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Journal Cover Biosystems Diversity
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2519-8513 - ISSN (Online) 2520-2529
   Published by Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University Homepage  [5 journals]
  • Patterns of multiannual changes in the spatial structure of a bank vole
           (Myodes glareolus) population in hornbeam-oak forest

    • Authors: S. A. Мyakushko
      Pages: 169 - 173
      Abstract: This article presents the results of research on changes in the spatial structure of a population of bank vole (Myodes glareolus Schreber, 1780) in the context of a study of multiannual dynamics of population density. The field research took place in Kaniv Nature Reserve, Cherkassy region, Ukraine, in May – June 2009–2012. In forest biotopes of the reserve the dominant mammal species is the bank vole The period of research spanned four consecutive phases of long-term dynamics of density of population of this species, and also of the rodent community in general (growth – peak – decline – depression). The trapping of the animals was carried out by means of the traditional method of study plots. Parameters of spatial distribution of individuals – aggregation coefficient (K) and density of individuals within concentrations (m) – make it possible to gain an adequate impression of the structure of populations on the basis of data on distribution of individuals within the study plots. It has been established that the spatial structure of populations of rodents naturally changes in the course of multiannual dynamics of the population. During alternation of separate phases reorganizations of the spatial distribution of bank vole populations consisted of changes in the quantity and size of concentrations, and also the density of their placement. A scheme of changes in spatial structure in conditions of cyclic fluctuations of density is presented. Absence of concentration during the depression phase of dynamics is defined by the insignificant number of consumers of environmental resources, which causes a surplus and availability of these resources and is indicated also by the fact that compact distribution of animals interferes with successful realization of reproductive potential. Intensive reproduction and rapid rate of increase in a population, which are characteristic of a growth phase, cause formation and growth of separate concentrations. Increase in their area prevents rapid growth of density within these populations, and action of negative effects of overpopulation is weakened by redistribution of young animals. The phase of peak population causes merging of borders between separate concentrations and the creation of a uniform concentration with a high internal density. Later (decline phase) such concentration breaks up into a number of small concentrations which are concentrated in the most optimum habitats. We found that multiannual "pulsation" of the spatial structure of a population occurs over absolutely different time periods and is similar to the seasonal pulsation. It is possible to draw analogies between separate phases (years) of dynamics and certain seasons because at such stages the development of populations has similar patterns. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 3 (2017)
  • Flora of karst lakes in the Pustynsky State Nature Reserve (Nizhny
           Novgorod oblast)

    • Authors: E. A. Belyakov, E. V. Garin, A. G. Okhapkin
      Pages: 174 - 180
      Abstract: Pustynsky State Natural Reserve of Regional Importance (area 19,730 hectares) was established by decree of the administration of Nizhny Novgorod oblast on September 16, 2013. It is located in the Tyoshe-Seryozhinsky karst area of the Oka-Sura karst region or Seryozhe-Panskoy karst lake district. Its creation is justified by the need to protect the rare species of living organisms, diverse types of vegetation, unique landscapes and plant communities that are concentrated in this territory. Despite the fact that in 1934 on the shore of the Great Lake in the Staraya Pustyn village the biological station of the State University of Nizhny Novgorod was founded, local flora of the karst lakes which are linked into a single system by the channel of the River Seryozha, remains insufficiently studied. In 2014 and 2015 the authors conducted a study of the flora of the Pustynsky lake-river complex. The collection of material for study of the taxonomic composition of the flora of the reservoirs and the collection of herbarium material were carried out by the route method from a rowing boat and, in part, by traversing along the shore. Taxonomic, ecological (including the spectrum of life forms of plants) and ecobiomorphological analysis of the flora, including the analysis of the ratio of its latitudinal and longitude elements, was carried out in cameral conditions. The taxonomic analysis of flora showed 162 species of vascular plants from 61 genera and 42 families, 6 of these species – Najas minor All., N. major All., Trapa natans L., Potamogeton praelongus Wulf., P. trichoides Cham. et Schlecht. and Carex bohemica Schreb, being included in the List of Rare and Protected Species on the Territory of Nizhny Novgorod oblast. On the basis of the annotated list of plant species, taxonomic, geographic, ecological-coenotic and ecobiomorphological analysis of the flora of the water reservoirs was made. We confirmed that the flora of the lake-river complex is traditional for this territory. Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Potamogetonaceae, Polygonaceae and Asteraceae belong to the dominant families and Potamogeton L., Carex L., Juncus L. and Salix L. belong to the dominant genera of the Pustynsky lake-river system. The level of the hybrid component of the flora is extremely low, which is typical for the watershed lakes. We found that a 6.5 km stretch of the Seryozha River accounts for about 30% of species of the vascular plants belonging to the flora in the Volga River basin. The high species richness of the flora of this territory is due, primarily, to the specific features of the shoreline, forming a broad range of habitats and the relatively stable water level regime despite the strong fluctuation in the level of anthropogenic pressure. We found that boreal and plurizonal elements dominate zonally but Holarctic and Eurasian species – regionally. The predominance of species typical for the ecotone zones of lakes (hygrophytes, hydrophytes and mesophytes) is an integral feature of the ecological-coenotic diversity which is characteristic of the Volga River basin. According to the Raunkiaer classification of life forms, hemicryptophytes are the most numerous group and the hamephytes are the least numerous one. A biomorphological analysis shows the predominance of vegetative mobile, clearly polycentric and vegetative immobile monocentric ecobiomorphs. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 3 (2017)
  • The usage of sulfide and thiosulfate ions by purple non-sulfur bacteria
           Rhodopseudomonas yavorovii

    • Authors: O. V. Tarabas, S. O. Hnatush, O. M. Moroz, V. O. Vasylechko, G. V. Gryshchouk, G. I. Zvir, S. Y. Komplikevych
      Pages: 181 - 185
      Abstract: This article covers the patterns of oxidation of sulfide and thiosulfate ions by bacteria Rhodopseudomonas yavorovii Ya-2016 under different cultivation conditions. In the environments with 1.4–5.6 мМ Na2S2O3, R. yavorovii Ya-2016 bacteria accumulated biomass of 1.4–1.6 g/l, which was higher than biomass (1.2-0.6 g/l) accumulated by the bacteria with the same concentrations of Na2S × 9H2O. The efficiency of oxidation of 1.4, 2.8, 5.6 мМ sulfide- and thiosulfate-ions as donors of electrons by the bacteria equaled 97.4, 42.6, 18.7 and 68.8, 28.0, 3.7%, respectively. As a result of bacterial oxidation of 1.4 мМ hydrogen sulfide and sodium thiosulphate in the environment accumulation of 0.13–1.30 мМ sulfate-ions occurs, and the element sulfur becomes an intermediate metabolite in the environment with Na2S×9H2O. R. yavorovii Ya-2016 bacteria are capable of using sulfate-ions as a single source of sulfate at increase in photptrophs. In the environment with 2.5 мМ sulfate-ions concentration the bacteria biomass was 1.4 g/l, the bacteria assimilated 17.7% of sulfates. Because purple non-sulfur bacteria R. yavorovii Ya-2016 are capable of using sulfide-ions as donors of electrons of anoxygenic photosynthesis and using sulfate-ions as a single source of sulfate, they could be successfully used in the technologies of remediating the environment from compounds of sulfur. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 3 (2017)
  • Ecological and geographical characteristics of algal communities on
           gastropod shells of the river Uzh

    • Authors: N. M. Korniichuk, M. O. Metelska, G. Y. Kyrychuk
      Pages: 186 - 190
      Abstract: Freshwater molluscs serve as test objects in the ecological monitoring of the environment, because they are able to extract in indicator quantity from the environment and accumulate in their bodies radionuclides, various macro- and micronutrients, toxic substances of inorganic and organic origin, and so on. The gastropods are a taxonomically diverse, ecologically plastic and rather widespread group of aquatic organisms, whose role in the life of freshwater ecosystems is very important. Molluscs often have various interactions in biogeocenoses that determines their trophic net. As a rule, these interactions occur in the form of ectocommensalism, endocommensalism, supercrescence, predation or parasitism. The latter type of interaction is the subject of many studies, but the epibionts of gastropods and bivalves have practically not been studied and this research is an effort towards filling this gap. Species composition of algal epibionts identifies specific sensitivity to the effects of certain environmental factors and reflects the processes occurring in their ecosystem water bodies. This determines their efficient use for analyzing changes of water bodies as aquatic habitat, particularly in terms of complex anthropogenic pressure on aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the research was to determine the ecological characteristics of algal communities on gastropod shells: Lymnaea stagnalis, L. auricularia and Viviparus viviparus (the Uzh river, Korosten district, Zhytomyr region). Identified microalgae communities were grouped and studied according to such indices as: confinedness to the habitat (substrate), temperature, fluidity and water oxygenating, saprobiological characteristics according to the Pantle-Buck system in the modification of Sladecek and Watanabe, salinity according to Kolbe’s system, pH at Hustedt scale in the interpretation of M. M. Davydova and geographical limitations of the objects of study. Algal fouling on the shells L. stagnalis, L. auricularia and V. viviparous is formed by benthic and benthic-planktonic species. Algal epibionts of the studied communities are mainly confined to slow-flowing waters. The basis of a floristic list according to the temperature in all studied groups of gastropods is formed by indifferent species. According to geographical distribution of fouling algae, cosmopolitan species dominated. In relation to salinity according to Kolbe’s system, most species discovered were indifferent oligo-galob. Algal communities are reliable indicators of one of the important indices of watercourse hydrochemical conditions – pH of water. Analysis of algal epibionts on gastropod shells of the river Uzh, showed the dominance of alkaliphiles and indifferent species (from the number of identified microalgae). According to saprobiological characteristic of water quality of the river Uzh there was a predominance of o-saprobes. Analysis of indicator groups showed that the most numerous algal epibionts on shells were euresaprobe species. A detailed ecological and geographical characteristic of algae fouling on shells of the studied groups of molluscs allows one to predict the state of hydrocenoses, which is an important aspect of monitoring.Further research is required to model the influence of anthropogenic factors on the state of water bodies.
      PubDate: 2017-07-15
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 3 (2017)
  • Changes in the structural indices of annual shoots of Quercus rubra under
           anthropogenic impact

    • Authors: V. P. Bessonova, A. P. Kryvoruchko
      Pages: 191 - 196
      Abstract: Air pollution is one of the important problems of large cities. In connection with this, comprehensive study of the mechanisms of the corresponding reactions of tree species, introduced in the process of landscaping, to various environmen tal factors is required. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of urban technogenic environmental pollution on the anatomical characteristics of Quercus rubra Linnaeus, 1753 annual shoots. The object of research was 35-year-old plants of Q. rubra, which grew in a non-polluted site (conditionally clean zone), the Botanical Garden of DNU (plot 1), and in a polluted site (roadside planting) (plot 2) of Dnipro City. Industrial emissions of the city’s western, northeastern and northwest industrial complexes also have an effect on plants, depending on the wind direction. For anatomical research, the annual shoots were taken at the tips of the vegetation from the south-eastern side of the model trees at a height of 2 m and fixed in 70% alcohol. Cross sections were made at a distance of 1 cm from the beginning of growth. Phloroglucine was used to dye the cells. The influence of industrial and automobile emissions on the structural parameters of Q. rubra shoots was investigated. We established that the membrane thickened evenly in both control and experimental plants. Cork thickness of Q. rubra shoots growing in the roadside plantation was higher than in plants of the Botanical Garden by 57.5%. Increasing its thickness in plants exposed to atmospheric air pollution has an adaptive value. Q. rubra shoots have a tabulate type of collenchyma, the tangent walls of whose cells thicken. The collenchyma cells of the control variant of shoots are larger. This tissue was thicker in Q. rubra shoots from the polluted site by 26.8% compared to those from the non-polluted zone. The parenchyma cells of the primary cortex were large and contained chloroplasts. The thickness of this histological element on the shoot circumference varied considerably both in the control and experimental variants, which is the result of its uneven formation. This is due to the fact that the shape of the shoot core resembles a pentagonal star, and the layers of phloem and xylem tissues repeat its shape. The thickness of each of them in the cross section of the shoots in various places varied little, while the parenchyma of the primary cortex above the ray cells was narrower, and between them was thicker, as a result the thickness of the shoots was aligned in a circle. In areas where the parenchyma of the primary cortex was narrower, it was better developed in the shoots of experimental plants than the control ones, but where its layer was thicker, it was more developed in plants of the control variant. The diameter of the primary cortex in the shoots of the experimental variant in its narrower parts was 120.5% of the control, and in the broader – 87.6%, which is due to unequal changes in the thickness of the primary cortex parenchyma, possibly with different rates of cell division. In the one-year Q. rubra shoots, the hard bast resembled a circle ruptured by parenchymal cells. Environmental pollution does not affect formation of soft bast in Q. rubra annual shoots. The difference between the thickness of the layer of this element in the control and experimental plants was statistically insignificant. The width of the bark (soft and hard bast) somewhat decreased in shoots of the roadside trees due to the thinning-out of the hard bast. The thickness of the wood tissue of the Q. rubra shoots was practically the same in both variants of the experiment, although it is known that the formation of xylem of certain species of plants is sensitive to environmental pollution. According to our data, the distribution of vessels in the wood of the Q. rubra annual shoots on both experimental sites had no clearly expressed annular-vessel type. On the cross section, the vessels are arranged relatively evenly along the width of the entire ring. The location of the woody parenchyma apotracheal does not depend on the location of vessels. Histochemical reactions showed that a large amount of starch grains and fat drops are deposited in the core and ray cells. The diameter of the core was measured in two directions: in narrower and broader places. Plant shoots of the polluted site have a significantly more developed core in the narrower place by 1.44 times, in the broad – 1.56 times. The adaptation of the Q. rubra shoots to technogenic pollution takes place through thickening of the cork and collenchyma, thereby reducing the possibility of penetration into the internal tissues of industrial and automotive emissions. There was virtually no change in the thickness of the circle of soft bast and wood in conditions of environmental pollution. In the conditions of multicomponent environmental pollution there are adaptive changes in the parameters of the histological elements of the Q. rubra shoots – thickening of the phellem and structural element of the primary cortex – collenchyma, which helps to protect the internal tissues from the penetration.of pollutants. Environmental pollution practically did not affect the thickness of the layer of soft bast and wood in the Q. rubra shoots. This testifies to the stability of the most important functions of the Q. rubra shoots to phytotoxicants of anthropogenic origin. The components of industrial and automotive emissions have a negative effect on the formation of hard bast and core of Q. rubra shoots, which manifests itself in reduction in their thickness. 
      PubDate: 2017-08-10
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 3 (2017)
  • Seasonal dynamics of the littoral zooplankton groups of the Uday River
           within the National Nature Park "Pyryatynsky"

    • Authors: Z. V. Burian, V. M. Trokhymets, V. P. Gandzyura
      Pages: 197 - 202
      Abstract: The increase in anthropogenic impact on aquatic ecosystems causes significant alterations in the composition and structure of hydrobiont groups. These processes are characteristic of the hydrobiocenoses of the Uday River, the valley of which lies within the National Nature Park "Pyryatynsky", established in 2009 in the Pyryatyn district of Poltava region. Within this protected area it is convenient to carry out continuous monitoring of changes in anthropogenic load on shore ecosystems of the river. One of the most convenient monitoring groups is zooplankton, which is one of the essential components of the trophic networks of aquatic ecosystems and which is the feeding basis of planktonophagous and young fish. The object of this research was the major groups of zooplankton: rotifers (class Eurotatoria), cladocerans (class Branchiopoda, order Cladocera), different age stages of copepods (class Copepoda), ostracods (class Ostracoda). Zooplankton were collected in the daytime in spring (mid April), summer (end of July) and autumn (late September) 2016 within eight research stations. As a result of the conducted research, 69 species of zooplankton were registered within the littoral water area of the Uday River. Monogonont rotifers numbered 19 (27.5%) species, bdelloid rotifers (subclass Bdelloidea), cladocerans – 33 (47.9%) species, copepods – 17 (24.6%). According to the faunal spectrum in the zooplankton groups, representatives of the cladoceran complex predominated. This is due to the favourable conditions for the development of filtrators, of which a considerable part is cladocerans. Three species of rotifers were identified in Poltava region for the first time: Beauchampiella eudactylota (Gosse, 1886), Dipleuchlanis propatula (Gosse, 1886), Mytilina acanthophora (Hauer, 1938). During the spring, 33 species of zooplankton were collected: rotifers – 10 species, cladocerans – 14, copepods – 9 species. In summer 41 species were registered, including rotifers – 10, cladocerans – 18, and copepods – 13. In autumn 37 species were found: 6 species of rotifers, cladocerans – 21 and copepods – 10. The species composition of the zooplankton in different seasons had a low similarity, as evidenced by Jaccard index: spring and autumn (J = 25.4), spring and autumn (J = 34.5), and summer and autumn (J = 34.6). In the spring, pelagic (36.3%) and phytophilic (45.6%) groups prevailed, and phytophilic dominated in summer (41.4%) and autumn (48.7%). Of the various groups classified according to feeding type, representatives of the peaceful group dominated in all the studied seasons, in spring comprising 69.7%, in summer – 65.8%, and in autumn – 73%. The density and biomass of zooplankton of the Uday River were “low” in spring and summer, and "very low" – in autumn. 
      PubDate: 2017-08-16
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 3 (2017)
  • Model of influence of landscape vegetation on mass transfer processes

    • Authors: L. D. Romanchuck, T. P. Fedonyuk, R. G. Fedonyuk
      Pages: 203 - 209
      Abstract: The problem of mass transfer of landscape is an important and urgent problem which has actively been elaborated during the last several decades. In particular, the problem of interaction between two-phase wind flow and landscape vegetation is a key to understanding the evolution of landscape morphology, pollution distribution and soil erosion. In this context the mathematical modeling of mass transfer processes within complex environments is an advanced tool necessary for better understanding of environmental processes. In this article, a mathematical model describing the processes of mass transfer on an inhomogeneous surface in a porous environment has been developed and theoretically investigated. The mechanical impact of boundary surfaces and porous environment structure on a mass transfer process has been considered and included into the model. The mass source function adapted to the specific inhomogeneous domain has been developed and investigated. In this paper we develop a formal framework to reflect correctly the problem of landscape mass transfer within the vegetation by incorporating it into a formal system with a reduced number of dependent variables and simplified boundary conditions. We develop a mathematical model of mass transfer process realized on an inhomogeneous boundary surface. The mechanical impact of boundary surface on the mass transfer process has been considered and taken into account. The mechanical impact of porous environment structure on mass transfer process has also been considered and taken into account. The substance source function has been developed here. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 3 (2017)
  • Population analysis of Asarum europaeum in the Northeast of Ukraine

    • Authors: I. M. Kovalenko, H. O. Klymenko, K. H. Hozhenko
      Pages: 210 - 215
      Abstract: An analysis of populations of Asarum europaeum L. in forest ecosystems of the North East of Ukraine during the growing periods of 2004–2015 was carried out. In carrying out field research we used standard methods of ecology, geobotany such as study plots of 400 m2, and for detailed elaboration of the surface layer we used study plots of 100 m2. According to the results of the examination of plots of the size 50 x 50 cm, we obtained data on the number and density of individuals within populations. We found that populations of this species often dominate in the lower tiers of broadleaf and mixed forests in the region under research. We identified the basic population characteristics of the species and described its growth and development in three subformations: Querceta roboris, Pineta sylvestris, Acereto (platanoiditis) – Querceta (roboris). It was found that according to the time gradient, depending on meteorological conditions, the projective cover and the average population density of the plants vary. Based on the average growth rate of the plants, the balance of morphogenesis in the course of the plants’ ontogenesis was determined. We found that the best conditions for the growth and development of A. europaeum are provided in the North East of Ukraine in the subformation of Querceta roboris. The results of the analysis of ontogenetic state of partial bushes in populations of A. europaeum are described. It was found that populations in the subformation Querceta roboris and Pineta sylvestris were full-membered, while in the subformation Acereto (platanoiditis) – Querceta (roboris) they were not fully-membered with fallout of seedlings and juvenile plants. It was found that the population of A. europaeum in the Pineta sylvestris subformation, is left sided, with the peak number in pregenerative partial bushes – this was the youngest population with the highest Index innovation value and the lowest Index senilis value. The Index senilis of the youngest population is 0.14 while the Index generative is 45.0%. The population of A. europaeum in the subformation of Querceta roboris was more mature: Index senilis is equal to 0.19, the age range of the left-hand side with the peak on the partial bushes g1, Index generative reaches 55.4%. In the population with the subformation Acereto (platanoiditis) – Querceta (roboris) Index senilis is significantly greater than one and equals 2.35. In the oldest population, the age spectrum is centered with the peak on generative partial bushes, the Index generative is high and equals 68.5%. This vital analysis of the population structure is based on a sample of more than 3,000 partial shrubs. The key signs of vitality were: total phytomass (W), leaf surface (A) and reproductive effort (RE1). It has been established that two of the three studied populations of A. europaeum are in equilibrium (from the subformations of Pineta sylvestris and Acereto (platanoiditis) – Querceta (roboris) and one is flourishing.
      PubDate: 2017-07-30
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 3 (2017)
  • Influence of air pollution by compounds of fluorine, sulphur and nitrogen
           on changes of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activity in the leaves of
           trees and bushes

    • Authors: Y. Prysedskyj
      Pages: 216 - 221
      Abstract: The productive activity of man results in contamination of the environment which causes substantial damage to ecosystems, upsetting their balance, species composition, etc. Within industrial areas, plants suffer significant harm. At the same time, plant organisms play an important role in optimization of the environment, performing sanitary-hygienic, landscaping and aesthetic functions. In this context, we investigated the influence of industrial contamination of air by fluorine, sulphur and nitrogen compounds on the activity of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase in ten types of arboreal and shrub plants which differ in their resistance to air pollution. Our research was conducted on the basis of a full multivariate experiment with two levels of factors. Peroxidase activity was determined by a colorimetric method according to the duration of oxidization of benzidine. For determination of polyphenoloxidase activity we determined the duration of oxidization of p-phenilendiamin according to the change in optical density of the solution. Pollutants have a significant influence on activity of the investigated enzymes in the leaves of the plant species studied, which depends on the resistance of the plants to contamination, and also the composition and concentrations of pollutants. With resistant species (Ligustrum vulgare L., Quercus robur L., Lonicera tatarica L., Eleagnus angustifolia L., Philadelphus coronaria L.) peroxidase activity either did not change or rose by 11.2–64.1% compared to the control, depending on the composition of pollutants, their concentrations and the duration of their activity. Polyphenoloxidase activity in these plants did not significantly change in most variants of the experiment, although high concentrations of pollutants resulted in suppression of the activity of this enzyme by 26.1–37.6%. In species with variable tolerance which did not experience damage, peroxidase function did not change. Species sensitive to pollutants (Sorbus aucuparia L., Fraxinus lanceolata Borkh) were characterized by the significant decline in peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activity, by 18.7–79.1% and 20.5–71.2% respectively, depending on the duration of action of the gases in all variants of the experiment. In species with variable tolerance (Aesculus hippocastanum L., Acer negundo L., Populus simonii Carriere) the reaction to the pollutants was ambiguous in nature and depended on the presence of damage. If the leaves of these plants did not show visible damage (necrosis), then activity of the enzymes did not change. When there was damage to leaf laminae this index decreased in relation to control by 17.3–60.1% for peroxidase and 24.7–57.3% for polyphenoloxidase. Significant negative linear correlation was found between activity of antioxidant enzymes and damage to leaves of the investigated plants: the coefficients of correlation were –0.385 between peroxidase activity and damage and –0.130 between polyphenoloxidase activity and damage. The character of changes in peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activity show that these enzymes play a considerable role in the detoxication of pollutants and that there is a reduction in their influence on metabolic processes of plant organisms. 
      PubDate: 2017-08-14
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 3 (2017)
  • Anthropogenic transformation of the flora of urbanoecosystems of the
           Northern Pre-Azov region

    • Authors: S. Y. Maltseva, Y. I. Maltsev, A. M. Solonenko, O. G. Bren
      Pages: 222 - 227
      Abstract: This paper provides a thorough analysis of the current state of biodiversity of a model city in the Northern Pre-Azov region ofUkraine– Henichesk (Khersonregion). The species composition of the urban flora of this city is presented here for the first time. There are 507 species, which belong to two divisions, 61 families and 233 genera. The urban flora was analyzed in its systematic, biomorphological and environmental aspects. The species richness of families of the studied urban flora is characterized by a predominance of families which include 1–2 species. The majority of the urban flora species are herbaceous plants – 80.1% (406 species), including herbaceous monocarpics – 236 species and herbaceous polycarpics – 170. It was found that the ecological category with the largest number of species was therophytes l – 36.1% of species in the urban flora of Henichesk, the second place taken by hemicryptophytes – 31.9%. Other biological types are represented in a small quantity – 32.0%. An important characteristic of flora is distribution of species according to the main vegetation types (rythmologic groups). Summer green plants – 430 species (84.8%) are the dominant group in the researched urban flora. The plant community includes differentiated rosette, semirosette and rosetteless plants. Species with rosetteless shoot dominate. Rhizomeless species dominate in the flora of Henichesk (51.1%) and species with caudex (23.6%), indicating the dominance of xerophytic habitats and increased soil density in cities. In terms of moisture requirements, the largest environmental group is that which requires moderate moisture, accounting for 349 species (68.8% of the total species number). Heliophyllous, shade-tolerant species, and mezotrophs dominate. The adventive component of the Henichesk flora includes 217 species (159 genera and 52 families). Most of them are kenophytes, xenophytes, epecophytes. It was found that Henichesk has a specific urban flora that combines elements of natural flora and typical urban components.
      PubDate: 2017-08-14
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 3 (2017)
  • Analysis of differences of growth and phenology of provenances of Scots
           pine (Pinus sylvestris) in provenance experiment at Žepče

    • Authors: D. Ballian, S. Šito
      Pages: 228 - 235
      Abstract: This paper analyses the growth and phenology of fourteen European provenances of Scots pine at the international experimental plot at Zepce. The experiment with the provenances was developed during the spring of 2012 with two (2+0) year old plants. In total 1400 Scots pine saplings were planted in an experimental random block layout, fourteen provenances in four replications (4 x 25 plants). The experiment was concerned with provenances from ten European countries: Austria (Traisen, Rein, Sistrans), Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bugojno), Scotland (Shieldaig), Ukraine (Ivano-Frankivsk), Slovakia (Hanusovce), Romania (Sacueini), Norway (Narvik), Germany (Trippstadt), Poland (Raciane – Nida) and Italy (Ca del Lupo, Fenestrelle, Piani – Valda). The morphological results relate to the differences in survival, height, diameter on the root neck and the ratio of these measurements to the height of the saplings of different provenances of Scots pine. Phenological details relate to the phenology of the buds and complete formation of pine needles. All of the details researched have yielded notably different findings. The results of the research can play a significant role in reforestation as well as the preservation of the genetic wealth of Scots pine. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-18
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 3 (2017)
  • The influence of synthetic food additives and surfactants on the body
           weight of larvae of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae)

    • Authors: V. O. Martynov, V. V. Brygadyrenko
      Pages: 236 - 242
      Abstract: The broad spectrum of negative effects of food additives and surfactants on living organisms and the environment in general indicate a necessity of a detailed study on this issue. The aim of this article is to evaluate the impact of food additives and surfactants in a concentration of 350 mg/kg of fodder on the body weight of third age Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) larvae. A significant change in the body weight of T. molitor larvae was observed when they consumed a diet containing 350 mg/kg of sodium glutamate, sodium cyclamate and sodium benzoate. We observed a tendency towards increase in body weight after addition of the food colouring Allura Red, saccharin, benzoic acid, betaine, emulsifying wax, AOS and SLES, and also we observed a decrease in body weight after addition of Tartrazine and Indigo Carmine in the same concentration. Out of the 18 tested food additives, 3 significantly stimulated an increase in the body weight of third age T. molitor larvae, and 3 manifested the same effect at the level of tendency (stimulated an increase in mass on average by 43–58% over the 14-day experiment), and 2 caused decrease in the body weight of larvae. Also, the 4 studied surfactants manifested a tendency towards increase in the body weight of T. molitor. This study on the impact of food additives and surfactants on organisms of insects is of great significance for protecting rare species of insects. 
      PubDate: 2017-08-11
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 3 (2017)
  • The dynamics of the population and peculiarities of the morphometric
           structure of Melophagus ovinus (Diptera, Hippoboscidae) in Ukraine

    • Authors: V. A. Yevstafyeva, T. A. Sharavara, V. V. Melnychuk, О. V. Sirenko, О. В. Prijma, L. V. Nagorna, N. S. Kanivets, Y. O. Borodai
      Pages: 243 - 248
      Abstract: The indices of the Melophagus ovinus (Linnaeus, 1758) population in Ukraine, and also the peculiarities of morphological and metric structure of the insects’ body at all the stages of their development within the conditions of the surveyed region were investigated. New data on morphometric differential signs of sexually mature males and females of sheep bloodsuckers were obtained. We established that M. ovinus is significantly widespread in Poltava and Zaporizhzhia regions, and parasitizes 26.1% of the examined sheep stock with the infection intensity of 92.7 ± 1.4 specimens and abundance – 24.7 specimens on one animal. The dynamics of M. ovinus population at different stages of development was characterized by the highest abundance of sexually mature males (11.1 specimens on one animal) and females (8.9 specimens). The given index concerning pupae and larvae was considerably lower (4.2 and 0.5 specimens on one animal). It was found that post-embryonic and adult development stages of M. ovinus differ in their metric indices.The length and width of the pupae were 17.4% and 13.2% larger than those of the larvae. The sizes of males and females relative to the indices of body length, the length and width of head, thoracic, and abdominal segments, the length of maxillary palpus and the length and width of the proboscis in fact differ in their values. The differential morphological species signs of M. ovinus are the form and location of the oculi, antennae, the structure of the head segment of the body, and the mouthparts, and of sexual dimorphism – the distance from the caudal segment of the copulatory apparatus to the rear of the insect’s last abdominal segment. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 3 (2017)
  • Dynamic growth model simulation for carbon stock management in dry forest

    • Authors: A. A. Almulqu
      Pages: 249 - 254
      Abstract: The model described in this article was simulated in order to provide the best recommendations related to the management of dry forest carbon stock. The methodology of this study is based to the dynamic growth model (CO2fix V3.1). The model was developed to calculate and estimate dry forest carbon fluxes and stocks. In this study the model was utilized for estimating how much carbon is sequestered in Diospyros celebica, Eucalyptus urophylla, Tectona grandis and mixed woods and soils. The results of this study show that in the 200 years simulated, total C stock had a tendency of increase. All of modules showed very similar patterns from 0 years to 40 years, except for bioenergy. Biomass had the highest value of carbon stock around 236.9 MGCHA–1, carbon soil around 292.7 MGCHA–1, product carbon storage around 226.8 MGCHA–1 and bioenergy carbon storage presented a sustained increase and reached 522.3 MGCHA–1 in the end of the simulated period. The contribution of the tree species component to total carbon stock was significantly positively correlated (R2 = 0.634–0.882, P < 0.05) with the time simulated in years, except foliage of Diospyros celebica (R2 = 0.301), foliage of Tectona grandis (R2 = 0.162) and foliage of Eucalipthus urophylla (R2 = 0.256). However, future studies should involve detailed examination on below-ground fraction and the effects of humans on global ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 3 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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