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Journal Cover Biosystems Diversity
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2519-8513 - ISSN (Online) 2520-2529
   Published by Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University Homepage  [5 journals]
  • Parasites of beetles which are pests of grain and products of its

    • Authors: V. O. Martynov
      Pages: 342– - 342–
      Abstract: Crop pests are the cause of economic damage in many developing countries, including Ukraine, where annual loss of crop harvest on average equals 6 million tons, valued at 840 million dollars. Pests consume grain, causing its pollution and creating favorable conditions for development of mold, which significantly decreases the food and seeding properties of grain and products of its processing. This article presents basic data on biological control and its advantages, demonstrates the variety of natural enemies of the pest beetles, which are used in biological control, analyses studies of the biological control of main crop pests and products of its processing belonging to the families Curculionidae and Tenebrionidae, and also the role of competition in  biological control. The analysis of studies on the effectiveness of different natural enemies of the main crop pest-beetles shows that the most studied parasites are Sitophilus granarius, S. zeamais, Tribolium confusum, T. castaneum, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Rhyzopertha dominica, Acanthoscelides obtectus and Callosobruchus maculatus. Natural enemies of the rest of the species are poorly studied, and there is no data on Caulophilus latinasus, Tenebroides mauritanicus, Dermestes lardarius, Ptinus fur and Bruchidius incarnatus. The most commonly used natural enemies are Xylocoris flavipes, Anisopteromalus calandrae, the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, and also nematodes of the Steinernema and Heterorhabditis genera. Despite the broad spectrum of natural enemies of the main pests of the grain supply, it is necessary to further study the parasites of every species of beetle which causes economic damage. Using biological control is the most promising method against pests of crops and products of its processing, which meets the current requirements to the sanitary-ecological condition of agricultural production.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 4 (2018)
  • Species-specific morphological characteristics of adult and embryonic
           CapillariŠ° obsignata roundworms (Nematoda, Capillariidae)

    • Authors: V. A. Yevstafyeva, V. V. Stybel, T. A. Sharavara, V. V. Melnychuk, I. О. Yasnolob, А. А. Antipov
      Pages: 354– - 354–
      Abstract: The abundance of Capillaria obsignata Madsen, 1945, the causative agent of chicken capillariasis, was studied in the central region of Ukraine. Differential morphometric characters are determined for adult males and females of C. obsignata. The species-specific variability of its morphological parameters is characterized. New data is received on the meristic characters of C. obsignata eggs extracted from different substrates. The stages of embryonic development are determined in laboratory cultures of these nematodes, taking into account their meristic and morphological changes. Capillaria obsignata parasites are very common at the poultry farms of Poltava and Kyiv regions of Ukraine. Their abundance index is 3.4, and the intensity of infection varies from 3 to 317 specimens. Differential morphometric species-specific characters of adult C. obsignata males are the shape and size of the pseudobursa, spicule, spicule sheath. Adult females of the species can be identified by the shape and size of the vulva, the distance from the esophagus end to the vulva, and the length of the vagina. The meristic characters of nematode eggs, though typical for the species, may change depending on the sampled substrate. The parasite’s embryonic development involves five morphologically and meristically different stages. The invasive larvae of this species developed in the eggs before the 12th day of culturing in laboratory conditions at 25 °С. The invasive larvae’s viability was 90.3 ± 1.5%.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 4 (2018)
  • Use of soil biota in the assessment of the ecological potential of urban

    • Authors: Y. I. Maltsev, I. A. Maltseva, A. N. Solonenko, A. G. Bren
      Pages: 257 - 262
      Abstract: In assessing the ecological conditions and classification of urban soils, data about soil biota should be taken into account. The environment of urban territories is characterized by significant changes compared to their surrounding environments. It is established that the algal flora of urban soils lose their zonal features and features associated with the edification influence of higher plants. Specific biotopes with a definite species structure are formed in urboecosystems. Fifty 50 algae species have been recorded in the soils of the Henichesk urboecosystems (Kherson region, Ukraine): Cyanoprocaryota – 21, Chlorophyta – 13, Charophyta – 2, Eustigmatophyta – 1, Xanthophyta – 11, Bacillariophyta – 2. Among dominant and subdominant species were Cyanoprocaryota and Chlorophyta. The other phyla were represented by Klebsormidium dissectum, K. flaccidum, Hantzschia amphioxys, Eustigmatos magnus, Botrydiopsis eriensis. Compared with the surrounding environment, the urbanized flora of Henichesk has a low species richness, and is characterized by prevalence of Cyanoprocaryota and Chlorophyta species. The coefficient that takes into account the percentage of preservation of species richness in a particular urban area compared to the background indicators of species richness can be used to evaluate the urban transformation of soil biota. The degree of degradatory changes in the composition of living organisms and the direction of these changes depends on the specificity and intensity of exploitation of the territory of the urban ecosystem. The most diverse composition of algae species within the the city of Henichesk was noted in the recreational, residential, and transport zones, in comparison with the industrial zone and the zone of special use. Different functional areas of the city are distinguished not only by the algae species richness, but also by the composition of dominants. Among the dominants and subdominants of the recreational and transport zones were species of different phyla. The dominants and subdominants of the residential and industrial zones were Cyanoprocaryota species, in the zone of special use – representatives of Chlorophyta. The distribution of species richness of algae along the soil profile in the city acquires an atypical character. The species richness increases not in the most superficial layers of soil, but in the lower, aphotic parts of the soil profile. The soil biota, on the one hand, depends on the ecological conditions of soil, and on the other as a result of its life activity, changes the ecological functions of the soil, strengthening or weakening them. The reduction in the species richness of the soil algae of the urboecosystem Henichesk shows the limitations of ecological functions of urban soils. It is established that changes in the composition of algae in soils of urban ecosystems are one of the indicators of the presence and severity of transformation processes. These processes occur with the soil biota and soil as a whole under the conditions of urban ecosystems and can be used as indicators in the environmental assessment of urban soils, in the development and subsequent examination of ways to reduce negative expression of urbanization.
      PubDate: 2017-11-30
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 4 (2017)
  • Ecologo-faunistic review of lamellicorn beetles (Coleoptera,
           Scarabaeoidea) of urbocenosis of Kharkov city (Ukraine)

    • Authors: O. V. Putchkov, T. Y. Markina, N. Komaromi
      Pages: 263– - 263–
      Abstract: This article presents a general overview of the superfamily Scarabaeoidea in five parks of Kharkov city and some adjacent agrocenosises. The species composition includes 32 species from four families of Scarabaeoidea. The Scarabaeidae family dominated in biodiversity and abundance (26 species from 16 genera). Six species (Dorcus parallelopipedus, Platyderes caraboides, Anoplotrupes stercorosus, Aphodius melanostictus, Pleurophorus caesus and Onthophagus coenobita) were sporadically registered as common, but in separate urban cenosises the number of species did not exceed one or three. The species composition and abundance of lamellicorn beetles was higher in large parks with only slight recreational disturbance. Here from 13 to 20 species were registered. On lawns in the center and in other districts of the city Scarabaeoidea species met very rarely. In the agrocenosises on the outskirts of Kharkov city – 16 species are noted, almost half of which were registered as common. The faunistic similarity of different urban cenosises was at low to medium levels (an average 0.20–0.47). These indices were slightly higher (0.38–0.67) for areas with lower recreational pressure. The indices of faunal similarity of separate parks and agrocenoses were lower (0.18–0.56, but on average – 0.33). At the level of common species, there was no faunistic similarity. The significance of such differences was due to both the low number of most Lamellicorn species and some of their ecological characteristics. The main differences were observed in the ratio of trophic groups and features of the spatial distribution of the dominant species. Smaller differences were observed on biotopic characteristic of most species. There were no differences in the hygropreference of the scarabeid species. In the parks herpetobiont saprophagous species dominated (mainly coprophagous and dendrophagous). In the agrocenoses, dendrochordobiontic phytophagous species predominated. The peculiarities of the ratio of different ecological groups of Scarabaeoidea in urban and agrocenosises are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 4 (2017)
  • Reaction of photosynthetic apparatus of a representative of extrazonal
           steppe plants Quercus robur to air pollution by motor vehicle emissions

    • Authors: L. V. Shupranova, Y. V. Lykholat, N. O. Khromikh, Z. V. Grytzaj, A. A. Alexeyeva, V. S. Bilchuk
      Pages: 268– - 268–
      Abstract: We examined the vital condition of the common oak (Quercus robur L.) in plantations of different categories in Dnipro-city. In the investigated plantations, differences in the individual resistance of plants were recorded. The patterns of changes in the pigmented complex of leaves exposed to atmospheric pollution from motor vehicle emissions were studied in connection with the life state of oak trees. The content of chlorophyll a had, in all variants of the experiment, significantly higher values than chlorophyll b. Chlorophyll a accounted for 52.4–75.0% of the total content of chlorophylls, and chlorophyll b (25.0–47.6%). Regardless of the level of air pollution, relatively healthy oak plants were characterized by a high content of pigments activity in the photosynthetic apparatus of the leaves. A chronic moderate influence of motor vehicle emissions had a positive effect on the content of green pigments and carotenoids. Increase in the intensity of transport emissions resulted in a significant reduction in the accumulation of chlorophylls and to an increase in carotenoids. The stability of the chlorophyll a / chlorophyll b ratio under the influence of motor vehicle emissions was been registered. Only severely damaged common oak trees showed a decrease of this parameter by 29.3% compared with healthy and moderately weakened specimens of oak. The values of the coefficients of variation in the content of chlorophylls, their amounts and ratios, as well as carotenoids were low and represent less than 19.0%, while the amplitude of the variability of the studied parameters of the pigment complex, depending on the life state of plants and the intensity of transport emissions, was quite significant: the highest fluctuations in the сontent indexes were recorded for chlorophyll a, the sum of chlorophylls a + b in trees from the park area and the area with a medium level of pollution, chlorophyll b only in oaks from the street with an average level of air pollution by transport emissions. The smallest variability was a characteristic of the ratio of chlorophylls a / b and the content of carotenoids. Low values of the ratio of the sum of chlorophylls a + b to carotenoids (4.3–5.2) indicate the stress state of oak plants in urban environments.
      PubDate: 2017-11-14
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 4 (2017)
  • Ecological-anatomical characteristics of some Tragopogon (Asteraceae)
           species of the flora of Ukraine

    • Authors: O. A. Futorna, V. A. Badanina, S. L. Zhygalova
      Pages: 274– - 274–
      Abstract: The results of the study of the anatomical structure of assimilating organs of the three species of the genus Tragopogon are described. Nowadays the anatomical structure of vegetative organs of representatives of many taxa have already been researched. The in-depth study of the anatomical structure of species of the genus Tragopogon which was conducted revealed the presence of different ways of structural adaptation of plants to growing on sands, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, revealed that the investigated taxa have structurally different leaves and stems, whose main features do not depend on the influence of conditions of existence. Almost all species of the genus Tragopogon are mesoxerophytes, the purpose of this work was to investigate the species of the Tragopogon genus which inhabit sandy soil. Such researches will be useful for solving problems of genus taxonomy and for detection of adaptive features of plants. The specimens for investigation were collected from a natural habitat. The plants were in the generative phase of development. Leaves and stems in the middle of their length were conserved for investigation. As a result, we detected features which distinguish species but they can not be used for taxonomy, as they depend on ecology. Thus, the studied species differ in the length of leaf lamina. T. ucrainicus has the thinnest lamina and T. orientalis has the thickest one. In addition, T. orientalis has the most laminaled mesophyll (it is distinctly multilayered). The type of mesophyll varied from isolateral (T. borysthenicus and T. ucrainicus) to pseudo-isolateral (T. orientalis). The numbers of layers of palisade parenchyma (both adaxial as well as abaxial)  hardly varied at all between species, except that a third layer of cells was rarely represented  in T. orientalis. The species differ in the degree of development of spongy parenchyma. It is most developed in T. orientalis (five or six layers of cells) and it is less developed in T. borysthenicus (two layers of cells). There are differences between the species in the anatomical structure of the stem. Thus, T. borysthenicus has the most developed chlorenchyma (four or five layers) and in T. orientalis it is less developed (two or three layers of cells). Cholophylless parenchyma is represented by the greatest number of layers in T. borysthenicus and by a smaller number of layers in T. ucrainicus, it is less developed in T. orientalis. The conduction system of the three investigated species is developed approximately equally. As the result of the analysis, it is possible to conclude that in the anatomical structure of all investigated species of the genus Tragopogon there is a combination of xeromorphic and mesomorphic features . T. borysthenicus from the Black Sea Biosphere Reserve exhibits the most xeromorphic features. The least xeromorphic characteristics are shown by T. orientalis from the sandy terraces of the Desna river (Chernihiv Region). We singled out a complex of anatomical features which can be additional diagnostic ones for the investigated species. T. borysthenicus is characterised by the presence of cortical conducting vascular bundles and by the placement of laticifers in the perimedullar region of the pith; in T. ucrainicus laticifers are also in the perimedullar region but cortical vascular bundles are absent; cortical vascular bundles are observed in T. orientalis but laticifers are placed all over the pith.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 4 (2017)
  • Ecology of seed germination and features of ontogeny of floating
           mat-forming hygrogelophyte Calla palustris (Araceae) under laboratory

    • Authors: E. A. Belyakov, A. G. Lapirov, O. A. Lebedeva
      Pages: 282– - 282–
      Abstract: This article examines the ecology of germination and the features of ontogenesis of the floating mat-forming hygrogelophyte Calla palustris L. in the territory of some regions in the central part of European Russia and the Republic of Belarus under laboratory conditions. It has been found that in the surveyed territory in the dense ear-like collective fruit of C. palustris, 40.7 ± 6.4 fruits, juicy berries, are formed and the number of seeds produced (actual seed productivity), averages 164.0 ± 89.3. Widely varying data on the number of berries in the collective fruit, as well as a variable number of ovules in them, shows that the seed productivity of C. palustris depends on a whole range of endogenous and exogenous factors, including the effectiveness of pollination of flowers by insects. In laboratory experiments, various storage periods (2 and 12 months) and methods of presowing seed treatment (stratification, drying, ice-freezing) were applied to simulate the ecological conditions of the growth of white alder. It is shown that freshly harvested seeds do not germinate at once, and wet cold stratification makes it possible to achieve maximum values of laboratory germination (from 84.4 to 99.0) and germination energy (from 66.6 to 88.3). Given that the features of germination are indicators of dormancy, it is demonstrated that seeds of C. palustris are in a state of shallow physiological dormancy, conditioned by the physiological mechanism of inhibition. Along with dry storage, wet cold stratification is the main way for seeds to enter a non-dormant state. Such mechanisms are consistent with the climatic features of the regions in which the species grows. It is found that C. palustris seeds, in common with many other species of hygrogelophytes, can float on the water surface for a long time (more than 30 days), spreading with water flow (hydrochoria). Seeds of C. palustris are photosensitive, germination is observed in a wide range of temperatures – from 10–14 to 30 ºС (at constant humidity), type of germination – underground (hypogeal). It is found that ontogeny of individuals of generative origin of C. palustris in the laboratory is terminated (the plants died after passing the juvenile ontogenetic state). The formation of C. palustris seedlings under laboratory conditions lasts 23–25 days and is characterized by the appearance of the main organs of the plant and the anisotropic growth of the shoot axis. At the final stage of development, the seedling is represented by a uniaxial monopodial and anisotropic growing rosette shoot with shortened internodes. The juvenile ontogenetic state in laboratory conditions lasts up to 7 months, after which the plants die off. In the framework of ontomorphogenesis, the stages of ontogenetic development under study (the seedling and the juvenile plant) correspond to the phase of the primary uniaxial rosette shoot. The plant in this period is represented by a uniaxial monopodially growing anchorage shoot. The detection of virgin plants in natural conditions indicates the possibility of their further development from the rudiments of generative origin. The main way of the species reproduction is vegetative, characteristic of most aquatic and semi-aquatic plants. In the course of ontogenesis, progressive features of development such as cotyledon greening and early death of the radicle root have been revealed.
      PubDate: 2017-11-19
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 4 (2017)
  • The influence of different compounds of trace elements on the biomass and
           synthesis of exopolysaccharides of mycelium Trametes versicolor
           (Polyporaceae, Polyporales)

    • Authors: G. A. Al-Maali
      Pages: 289– - 289–
      Abstract: This article presents the results of research on the influence of citrates of zinc, manganese and copper, obtained by the method of aquanotechnology, on a number of physiological indicators of a valuable medicinal mushroom Trametes versicolor 353. Previously we detected that these metal citrates stimulated the growth of mycelium more intensively than sulfates of the above-mentioned metals in equal concentrations. In the present research we investigated the influence of these metal citrates on the parameters of assimilation of carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ion accumulation and synthesis of exopolysaccharides. The degree of metals ions accumulation in the mycelium was studied by the  method of optical emission spectroscopy with an inductively coupled plasma. The economic coefficient of biomass synthesis and impact of nitrogen assimilation were higher on media with the metals citrate than on the medium with the sulfates of the studied metals. Thus, the highest economic coefficient of biomass synthesis (36%) was observed on the medium with copper citrate. Also, copper citrate (amongst the studied metals) increased the level of assimilation of the nitrogen source by up to 35%, versus 18% on the control medium. Quantitative analysis of trace elements in biomass showed that the mycelium accumulated an equal amount of zinc or manganese ions on both types of media (with citrate or sulfate of these metals). However, on the medium with copper citrate, mycelium of T. versicolor 353 accumulated copper ions better then on a medium with copper sulfate: 82.9 μg/g of biomass on the medium with copper sulfate versus 162.0 μg/g of biomass on the medium with copper citrate. Also the results show that a significant increase of biomass (by 79% relative to the control) on the copper citrate medium is due to a threefold reduction of the exopolysaccharides amount. This data indicates a greater biological activity of copper citrate,  relative to copper sulfate. Only zinc citrate raised both the synthesis of biomass and the synthesis of exopolysaccharides by 37% and 29% respectively ( relative to the control trial).
      PubDate: 2017-11-16
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 4 (2017)
  • Influence of growth stimulants on photosynthetic apparatus, morphogenesis
           and production process of eggplant (Solanum melongena)

    • Authors: V. V. Rohach
      Pages: 297– - 297–
      Abstract: Artificial regulation of the growth and development of cultivated plants aiming at an increase of biological productivity and improvement of the quality of agricultural products is a significant objective of modern phytophysiology. The use of natural and synthetic growth stimulators is quite effective. The present paper discusses the issue of the influence of gibberellin acid (GA3), 1-naphthylacetic acid (1-NAA) and 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP) on the morphogenesis and productivity of aubergine plants of Diamond variety. Field experiments were conducted in 2013–2015. The plants were treated with such growth stimulators as 1-NAA, GA3 and 6-BAP at the concentration of 0.005% using a portable sprayer. The phytometric indices were fixed every 10 days, the mesostructure was checked in the leaves of the middle layer in the phase of fruit formation, the content of the amount of chlorophylls was determined in the fresh material by spectrophotometric method, the content of different forms of carbohydrates and nitrogen in the plant organs was estimated by biochemical methods in  fixed dry material. It was found that GA3 increased plant height on average by 16.3%. 1-NAA and 6-BAP practically did not change linear plant sizes. The germicides increased the number of leaves per plant (10.8–30.8%), the mass of their raw matter (19.9–47.5%) and the area of the leaf surface (17.5–42.5%). The most significant impact on these indicators was made by GA3. All the germicides increased the number of leaves per plant (14.3–20.9%). 6-BAP increased the thickness of the leaf blades by 6.3% due to the growth of chlorenchyma, and GA3 reduced it by 9.2%. Under the influence of 6-BAP and 1-NAA, the thickness of chlorenchyma was increased by 7.0% and 5.9% respectively.The upper and lower epidermis became thinner or did not change under the effects of these germicides. Under the plant treatment with 1-NAA and 6-BAP, the size of columnar parenchyma cells increased by 25.6% and 19.6% and the size of the spongiform parenchyma cells increased by 8.4–76.7%. Under the action of GA3, the cell volume of the columnar parenchyma did not change significantly, and the size of the spongy cells increased. This paper reveals that all growth stimulants reduced the number of epidermis cells (6.6–7.4%). Under the action of 1-NAA and 6-BAP, there was a decrease in the number of stomata per 1 mm2 of the abacus leaf surface, respectively,by 6.5% and 21.2%. Instead, after the use of GA3, an increase in the number of stomata was observed by 21.8%. Such germicides as 1-NAA and GA3 reduced the area of respiratory area by 11.7% and 21.4%, while the 6-BAP increased its area by 10.4%. The results of the research show that 6-BAP increased the content of the sum of chlorophylls a + b in leaves by 13.3%. Under the action of 1-NAA, this indicator had only a tendency to increase (6.7%), but under the influence of GA3 it decreased. Moreover, the processing with germicides significantly increased leaf and chlorophyll indices. All three growth stimulants have increased the mass of dry matter of plants and the net productivity of photosynthesis. The data demonstrate that growth stimulants have contributed to the accumulation of various forms of carbohydrates in the roots and fruits. In the stems and leaves there was a tendency to decrease the content of sugars and starch. The germicides significantly reduced the content of all forms of nitrogen in the roots, stems and fruits, and increased the content of protein nitrogen in the leaves. Under the action of GA3 and 6-BAP, the number of fruits per plant increased by 19.3% and 16.1%, respectively. All growth stimulants have significantly increased the average weight of the individual fetus (7.4–10.3%). As a result, the weight of the fruits from one plant after treatment with 1-NAA, GA3 and 6-BAP increased by 11.0%, 28.0% and 29.4%, respectively. There are grounds to think that growth stimulants, influencing anatomical, morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of aubergines, changed the nature of the donor-acceptor relationships in the plant, which intensified the production process and optimized its productivity.
      PubDate: 2017-11-18
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 4 (2017)
  • Species composition of Dothideomycetes in the anthropogenically
           transformed ecosystems of the steppe zone of Ukraine

    • Authors: Korolyova O. V.
      Pages: 305– - 305–
      Abstract: The article considers the species composition of the Dothideomycetes and its structural characteristics in conditions of anthropogenically transformed ecosystems of the steppe zone of Ukraine. The materials of the work were the original mycological collection carried out as part of the mycological survey of this territory during 2008–2016, as well as the materials of the herbarium of the Institute of Botany named after M. Kholodny of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Herbarium collection and identification of the samples were performed in accordance with the generally accepted methods of cameral processing of xylotrophic, herbotrophic and coprothrophic micromycetes. To establish the taxonomic affiliation of species, the method of light microscopy was applied. As a result of our research, the species diversity of ascolocular fungi (Dothideomycetes) has been established in the anthropogenically transformed ecosystems of the steppe zone of Ukraine, which includes 156 species from 43 genera 19 families 5 orders and groups of taxa of Incertae sedis of the subclasses Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae. The characteristic features of the taxonomic structure of the investigated mycobiota are the predominance of representatives of the order of Pleosporales, the families Cucurbitariaceae and Mycosphaerellaceae, the genera Cucurbitaria and Mycosphaerella. In the ecological structure of mycobiota in anthropogenically transformed ecosystems saprotrophic and xylotrophic species dominated. The ascolocular fungi species are form consortium connections with 178 species of vascular plants from 112 genera of 51 families, with the largest number of micromycetes (65 species) noted on plants of the Rosaceae. An analysis of the abundance of species in anthropogenically transformed ecosystems of the investigated area showed that 47% of the species are randomly distributed. Widespread species are Dothidea sorbi (Wahlenb.) Sacc., Cucurbitaria caraganae P. Karst., C. amorphae (Wallr.) Fuckel, Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug.) Ces. & De Not., Otthia spiraeae (Fuckel) Fuckel. In the anthropogenically transformed ecosystems of the steppe zone of Ukraine, in comparison with natural ecosystems, the proportion of species from the genera Cucurbitaria and Mycosphaerella increases quantitatively, and the proportion of Leptosphaeria and Pleospora species decreases. An increase in the proportion of hemibiotrophic species in the ecological structure can be considered a characteristic feature of anthropogenic influence on mycobiota . Comparative analysis of quantitative and qualitative indicators of the mycobiota structure combined with spatial and temporal changes of these indicators can serve as an instrument for indicating its anthropogenic transformation. It would be promising to conduct further research on changes in the species structure of micromycetes exposed to various types of anthropogenic impact in terrestrial ecosystems of the steppe zone of Ukraine.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 4 (2017)
  • Lower vertebrates of Sehlabathebe National Park, Lesotho

    • Authors: G. Kopij
      Pages: 312– - 312–
      Abstract: Five snake, four lizard, nine amphibian (all anurans) and three fish species were recorded in the Apline grasslands of the Sehlabathebe National Park, South-Eastern Lesotho, Southern Africa. They include rare, threatened and endemic species, some of which are restricted to the Drakensberg / Maloti region. The following species were recorded: snakes Lamprophis aurora, L. fuscus, Hemachatus haemachatus, Bitis arietans, B. atropos; lizards Trachylepsis punctatissima, Tropidosaura montana, Pseudocordylus melanotus, Afroedura nivaria; amphibians (anurans) Xenopus laevis laevis, Bufo gariepensis nubicolus, Cacosternum striatum, Amietia dracomontana, A. angloensis, A. fuscigula, A. umbraculata, Strongylopus fasciatus, Semnodactylus wealii; fishes Labeobarbus aeneus, Pseudobarbus quathlambae and Oncorhynchus mykiss. Species with high conservation priorities include: Lamprophis fuscus, Tropidosaura cottrelli, Pseudocordylus spinosus, Amietia umbraculata, A. drakomontana, Strongylopus fasciatus and Pseudobarbus quathlambae.
      PubDate: 2017-11-14
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 4 (2017)
  • Environmental evaluation of suitability of recultivated land in a
           manganese quarry for the existence of soil biota

    • Authors: I. М. Loza, V. I. Chiorna
      Pages: 318– - 318–
      Abstract: The challenge of degradation of natural ecosystems because of human activity is considered by the world community to be the most serious problems facing mankind. As a result of mineral extraction, man-made landscapes and environmentally ruined areas replace natural habitats and agroecosystems; a whole spectrum of man-made processes are typical for such landscapes, which leads to a decrease in species richness and biological diversity within such areas. Degraded territories formed in the process of coal mining are often partially restored through remediation measures. During the implementation of the technical stage of remediation, substrates with different potential fertility having different environmental properties and quality are used. However, in quality assessment of remediated soils insufficient attention is paid to restoration of the environmental properties of the soils, namely their suitability for the existence of soil biota, which ensures the soil’s sustainability and vitality. The main indicators determining the productivity of remediated lands and the degree of their suitability for the existence of soil biota are values of actual acidity and degree of salinity. An assessment of the quality of reclaimed lands of  the Ordzhonikidzevsky ore mining and processing enterprise was carried out on the example of the Zaporizhsky open-cast mine with the aim of assessing the possibility of their economic use and suitability for the existence of soil biota , as well as to make recommendations for further rational use. It was found that  main characteristics  of the study area (capacity of bulk humic layer, content of humus in the bulk layer, content of physical clay in the bulk humic layer and in the subsoil, average soil density in the meter bulk layer, salinity of the bulk humic layer and subsoil, composition and properties of subsoil), of the Zaporizhzhya quarry's reclamation is suitable for the further settlement and successful existence of the soil biota. It is concluded that as a result of the technical stage of reclamation, an artificial reclaimed soil was obtained, which according to its characteristics is similar to the primary zonal soils that were located in this area prior to mining; the recultivated soil has somewhat lower fertility and greater salinity at the lower horizons, but is capable of performing ecological functions and can not only be used for economic purposes, but also perform ecological functions, serving as an environment for the existence of soil biota.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 4 (2017)
  • COXI based phylogenetic analysis of Caucasian clade of European
           Troglocaris (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae) with the suggestion of a new
           taxonomic group structure

    • Authors: I. Marin
      Pages: 323– - 323–
      Abstract: New genetic data on Caucasian troglobiotic shrimps collected from the territory of Russia, Abkhazia and Western Georgia are presented. Based on new genetic data on the marker region of subunit I of cytochrome oxidase of mitochondrial DNA (COXI mtDNA) of Caucasian species and other taxa of European cave shrimps (Troglocaris s.l.) from GenBank (NCBI) database, a new generic structure is presented. Based on a significant genetic divergence of COXI mtDNA subgenera of Troglocaris s.l., namely Troglocaris s.s., Xiphocaridinella and Spelaeocaris, should be considered as separate genera while Troglocaris (Troglocaridella) hercegovinensis (Babić, 1922) is suggested to be transferred within Dinaric genus Spelaeocaris as Spealeocaris hercegovinensis (Babić, 1922) comb. nov. Besides, Troglocaris bosnica shows a significant a genetic difference (at the level of the separate genus) from the remaining representatives of the genus Troglocaris s.s. Moreover, p-distances (COXI) of about 17% are supposed for generic separation within European Troglocaris-related atyid shrimps and 5% for separation of cryptic species within Caucasian Xiphocaridinella. A list of all known taxa of Troglocaris-related atyid shrimps of the European part and a discussion of the general distribution of troglocaridid atyid shrimps in the Balkans and the Caucasus are presented. A new version of divergence events between Dinaric–Caucasian Troglocaris lineages (genera) based on new genetic data is suggested.
      PubDate: 2017-11-15
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 4 (2017)
  • Sensitivity and resistance of communities: Evaluation on the example of
           the influence of edaphic, vegetation and spatial factors on soil

    • Authors: O. V. Zhukov, O. M. Kunah, Y. Y. Dubinina
      Pages: 328– - 328–
      Abstract: Environmental stability is a multifaceted concept and includes properties such as asymptotic stability, robustness, persistence, variability, elasticity and resistance. Resistance reflects the ability of a community or population to remain in a substantially unaltered state under external influence. The reverse of resistance is sensitivity. This article suggests a way to assess the sensitivity of animal communities to factors of various character and explain sensitivity and resistance of the macrofauna community near the floodplain of the river Dnieper within the "Dnipro-Orelsky" Nature Reserve to the effects of edaphic and plant factors, as well as spatial variables. It is shown that the regulatory impact of environmental factors is refracted through the properties of ecological systems themselves, namely resistance and sensitivity. If an ecological system does not react to changing environmental factors, such a system is indifferent with respect to these factors. In the case of regulatory influence of factors, there may be resistance, sensitivity and the proportionality of the response of the ecological system. The ratio of the specific role of a factor in the variability of a community to the contribution of the main components of the total variability of the attributive space makes it possible to assess the resistance, sensitivity and proportionality of response the ecological system to the action of that factor. If the ratio is >1, then this indicates sensitivity: level of variability of a community is higher than the relative role of environmental factors in the changing of the attributive space. If <1, this indicates resistance: the level of variability of a community is lower than the relative role of environmental factors in the changing of the attributive space. If the ratio =1 (≈1), changes in the community are proportional to the level of the main components of variation in comparison with other components. Ecological factors (both external environmental and internal due to species interactions and which have a neutral nature) cause different levels of community response to their impact. These differences refracted through different aspects of stability of a community can be described using the categories resistance, sensitivity and proportionality. The proposed procedure for quantification of specified properties of sustainability has established that the floodplain soil macrofauna is endowed with resistance to factors that prevail on the level of its variation. However, macrofauna is highly sensitive to minor factors. The community of the soil inhabitants is sensitive to fine-scale variations, which have a neutral nature.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 4 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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