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Journal Cover BioDiscovery
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2050-2966
   Published by Pensoft Homepage  [25 journals]
  • Identification of the gene complexes that determine some individual
           characteristics of a person

    • Abstract: BioDiscovery 20: e21998
      DOI : 10.3897/biodiscovery.20.e21998
      Authors : Irma Mosse, Alexander Kilchevsky, Alexander Gonchar, Maxim Ameliyanovich, Nikita Sedlyar : There are some data about genes associated with certain traits of a person in the scientific literature, but these data are often contradictory. It is evident that complexes of genes that affect the manifestation of the trait can be more informative. We have investigated genotypes of 9000 people, using the PCR method, in order to determine their athletic abilities or predisposition to different diseases and pathologies. In particular, we tested about 3000 women with unknown causes of miscarriages for 14 genes associated with the pregnancy development. 1,5 years later we interviewed 700 women and have identified a high genetic risk of pregnancy loss due to hereditary thrombophilia. In most of the cases, doctors took into account our data and applied for these women treatment with anticoagulant drugs such as fragmin in the subsequent pregnancies. So 86.6% of pregnant women have successfully conceived and given birth, and we have received over 500 touching letters of gratitude. Thus, genetic testing allows to identify individual human properties in order to prevent some pathologies or to chose the most suitable kind of sport. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 6 Nov 2017 15:36:24 +0200
  • Innovative sterilization technology - bacterial inactivation by cold argon

    • Abstract: BioDiscovery 20: e21977
      DOI : 10.3897/biodiscovery.20.e21977
      Authors : Yovana Todorova, Ivaylo Yotinov, Yana Topalova, Plamena Marinova, Evgenia Benova, Mariana Atanasova, Todor Bogdanov : Non-thermal (cold) plasma is subject of intensive scientific interest as an alternative sterilization technique for advanced control of microbial quality and safety in food biotechnology. The cold plasma is a flow of weakly ionized gas at atmospheric pressure that includes radicals, H2O2, O3, ultraviolet radiation, charged particles, exited metastable atoms, electric fields. One of the major benefits of plasma-based technologies is the synergy between the strong effects of these highly active components that provides a high bactericidal efficiency at low costs, time-saving and non-toxicity. The aim of this study is to assess the bactericidal effect of cold argon plasma in liquids and surfaces, contaminated with Gram-negative and Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria. The used plasma source is surface-wave-sustained discharge (SWD) operating at 2.45 GHz in argon (plasma torch) produced by an electromagnetic wave launcher surfatron type. The bactericidal effect was studied by direct contact treatment of contaminated liquids and agar plates with Pseudomonas aureofaciens AP-9 and Brevibacillus laterosporus BT-271. The results show that the cold argon plasma is able to inactivate bacteria at short exposure time (under 1 min). The clear sterilization zones on treated surfaces with diameter depending on exposure time and initial bacterial density were obtained. In bacteria-contaminated liquids the partial disinfection was observed at least. The potential of plasma based technologies as innovative sterilization approach is high and can be used for various purposes related to microbial control and food safety. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 3 Nov 2017 20:47:28 +0200
  • Participation of NO-synthase in Control of Nitric Oxide Level in Rat
           Hippocampus after Modelling of Ischaemic and Haemorrhagic Insult

    • Abstract: BioDiscovery 20: e14810
      DOI : 10.3897/biodiscovery.20.e14810
      Authors : Khalil L. Gainutdinov, Svetlana G. Pashkevich, Vyatcheslav V. Andrianov, Guzel G. Yafarova, Margarita O. Dosina, Tatiana Kh. Bogodvid, Julia P. Stukach, Dinara I. Silant'eva, Aleksandra S. Zamaro , Timur V. Sushko, Vladimir Kulchitsky : Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was used as a method for recording the content of the nitric oxide (NO) in hippocampal tissues of intact rats and rats after modelling of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Based on direct measurements of NO by EPR spectroscopy, it was shown that, within 5 hours after the onset of symptoms of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke, the formation of NO in the hippocampus was reduced by a factor of 2-3 and this reduction was maintained for a period of between 24 and 72 hours. The results show that a systemic character of a decrease in the intensity of NO production during the modelling of ischaemic events in the brain reflects the effects of central dysregulation of the functions at the level of the whole organism such that it is appropriate to consider implementing the correction of the vital systems of the body in a stroke. It has indicated that non-selective NO-synthase blocker L-NAME reduced the low level of NO production by a factor of 3 by its administration within 72 hours after post-ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. It was discovered however that L-NAME returns the level of NO production to baseline (control) by its administration within 5 hours after ischaemia. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Oct 2017 12:05:23 +030
  • Pilot assessment of cyanotoxins as potential risk factors for cancer in

    • Abstract: BioDiscovery 20: e20501
      DOI : 10.3897/biodiscovery.20.e20501
      Authors : Maya Stoyneva-Gärtner, Blagoy Uzunov, Petya Dimitrova : Cyanoprokaryotes (=cyanobacteria, blue-green algae) are the most ancient oxygen-producing phototrophic microorganisms, spread all over the Globe, which form the important basis of different food chains in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. However, due to strong anthropogenic pressure during the last decades they are also responsible for causing nuisance algal blooms in different water bodies with deleterious effects on the mankind and ecosystems mainly due to production of toxic substances (cyanotoxins). Amongst them are the microcystins, nodularins, lyngbyatoxins and aplysiatoxins, known as tumor-promotors with increase of exposure routes through which humans and animals can be placed at risk (Meriluoto et al. 2017). However, the investigations on the relations between the occurrence and development of such diseases with the cyanotoxins and their producers are extremely scarce at a global scale (Yu and Chen 1994, Ueno et al. 1996, Fleming et al. 2002, Svircev et al. 2009, Drobac et al. 2011, Labine et al. 2015). During the last 15 years cyanoblooms and microcystins, nodularins and saxitoxins were detected in 16 different Bulgarian freshwater bodies, including some drinking-water reservoirs (Stoyneva-Gärtner et al. 2017). Amongst the detected toxins some new forms were recognized by their characteristic spectra (Pavlova 2007, Pavlova et al. 2007), and, more recently, a new potential producer of lyngbyatoxin was found in the Black Sea (Stoyneva et al. 2015). The poster shows a pilot assessment of the spread of cancer distribution and mortality vs. spread of cyanoblooms and cyanotoxins in Bulgaria. The pilot assessment is made on the basis of comparison of the general regions of spread of cyanotoxins in Bulgarian water bodies and toxin-producing cyanospecies during the period 2000-2017 (Stoyneva-Gärtner et al. 2017) with the spread of cancer in Bulgaria (e.g. Valerianova et al. 2015). The comparison shows general conformities between the spread of the “most dangerous” water bodies and main regions of cancer diseases in the country. The results obtained served as a basis for a new project proposal which aims at a deepening of the studies for improvement of prevention of cancer in the country. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Aug 2017 15:09:52 +030
  • Osteogenic, adipogenic and neurogenic differentiation of human
           adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells before and after cryopreservation

    • Abstract: BioDiscovery 20: e20272
      DOI : 10.3897/biodiscovery.20.e20272
      Authors : Marina Hristova, Elena Hristova, Plamen Todorov : Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising tool for the regeneration of damaged tissues in cell therapy. They are characterized as undifferentiated progenitors, which have the ability for self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potential. The development of effective protocols for long-term storage, with the aim of subsequent clinical usage, is essential for their application as cellular therapeutics. In our experiments, we aimed to investigate fresh and cryopreserved human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AT-MSCs) and their osteogenic, adipogenic and neurogenic differentiation potential. The obtained results pointed out that the cells possess spindle-like shape and form characteristic wave-like layers when reaching confluency. The immunophenotypic analysis shows that they express CD73, CD90 and CD105 and lack the hematopoiеtic lineage markers CD34 and CD45. Both cryopreserved and fresh hAT-MSCs maintain similar ability to specialize towards osteogenic, adipogenic and neural lineage. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the isolated cells are cryotolerant and are able to retain their morphological and immunophenotypical characteristics  after freezing, as well as their multilineage differentiation potential. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Aug 2017 23:16:27 +030
  • Two candidate genes for recurrent pregnancy loss and infertility: Could
           ZP3 and UPK3B give us new diagnostic and therapeutic approach'

    • Abstract: BioDiscovery 20: e20113
      DOI : 10.3897/biodiscovery.20.e20113
      Authors : Fatma Sılan, Baris Paksoy, Taner Karakaya, Onur Yildiz, Mine Urfali, Ozturk Ozdemir : Introduction: Chromosomal indels are relatively common cytogenetic abnormalities. Nonetheless, clinical outcomes depend on the location, size and genes in deletion or duplication regions. The zona pellucida is an extracellular matrix that surrounds the oocyte and early embryo. It is composed primarily of three or four glycoproteins with various functions during fertilization and preimplantation development. The protein encoded by ZP3(Zona pellucida3) gene is a structural component of the zona pellucida and functions in primary binding and induction of the sperm acrosome reaction. UPK3B(Uroplakin 3B), a minor component of the apical plaques of mammalian urothelium that binds and dimerizes with uroplakin-1b(UPK1B), one of the major conserved urothelium membrane proteins. We herein report two cases presenting with the deletions encompassing POMZP3, UPK3B, ZP3, POM121 and POM121C genes. Case1: 25-year-old female presented to our clinic with recurrent pregnancy loss. After clinical and cytogenetic evaluation, which all of them do not feature, she was diagnosed as the deletion of POMZP3 and UPK3B genes with the array-CGH platform. (Agilent SurePrintG3 HumanCGH 60K) Case2: Ten-week embrio of 34-year-old female, infertile for ten years before and this is her first pregnancy after IVF, revealed the deletion of POM121,POM121C and ZP3 genes with the same array-CGH platform. Conclusion: We have evaluated the deletion of two consecutive genes -UPK3B and ZP3- in the genome by array-CGH analysis. Early abortion or infertility due to triploidic, tetraploidic embryos or uniparental disomy, resulting in a change in the structure of the zona pellucida with the mutations of ZP3 gene, may occur. Also mutations of UPK3B gene may cause abortion or infertility due to endometrial origin with defective function of the urothelium membrane proteins. ICSI could be a good choice for ZP3 deficient infertile woman and if PGS choosen without ICSI, uniparental disomia should be excluded. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Aug 2017 14:04:33 +030
  • Comet assay - a sensitive tool for genotoxicity assessment of
           environmental stress in Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Bulgarian Black
           Sea coast

    • Abstract: BioDiscovery 20: e19265
      DOI : 10.3897/biodiscovery.20.e19265
      Authors : Bela Vasileva, Lachezar Yakimov, Borislava Kukurina, Milena Georgieva, George Miloshev, Nesho Chipev : Assessment of DNA damage is of primary concern when the pollution-related stress in living organisms has to be determined. The reason for this concern comes from the evidence that damages in DNA often lead to mutations which are potential threat for the sustainability of organisms and ecological systems. To monitor genotoxicity of the marine environment we have developed a special procedure for application of the method of Comet assay (CA) on the native populations of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Samples were collected from areas with different anthropogenic load along the Bulgarian South Black Sea coast. As the first organ to encounter marine pollutants the gills of the mussels turned-out to be the most appropriate tissue for obtaining a single-cell suspension. Comet assay tests were performed and DNA damage was quantified using several different methods including percentage of DNA in the tail, Comet head and tail area, Comet number, Tail moment, Comet shape, etc. The method allowed us to monitor and predict the genetic risk of marine environmental stressors, particularly persistent pollutants. It proved to be convenient for precise quantification of the on-site loads of genotoxic stress on coastal ecosystems. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 1 Aug 2017 22:58:49 +0300
  • Genetic changes in natural Taraxacum officinale populations obtained under
           pollution stress

    • Abstract: BioDiscovery 20: e18712
      DOI : 10.3897/biodiscovery.20.e18712
      Authors : Borislava Kukurina, George Miloshev : Plant populations under stress undergo genotypic alterations which can drive the species towards extinction or adaptation. Defining a suitable plant model and the respective genetic markers for studying the perturbations in the population’s genetic diversity is of crucial importance for the needs of bioconservation and proper ecosystem management. In the current study we prove the usefulness of Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion) as a suitable model plant for genetic biomonitoring. We compared the genotype composition of four specific dandelion populations: 1) a population from the area around the closed “Kremikovtzi” metallurgical plant; 2) a population from the still working “Stomana”-Pernik metallurgical facility; 3) a population from a rural, but naturally rich in heavy metals region close to Bosnek village; 4) a control population from a clean site next to Lokorsko village. Four genetic markers of tree different kinds (a microsatellite, a ribosomal DNA marker and two chloroplastic DNA markers) were tested in order to reveal the genotype diversity in the chosen populations. Our results showed strong quantitative and qualitative genotypic differentiation between pollution-impacted and clean populations. The most interesting observation was that the unique genotypes, considered as result of mutations, were predominantly detected in the plants from the heavy metal polluted regions. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 1 Aug 2017 22:55:33 +0300
  • Basal and PGF2α-stimulated secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from
           3T3-L1 adipocyte-like cells

    • Abstract: BioDiscovery 20: e17757
      DOI : 10.3897/biodiscovery.20.e17757
      Authors : Bilyana Ilieva, Elena Marinova, Hristo Gagov, Rossitza Konakchieva : Adipocytes were recently identified as an important source of endocrine and paracrine mediators, regulating the metabolism and activity of various cell types and body functions. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes are useful model for physiological, pharmacological and cell signaling studies. Differentiation of 3T3-L1 murine fibroblasts into adipocyte-like cells was conducted in presence of IBMX, dexamethasone and insulin and demonstrated by Oil Red O staining of accumulated lipid droplets. Using Inflammatory Multi- Analyte Cytokines ELISArray Kit we investigated the release of cytokines under basal conditions, after PGF2α treatment for 24 hours to induce pro-inflammatory phenotype, and after PGF2α treatment and incubation in the presence of L-C-Propargylglycine (PGG, 1 mmol/l), a selective inhibitor of cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE). The last combination was used to explore the role of H2S, released from CSE, for cytokine and H2O2 release. We found that PGF2α strongly increased TNFα secretion from differentiated adipocytes, the latter effect being antagonized by PGG. The CSE inhibitor enhanced IL-6 production and suppressed IL-10 secretion. PGG enhanced H2O2 production of in PGF2α-treated cells. It is concluded that pro-inflammatory phenotype of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocyte-like cells, induced by PGF2α is characterized by enhanced TNFα production which critically depends on the ability of CSE to produce H2S.  HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 1 Aug 2017 19:14:03 +0300
  • Perivascular adipose tissue as regulator of the force of artery
           contractions in health and disease

    • Abstract: BioDiscovery 20: e19831
      DOI : 10.3897/biodiscovery.20.e19831
      Authors : Hristo Gagov, Radoslava Emilova, Daniela Dimitrova, Mitko Mladenov, Rudolf Schubert : During the last two decades, perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) has been revealed as an important regulator of vascular processes such as proliferation of smooth muscle cells, pro- and anti-oxidant reactions in the vascular wall, angiogenesis, inflammation, apoptosis of neutrophils, migration of monocytes and others. PVAT derived mediators either increase or decrease the amplitudes of the force of artery contraction measured using isometric small vessel myography. In healthy animals and humans predominates the relaxing effect while in diseases the contractile influence of PVAT is common. In aging and pathological conditions like atherosclerosis and diabetes, or with environmental factors like tobacco smoke and high-fat diet, the phenotype of perivascular adipocytes is changed from anti-inflammatory to pro-inflammatory. This change is accompanied by a significant rearrangement of mediators released from PVAT. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 1 Aug 2017 16:21:23 +0300
  • Ultrananocrystalline diamond coated implants for enhanced osseointegration

    • Abstract: BioDiscovery 20: e19830
      DOI : 10.3897/biodiscovery.20.e19830
      Authors : Silviya Stateva, Daniel Merker, Cyril Popov, Margarita Apostolova : Osteoporosis causes bones to become weak and brittle. It is known that the alterations in bone metabolism associated to osteoporosis can impair bone healing around implants and affect their osseointegration. The main objective of this study was the development of new nanostructured implant materials based on ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) coatings for enhancing osseointegration. The films were deposited on Ti substrates by microwave plasma CVD from 17% CH4/N2 gas mixtures and modified by O2 or NH3/N2 plasmas. The modifications rendered the H-terminated hydrophobic as-grown films hydrophilic. The interaction of endothelial (EA.hy926) and osteosarcoma (MG63) cells with differently modified UNCD surfaces was investigated by proteome analyses. It revealed the identification of over 19 000 proteins (extracellular and cytosolic). They correspond to 508 (Ti), 634 (UNCD), 651 (O-UNCD), and 668 (NH2-UNCD) protein groups. The interaction network analysis showed differences in the connectivity of inferred protein networks between the ECM niches, which suggests the presence of specific cell microenvironments on O- and NH2-terminated UNCD surfaces. Our results show that due to a favorable combination of surface chemical and topological properties the UNCD films, as-grown and especially after their plasma modifications, may serve as superior scaffolding for promoting the cell attachment and growth during osseointegration. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 1 Aug 2017 15:43:01 +0300
  • Testosterone as Diamine Oxidase Activity Regulator

    • Abstract: BioDiscovery 20: e17372
      DOI : 10.3897/biodiscovery.20.e17372
      Authors : Milena Mishonova, Hristo Gagov : Diamine oxidase (DAO) is a key enzyme of the metabolism of polyamines. Its activity was assayed in homogenate of male immature rat liver and kidney.  The androgens are important regulators of polyamines’ metabolism. It was known that testosterone (T) activates DAO in murine kidney, an effect that might depend on the intracellular level of polyamines. The aim of this research was to study the participation of androgen receptor and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in DAO testosterone regulation. The rats were treated i.p. 4 hours before measurements with T, T + Hydroxyflutamide (HF), an androgen receptor antagonist or T + difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an inhibitor of ODC. It was observed that i) T significantly increased DAO activity of rat liver and kidney; ii) the presence of HF abolished the effect of T ; iii) the presence of DFMO slowly reduced the effect of T on DAO activity. It is concluded that T activates DAO mainly by a mechanism, which includes androgen receptor binding and ODC stimulation. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 1 Aug 2017 11:07:33 +0300
  • New Mechanisms of Perinatal Hypoxia and Perspectives of
           Pathogenesis-oriented Treatment

    • Abstract: BioDiscovery 20: e14945
      DOI : 10.3897/biodiscovery.20.e14945
      Authors : Larisa A. Balykova, Ludmila V. Ledyajkina, Vladimir A. Trofimov, Alexei P. Vlasov, Irina S. Nazarova, Victor V. Revin : HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jul 2017 23:16:45 +030
  • Change in morphometric and oxygen-binding properties of erythrocytes in
           vascular diseases patients

    • Abstract: BioDiscovery 20: e15079
      DOI : 10.3897/biodiscovery.20.e15079
      Authors : Natalia Gromova, Victor Revin, Nadezhda Revina, Anastasiya Kukina, Elvira Revina, Anastasiya Samonova , Ilya Solomadin, Alexander Tychkov, Inessa Moiseeva : HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jul 2017 20:57:38 +030
  • Antibacterial activity of thin films TiO2 doped with Ag and Cu on
           Gracilicutes and Firmicutes bacteria

    • Abstract: BioDiscovery 20: e15076
      DOI : 10.3897/biodiscovery.20.e15076
      Authors : Dragomira Stoyanova, Iliana Ivanova, Orlin Angelov, Todorka Vladkova : HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jul 2017 20:24:58 +030
  • Application of safe-by-design approach for curing osteoporosis – a
           lock at the future

    • Abstract: BioDiscovery 20: e15099
      DOI : 10.3897/biodiscovery.20.e15099
      Authors : Armine Grigoryan, Iliyan Kolev, Anelia Dimitrova, Margarita Apostolova : HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jul 2017 20:00:32 +030
  • Antiviral activity of Stachys Thracica Dav. extracts against Human Herpes
           virus type 1 and 2

    • Abstract: BioDiscovery 20: e15022
      DOI : 10.3897/biodiscovery.20.e15022
      Authors : Petya Angelova, Venelin Tsvetkov, Anton Hinkov, Daniel Todorov, Kalina Shishkova, Zhenya Yordanova, Veneta Kapchina-Toteva, Stoyan Shishkov : HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jul 2017 16:38:18 +030
  • Synthesis of a drug discovery library for the identification of sigma
           receptors modulators

    • Abstract: BioDiscovery 20: e14958
      DOI : 10.3897/biodiscovery.20.e14958
      Authors : Giacomo Rossino, Marta Rui, Marcello Di Giacomo, Daniela Rossi, Simona Collina : HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jul 2017 13:24:10 +030
  • Recent advances in the structure-guided research and development of
           antimicrobial therapeutics

    • Abstract: BioDiscovery 20: e14952
      DOI : 10.3897/biodiscovery.20.e14952
      Authors : Dimitar Trifonov, Tom Evers : HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jul 2017 10:24:41 +030
  • Validation of a novel HPLC-based serum thymidine kinase assay for breast
           cancer detection

    • Abstract: BioDiscovery 20: e14563
      DOI : 10.3897/biodiscovery.20.e14563
      Authors : Elena Kuzmanova, Marilena Spanou, Emma Leckie, Nikolai Zhelev : HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 5 Jul 2017 5:44:23 +0300
  • A step forward in the identification of compounds interfering with the
           Embryonic Lethal Abnormal Vision (ELAV) protein - RNA complexes

    • Abstract: BioDiscovery 20: e14670
      DOI : 10.3897/biodiscovery.20.e14670
      Authors : Serena Della Volpe, Daniela Rossi, Francesca Vasile, Donatella Potenza, Marialaura Amadio, Alessia Pascale, Simona Collina : HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 5 Jul 2017 4:44:08 +0300
  • Sigma 1 receptor modulators as a new weapon against multiple sclerosis

    • Abstract: BioDiscovery 20: e14565
      DOI : 10.3897/biodiscovery.20.e14565
      Authors : Simona Collina, Marta Rui, Giacomo Rossino, Serena Della Volpe, Daniela Rossi, Arianna Scuteri, Alessio Malacrida, Guido Cavaletti : HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 5 Jul 2017 3:40:56 +0300
  • Cryogenic pretreatment of keratinous waste for enhanced methane production

    • Abstract: BioDiscovery 20: e14096
      DOI : 10.3897/biodiscovery.20.e14096
      Authors : Elena Kuzmanova, Joseph Akunna, Nikolai Zhelev : HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 5 Jul 2017 2:40:27 +0300
  • The effects of changes in composition and state of the lipids on
           erythrocytes’ oxygen-transport function in pathological conditions
           associated with the development of hypoxia

    • Abstract: BioDiscovery 20: e14701
      DOI : 10.3897/biodiscovery.20.e14701
      Authors : Victor V. Revin, Natalia V. Gromova, Elvira S. Revina, Ilya N. Solomadin, Alexander Yu. Tychkov : HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 5 Jul 2017 1:39:59 +0300
  • Phosphorylase Kinase Inhibition Therapy in Burns and Scalds

    • Abstract: BioDiscovery 20: e11207
      DOI : 10.3897/biodiscovery.20.e11207
      Authors : Madalene Heng : Severe burns and scalds almost always result in unsightly hypertrophic scarring. Among the important processes involved in scarring are fibroblast formation and transformation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. Myofibroblasts contain α-smooth muscle actin which has contractile properties and can lead to wound contraction and hypertrophic scarring. Phosphorylase kinase (PhK), expressed within 5 mins of injury, is among the earliest enzymes released after tissue damage. It is responsible for activation of NF-kB, which in turn activates over 200 different genes related to inflammation, fibroblastic proliferation, myofibroblast conversion, and eventual scar tissue formation. The sequence and approximate timing of events following injury include the following: activation of PhK (5 mins), followed by appearance of neutrophils (30 mins), macrophages (hours to days), fibroblasts (1 week) and myofibroblasts (2 weeks). Cytokines and growth factors secreted by macrophages include fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and transforming growth factors α and β (TGFα and TGFβ). Fibroblast growth factor is responsible for fibroblastic proliferation, and TGFβ1 for conversion of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. After thermal injury, the use of topical curcumin, a non-competitive, selective PhK inhibitor that blocks PhK activity upstream of NF-kB activation, was found to be associated with more rapid and improved skin healing, as well as less severe or absent scarring. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Feb 2017 10:49:14 +020
  • Drug resistance of cancer cells is crucially affected by expression levels
           of ABC-transporters

    • Abstract: BioDiscovery 20: e11211
      DOI : 10.3897/biodiscovery.20.e11211
      Authors : Petr Mlejnek, Petr Dolezel, Eliska Ruzickova : Dasatinib (DAS), a second generation of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), represents excellent choice for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia resistant to imatinib. Unfortunately, recent laboratory studies suggested that antiproliferative effect of DAS might be significantly reduced due to the overexpression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, ABCB1 and ABCG2. However, whether these drug transporters might compromise therapeutic effect of DAS in clinic is unclear. We believe that the drug transporter expression level is a crucial factor that affects the results and its consideration may help to explain the existing controversy. In addition, clinically relevant concentrations of drug must be used. In our study, human leukemia K562 cells with high and low expression levels of ABCB1 or ABCG2 were used. DAS was applied at nanomolar concentrations. We observed that K562 cells expressing high levels of ABCB1 and ABCG2 contained significantly reduced intracellular levels of DAS and these cells exhibited significantly increased resistance to this drug. Importantly, cells with the low expression of ABCB1 or ABCG2 effluxed DAS less efficiently, however, still significantly. Accordingly, the observed resistance was lower but significant. Conclusions: The antiproliferative effects of DAS might be reduced by ABCB1 or ABCG2. However, the actual effect of these ABC transporters on DAS efficiency depends on their expression levels. The lower expression levels of ABC transporters mediate lower resistance. Considering the fact that expression levels of ABCB1 and ABCG2 transporters are usually low in clinical samples, their contribution to the overall resistance to DAS is probably low but significant. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 8 Feb 2017 10:52:09 +0200
  • Screening an Archetypal Collection of Microorganisms for the Presence of
           Unexplored Antimicrobial Compounds

    • Abstract: BioDiscovery 20: e10763
      DOI : 10.3897/biodiscovery.20.e10763
      Authors : Lucia Cimarelli, Anna Maria Giuliodori, Anna Brandi, Karolina Adamkiewicz, Roberto Spurio, Attilio Fabbretti : HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 8 Feb 2017 9:26:49 +0200
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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