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Evolutionary Systematics
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2535-0730
Published by Pensoft Homepage  [21 journals]
  • A new species of Charinus (Amblypygi: Charinidae) from Ghana, with notes
           on West African whip spiders

    • Abstract: Evolutionary Systematics 2: 45-53
      DOI : 10.3897/evolsyst.2.24505
      Authors : Danilo Harms : The fauna of whip spiders (Amblypygi) in Western Africa is poorly known but probably diverse. Here, I describe the new species Charinus kakum sp. n. based on female morphology, and accompanied by DNA sequence data. The species is small and differs from other African species of Charinus in the low number of pseudosegments on leg IV, female genital features, spination patterns of the pedipalp, and small body size. It was collected from wet tropical rainforest in Kakum National Park, Ghana and is only the fourth species of Charinus to be recorded from the highly diverse Western African biodiversity hotspot. With a total body length of not even 6 mm it is also one of the smallest whip spiders in the world. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 3 Apr 2018 10:59:42 +0300
  • Arachnids in Bitterfeld amber: A unique fauna of fossils from the heart of
           Europe or simply old friends'

    • Abstract: Evolutionary Systematics 2: 31-44
      DOI : 10.3897/evolsyst.2.22581
      Authors : Jason A. Dunlop, Ulrich Kotthoff, Jörg U. Hammel, Jennifer Ahrens, Danilo Harms : Bitterfeld amber, sometimes referred to as Saxon or Saxonian amber, is a potentially significant but poorly known source of arthropod data for the Palaeogene of northern Europe. An important aspect is a long-standing controversy about the age of this amber: namely whether it is equivalent to, and perhaps merely a southerly extension of, the better-known Baltic amber, or whether it is a unique and geological younger deposit sampling a different fauna. Here, we briefly review the Bitterfeld arachnids with particular emphasis on how these data could be used to elucidate the age of this deposit. Five arachnid orders have been recorded from Bitterfeld amber: spiders (Araneae), acariform mites (Acariformes), parasitiform mites (Parasitiformes), harvestmen (Opiliones) and pseudoscorpions (Pseudoscorpiones). This is a lower diversity than Baltic amber, where scorpions (Scorpiones) and camel spiders (Solifugae) have also been recorded. Spiders are the most comprehensively studied group, with more than 75 described species. Other groups such as pseudoscorpions and mites appear to be very diverse, but are virtually undescribed. Morphological overlap is apparent in the arachnid fauna and 40 species are currently shared between Baltic and Bitterfeld amber whilst 50 species are unique to the Bitterfeld deposit. At the family level overlap is even higher, but in all groups Baltic amber appears more diverse than Bitterfeld. This overlap may be interpreted as evidence for temporal conspecifity of the Baltic and Bitterfeld ambers, albeit with the Bitterfeld and Baltic ambers possibly representing independent localities within a larger Eocene European amber area which also included the Rovno amber from the Ukraine. However, caution should be exercised because the taxonomic foundation for such assumptions is far from comprehensive, most of the material remains to be studied in detail using modern techniques of morphological reconstruction. There are further issues with date estimates because some arachnid groups show extraordinary morphological stasis over time, even at species level, which may bias the analyses available. Here, we review the available knowledge on Bitterfeld arachnids and discuss how a detailed assessment of this fauna, and other arthropod taxa, could be generated. Several natural history museums – including Hamburg and Berlin – as well as private collectors host major assemblages of Bitterfeld fossils which may help to clarify the debate about the age and provenance of the material, and the extent to which (morpho)-species were maintained both over geographical distances and potentially geological time. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Mar 2018 13:56:55 +030
  • Raising the Dead: Rediscovery and redescription of some lost spider types
           (Araneae) described by Eugène Simon

    • Abstract: Evolutionary Systematics 2: 1-20
      DOI : 10.3897/evolsyst.2.24122
      Authors : Nadine Dupérré, Danilo Harms : In this paper, we are redescribing type material from the Zoological Museum in Hamburg that was thought to be lost. These specimens were described in 1902 by Eugène Simon from material collected in Southern Patagonia and Fireland but the species were subsequently considered nomina dubia, or simply not considered at all. The rediscovery of this material leads to the revalidation of two genera and four species. The genera Clitistes and Zilephus are reinstated and the species Clitistes velutinus Simon, 1902 (Dictynidae), Zilephus granulosus Simon, 1902, Minyriolus australis Simon, 1902 (both Linyphiidae), and Lycosa michaelseni Simon, 1902 (Lycosidae) are redescribed. To avoid further confusion, we designate lectotypes for: Linyphiidae: Minyriolus australis Simon, 1902, Gongylidiellum uschuaiense Simon, 1902, Neriene fuegiana Simon, 1902, Clitistes velutinus Simon, 1902, Zilephus granulosus Simon, 1902; Amphinectidae: Rubrius radulifer Simon, 1902; Hahniidae: Hahnia michaelseni Simon, 1902, Bigois antarctica Simon, 1902 and Lycosidae: Lycosa michaelseni Simon, 1902. For all prior nomina dubia and newly designated lectotypes, the type specimens are re-described and properly illustrated for the first time. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Mar 2018 13:26:09 +020
  • An annotated catalogue of the types of short-horned grasshoppers
           (Orthoptera, Caelifera) housed in the Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH)

    • Abstract: Evolutionary Systematics 2: 21-30
      DOI : 10.3897/evolsyst.2.22127
      Authors : Lara-Sophie Dey, Martin Husemann : Zoological collections remain the main archive of animal life on earth, especially in times of mass extinctions. The most important animals of these collections are the type specimens, which represent the original reference for a species. While a full digitization of most museum collections currently remains utopic, lists of types are an essential resource for researchers to perform taxonomic revisions. Here, we provide an updated type catalogue of the short-horned grasshoppers (Caelifera) housed in the Zoological Museum of Hamburg (ZMH), now part of the Center for Natural History Hamburg (CeNak). This collection comprises 209 type specimens belonging to 128 species: 65 holotypes, three lectotypes, one syntype and a large number of paratypes. We also list topotypes of two species for reasons of completeness but note that they have no formal status. Overall, types of 13 species were added to the collection since the last catalogues in 1968 and 1977 and several corrections to the last catalogues were made. We provide a full bibliography for these species, aiming to provide a comprehensive taxonomic guide to this collection. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Mar 2018 10:16:26 +020
  • The goblin spiders (Araneae, Oonopidae) of the OTONGA Nature Reserve in
           Ecuador, with the description of seven new species

    • Abstract: Evolutionary Systematics 1: 87-109
      DOI : 10.3897/evolsyst.1.14969
      Authors : Nadine Dupérré, Elicio Tapia : The goblin spiders (Araneae, Oonopidae) of the Otonga Nature Reserve in the Chocó region of Ecuador are reviewed. A total of 1034 adult specimens were collected in 2014 and 23 morphospecies in eight different genera were identified from these collections. We describe seven new species: one in the genus Niarchos Platnick & Dupérré: Niarchos normani sp. n.; three in Scaphidysderina Platnick & Dupérré: Scaphidysderina chirin sp. n., S. lubanako sp. n., S. tsaran sp. n.; two in Bipoonops Bolzern: Bipoonops lansa sp. n., B. pilan sp. n.; and one in Reductoonops Platnick & Berniker: Reductoonops berun sp. n. The males of Niarchos baehrae Platnick & Dupérré, 2010 and Orchestina yanayacu Izquierdo, 2017 are described here for the first time. Natural history and collecting data are given for all morphospecies collected, including Niarchos barragani Platnick & Dupérré, 2010, Scaphidysderina cotopaxi Platnick & Dupérré, 2011, Scaphidysderina pinocchio Platnick & Dupérré, 2011, Orchestina otonga Izquierdo, 2017, Orchestina santodomingo Izquierdo, 2017, Orchestina truncata Wunderlich, 2004, Reductoonops otonga Platnick & Berniker, 2014, Reductoonops pichincha Platnick & Berniker, 2014, Paradysderina fusiscuta Platnick & Dupérré, 2011, Scaphiella pich Platnick & Dupérré, 2010 and Tinadyserina otonga Platnick et al., 2013. The data show that oonopid spiders are a major element of the arachnofauna present in the Chocó neotropical forests. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Dec 2017 16:10:20 +020
  • Evolving toward Evolutionary Systematics

    • Abstract: Evolutionary Systematics 1: 1-2
      DOI : 10.3897/evolsyst.1.21550
      Authors : Matthias Glaubrecht, Andreas Schmidt-Rhaesa, Martin Husemann : Not only nature is evolving, but also museum journals with a long tradition in knowledge transfer. Founded nearly one and a half centuries ago, in the year 1884, at about the same time as quite some other museum journals around the world (Glaubrecht et al. 2008), the “Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut” looks back on a quite successful era of publishing important research contributions of scientists at or associated with Hamburg’s Natural History Museum. With new beginnings in many respect after World War II, in the year 1952 a second journal at this museum was founded, viz. the “Entomologische Mitteilungen des Zoologischen Museums Hamburg”. Now, after their founding institution has seen tremendous change over the many decades of its existence, we feel that it is also about time to make a new start with these two traditional journals, evolving them into a new era of scientific knowledge transfer, fusing both “Mitteilungen” from the Hamburg museum into one modern journal. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Dec 2017 12:11:13 +020
  • Portacosa, a new genus for the south-east Australian Grey Wolf Spider
           (Araneae, Lycosidae, Lycosinae)

    • Abstract: Evolutionary Systematics 1: 77-86
      DOI : 10.3897/evolsyst.1.14847
      Authors : Volker W. Framenau : A new monotypic genus of Australian wolf spiders is proposed to accommodate the common south-east Australian Grey Wolf Spider, Portacosa cinerea gen. n. and sp. n. The genus includes large (total length 9.5–25.0 mm), uniformly grey-coloured wolf spiders with unique genital morphology, i.e. the ventral ridge of the tegular apophysis in the male pedipalp is comparatively sharp and situated towards its retrolateral edge, and the distinct anterior hood of the female epigyne is continuous with the inverted T-shaped median septum. Unlike most other members of the Lycosinae in Australia, the Grey Wolf Spider closes its burrow with a plug-like trapdoor. The species can be found in south-eastern mainland Australia (Queensland, New South Wales, Australian Capital Territory, Victoria, South Australia) and Tasmania. It prefers compacted, open and often sun-exposed habitats such as road verges and river banks, but can also be found in open woodlands and grasslands. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Dec 2017 11:27:22 +020
  • Museum specimens as Noah’s Arc of lost genes. The case of a rhinoceros
           from Sumatra in the Zoological Museum Hamburg

    • Abstract: Evolutionary Systematics 1: 121-128
      DOI : 10.3897/evolsyst.1.20172
      Authors : Matthias Glaubrecht, Marco T. Neiber : Understanding past and present genetic diversity, in particular in endangered species such as the rhinoceroses, is of paramount importance for a series of aspects in natural history, evolutionary systematics and conservation. As it turned out from several recent studies even in eminent museum specimens the historical context including its provenance often remains unresolved. At the same time modern molecular genetic techniques make this material more and more available also for integrative studies. With probably less than fifty extant specimens, among the Asian rhinoceroses the Javan rhinoceros, Rhinoceros sondaicus, is one of the most critically endangered mammal species, rendering also each of its rare museum specimens of great significance. We here apply available DNA isolation and sequencing techniques to a horn of a specimen housed at the Zoological Museum in Hamburg with indication as to derive from the extinct conspecific Sumatra population. In comparison with already existing mitochondrial gene fragment sequence data of Asian rhino populations, we were able to verify the identification of this particular museum specimen as of the nearly equally rare Sumatran rhinoceros, Dicerorhinus sumatrensis, instead as of the extremely rare R. sondaicus. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Dec 2017 11:15:22 +020
  • Comparative study of spinning field development in two species of
           araneophagic spiders (Araneae, Mimetidae, Australomimetus)

    • Abstract: Evolutionary Systematics 1: 47-75
      DOI : 10.3897/evolsyst.1.14765
      Authors : Mark A. Townley, Danilo Harms : External studies of spider spinning fields allow us to make inferences about internal silk gland biology, including what happens to silk glands when the spider molts. Such studies often focus on adults, but juveniles can provide additional insight on spinning apparatus development and character polarity. Here we document and describe spinning fields at all stadia in two species of pirate spider (Mimetidae: Australomimetus spinosus, A. djuka). Pirate spiders nest within the ecribellate orb-building spiders (Araneoidea), but are vagrant, araneophagic members that do not build prey-capture webs. Correspondingly, they lack aggregate and flagelliform silk glands (AG, FL), specialized for forming prey-capture lines in araneoid orb webs. However, occasional possible vestiges of an AG or FL spigot, as observed in one juvenile A. spinosus specimen, are consistent with secondary loss of AG and FL. By comparing spigots from one stadium to tartipores from the next stadium, silk glands can be divided into those that are tartipore-accommodated (T-A), and thus functional during proecdysis, and those that are not (non-T-A). Though evidence was more extensive in A. spinosus, it was likely true for both species that the number of non-T-A piriform silk glands (PI) was constant (two pairs) through all stadia, while numbers of T-A PI rose incrementally. The two species differed in that A. spinosus had T-A minor ampullate and aciniform silk glands (MiA, AC) that were absent in A. djuka. First instars of A. djuka, however, appeared to retain vestiges of T-A MiA spigots, consistent with a plesiomorphic state in which T-A MiA (called secondary MiA) are present. T-A AC have not previously been observed in Australomimetus and the arrangement of their spigots on posterior lateral spinnerets was unlike that seen thus far in other mimetid genera. Though new AC and T-A PI apparently form throughout much of a spider’s ontogeny, recurring spigot/tartipore arrangements indicated that AC and PI, after functioning during one stadium, were used again in each subsequent stadium (if non-T-A) or in alternate subsequent stadia (if T-A). In A. spinosus, sexual and geographic dimorphisms involving AC were noted. Cylindrical silk gland (CY) spigots were observed in mid-to-late juvenile, as well as adult, females of both species. Their use in juveniles, however, should not be assumed and only adult CY spigots had wide openings typical of mimetids. Neither species exhibited two pairs of modified PI spigots present in some adult male mimetids. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Dec 2017 11:09:03 +020
  • A new species of Mouse Spider (Actinopodidae, Missulena) from the
           Goldfields region of Western Australia

    • Abstract: Evolutionary Systematics 1: 39-46
      DOI : 10.3897/evolsyst.1.14665
      Authors : Volker W. Framenau, Danilo Harms : A new species of Mouse Spider (family Actinopodidae Simon, 1892), Missulena harewoodi, is described from near the City of Kalgoorlie-Boulder in the Goldfields region of Western Australia. It differs from all other Missulena species by the unusual light grey colouration of the abdomen in combination with small body size and shiny carapace. A phylogenetic analysis of a fragment (658 bp) of the COI barcoding gene places M. harewoodi sp. n. in a clade with four Missulena species from the Pilbara region of Western Australia, more than 900 km away. Missulena harewoodi sp. n. is one of the many species in this genus that are currently only known from a single, or a very limited number of specimen, highlighting the paucity of fauna collections in many arid regions of Australia and the difficulties in sampling these cryptic spiders. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Dec 2017 11:08:40 +020
  • The Australian Lynx Spiders (Araneae, Oxyopidae, Oxyopes) of the Godeffroy
           Collection, including the description of a new species

    • Abstract: Evolutionary Systematics 1: 11-37
      DOI : 10.3897/evolsyst.1.14652
      Authors : Barbara C. Baehr, Danilo Harms, Nadine Dupérré, Robert Raven : The historical Godeffroy Collection of spiders at the Centrum für Naturkunde (CeNak) in Hamburg comprises several hundred type specimens from Australia and is an essential source for arachnologists around the world. In this paper, we re-describe and illustrate the Australian Oxyopes material from this collection. Most specimens were collected by C. F. Eduard Dämel for the Godeffroy Museum and described in 1871-1881 by pioneering arachnologist Ludwig Carl Christian Koch as part of the first monograph on Australian spiders: Die Arachniden Australiens. Twelve species are redescribed and properly illustrated for the first time: Oxyopes amoenus L. Koch, 1878, Oxyopes attenuatus L. Koch, 1878, Oxyopes elegans L. Koch, 1878, Oxyopes gratus L. Koch, 1878, Oxyopes gracilipes (White, 1849), Oxyopes macilentus L. Koch, 1878, Oxyopes molarius L. Koch, 1878, Oxyopes mundulus L. Koch, 1878, Oxyopes punctatus L. Koch, 1878, Oxyopes quadrifasciatus L. Koch, 1878, Oxyopes rubicundus L. Koch, 1878, and Oxyopes variabilis L. Koch, 1878. Oxyopes lautus L. Koch, 1878 is treated as a numen dubium because both palps are lost. The new species Oxyopes godeffroyi sp. n. is described from this historical material and was probably overlooked by Koch. An identification key for these species is provided and the history of these specimens reviewed briefly. A map shows the localities of the redescribed Oxyopes species and the general distribution of the Oxyopes species in Queensland. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Dec 2017 10:53:16 +020
  • “High Tide or Low Tide”: Desis bobmarleyi sp. n., a new spider from
           coral reefs in Australia’s Sunshine State and its relative from Sāmoa
           (Araneae, Desidae, Desis)

    • Abstract: Evolutionary Systematics 1: 111-120
      DOI : 10.3897/evolsyst.1.15735
      Authors : Barbara C. Baehr, Robert Raven, Danilo Harms : Spiders of the genus Desis Walckenaer, 1837 (Araneae: Desidae) are water-adapted spiders and live in the intertidal zone on reefs, marine debris and under rocks. Here, we describe a new intertidal species from tropical Queensland and name it after Bob Marley, whose song “High Tide or Low Tide” inspired us as it lives in a “high tide low tide” habitat. We also re-describe a close morphological relative, Desis vorax L. Koch, 1872 from Sāmoa. This species was described some 150 years ago from the Godeffroy Collection which holds the oldest major collection of Australasian and Pacific spiders, now mainly hosted in the Centre of Natural History in Hamburg (CeNak). A third species, Desis hartmeyeri Simon, 1909, was described from juvenile specimens only and is considered a nomen dubium. “None but ourselves can free our minds.” Bob Marley, Redemption Song (1980). HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Dec 2017 9:25:33 +0200
  • In continuation of a long tradition. A brief history of the journals of
           the Hamburg Natural History Museum

    • Abstract: Evolutionary Systematics 1: 3-10
      DOI : 10.3897/evolsyst.1.21552
      Authors : Matthias Glaubrecht : Not only the natural history collections in Hamburg, but also the museum’s journals look back at a long tradition. The journal was established as annual report given by its first full-time director Alexander Pagenstecher on the activities of the Naturhistorisches Museum in Hamburg, starting with its first volume in the year 1884. Being at that time part of the “Jahrbuch der Hamburgischen Wissenschaftlichen Anstalten”, i.e. the annual report of all research institutes of the city state of Hamburg, it was in 1894 re-named “Mitteilungen aus dem Naturhistorischen Museum in Hamburg”, only settling in gradually during the second decade of its existence on this long used title. An overview is given for the changing titles of the total of 106 volumes published in 126 years, correlated to and mirroring in some way the fate of the museum collections, until this long tradition terminated in the year 2010. Five years later also a second journal founded at the Zoological Museum in 1952, viz. the „Entomologische Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum Hamburg“, terminated its publication. Fusing these two former “Mitteilungen”, the journal “Evolutionary Systematics” is launched now at the Center of Natural History, itself founded in October 2014 at the Universität Hamburg, as a renewed and modern scientific online journal with open access, aiming for the next generation of publications on collection-based research also from other museum and university collections, as well as from a wide range of scientific areas devoted to whole-organism biology. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Dec 2017 0:00:00 +0200
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