparative Philosophy Have a Fusion Future'’ This paper documents Levine’s reply to their responses.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2017)
  • Response to: Brief Comments on “Siddhis and Psi Research: An
           Interdisciplinary Analysis”

    • Authors: Sonali Bhatt Marwaha
      Abstract: In his brief comments on “Siddhis and Psi Research: An Interdisciplinary Analysis,” Ed Kelly expresses disappointment that the paper does not mirror his worldview, which includes questioning the reality of psi—especially precognition, accepting post-mortem survival and observational evidence for macro-PK including levitation. In this brief response to Kelly, I provide arguments in support of informational psi, particularly precognition, and in favor of a physicalist, signal-based approach to psi, with brief points against the validity of micro-PK (mind-over-matter) and post-mortem survival.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2017)
  • Beyond Emptiness: A Critical Review

    • Authors: Halla Kim
      Abstract: In his recent book, Jae-Seong Lee argues that not only Eastern thoughts but also Western philosophy lead us to transcend our ordinary, binary, reflexive thought and become one with the truth, namely, Emptiness, or the true self. But this aspect has not been thoroughly considered in Western metaphysics. After considering Heidegger’s failure to get to the bottom of transcendence through his “Dasein,” Lee looks to the French postmodern ethicists, in particular, Levinas, in this regard. Just like the Mahayana Buddhist philosopher Nāgārjuna did almost two thousand years earlier, Lee suggests that Levinas too may have hit upon the insight that genuine subjectivity can be reached through an openness to the Other as the wholly exterior. Throughout the entire book, Jae-Seong Lee shows a strong interest in postmodern ethics, Daoism, Buddhism, theology, and literature, but in the end, he concludes that Buddhist philosophy, with its focus on Emptiness, would be the best approach to a merging of Eastern and Western Ways of thinking in our search for the ultimate and absolute. Finally, Lee suggests that the general philosophical theory he introduces and develops actually works for literary works including the Book of Job, Count Dracula and Frankenstein.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2017)
  • Global Solidarity as a Response to Our Common Humanity

    • Authors: Safro Kwame
      Abstract: In ‘Existence and Heritage,’ which was published by the State University of New York Press in 2015 as part of its series on philosophy and race, Tseney Serequeberhan sets out on what he calls hermeneutic explorations of African and Continental philosophies. It uses Hans-Georg Gadamer to reflect on different traditions; and a reading of Martin Heidegger and Karl Marx for postcolonial Africa. He concludes with a conception of thought as openness, drawn from his reading of Frantz Fanon. In it, he reveals many of his personal sympathies and antipathies; some of which, even though acceptable to some or even many, appear as assumptions or premises in the book with little or no argumentation. Overall, ‘Existence and Heritage’ is an interesting book that is worth reading. If the aim is to provoke us into debating some of the claims mentioned above or the objective of African philosophy, it does that. If, however, the aim is to convince us to embrace Serequeberhan’s own views enumerated above, then I am afraid the book falls short.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2017)
  • Sanya Osha and the Triple Discourse: Postcoloniality, Subjectivity, and
           Democratic Consensus

    • Authors: Richard Obinna Iroanya
      Abstract: This paper reviews Sanya Osha’s latest book on Africa’s postcolonial conditions, especially as it concerns democratic governance. The review considers the book as trans-disciplinary and focuses on its three sub-themes, namely, postmodernity, decolonization and globalization. The main arguments of the author on these sub-themes are highlighted and briefly discussed. While the review finds the author’s overall discourse interesting and insightful to the understanding of African postcolonial conditions, it nevertheless raises concerns on some of the issues the author discussed such as criticisms of Achille Mbembe and others.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2017)
  • A Fair Critique of European Philosophy'

    • Authors: Meysam Badamchi
      Abstract: This article reviews Hamid Dabashi’s “Can Non-Europeans Think'” (2015). It attempts to show that while Dabashi offers a powerful analysis of Iranian and Middle Eastern politics, his arguments turn to be unpersuasive when he aims to radically criticize European philosophy and enlightenment thought.
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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