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Biosystems Diversity
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2519-8513 - ISSN (Online) 2520-2529
Published by Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University Homepage  [5 journals]
  • Sulfidogenic activity of sulfate and sulfur reducing bacteria under the
           influence of metal compounds

    • Authors: O. M. Moroz, S. O. Hnatush, O. V. Tarabas, C. I. Bohoslavets, G. V. Yavorska, B. M. Borsukevych
      Pages: 3 - 10
      Abstract: Due to their high content in natural environments, heavy metals exhibit toxic effects on living organisms, which leads to a decrease in the biological diversity and productivity of ecosystems. In niches with low oxidation reducing potential, sulfate and sulfur reducing bacteria carry out the reducing transformation of oxidized sulfur compounds with the formation of significant amounts of hydrogen sulfide. H2S produced by bacteria interacts with metal ions, precipitating them in the form of sulfides. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of lead, cuprum (II), iron (II) and manganese (II) salts on the production of hydrogen sulfide by bacteria of the Desulfovibrio and Desulfuromonas genera, isolated from Yavorivske Lake, and to evaluate the efficiency of their use for purifying media, enriched with organic compounds, from hydrogen sulfide and heavy metals. The content of heavy metal ions in the water of Yavorivske Lake was determined by the spectrophotometric method. The bacteria were grown for 10 days at 30 °C in the Kravtsov-Sorokin medium under anaerobic conditions. To study the influence of metal ions on bacteria growth and their H2S production, cells were incubated with metal salts (0.5–4.0 mM), washed and grown in media with SO42– or S0. To determine the level of metal ions binding by H2S, produced by bacteria, cells were grown in media with metal compounds (0.5–4.0 mM), SO42– or S0. Biomass was determined by turbidimetric method. In the cultural liquid the content of H2S was determined quantitatively by spectrophotometric method, and qualitatively by the presence of metal cations. The content of metal sulfides in the growth medium was determined by weight method. Sulfate and sulfur-reducing bacteria were resistant to 2.0 mM Pb(NO3)2, 2.5 mM CuCl2, 2.5 mM FeCl2 × 4H2O and 2.0 mM MnCl2 × 4H2O, therefore they are promising for the development of biotechnologies for the purification of water resources contaminated by sulfur and metal compounds. When present in a medium with sulfates or sulfur of 1.0–1.5 mM lead, cuprum (II), iron (II) or manganese (II) ions, they almost completely bind with the H2S produced by bacteria in the form of insoluble sulfides, which confirms the negative results of qualitative reactions to their presence in the cultural liquid.
      PubDate: 2018-04-05
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2018)
  • Prediction of sweet corn yield depending on cultivation technology
           parameters by using linear regression and artificial neural network

    • Authors: P. V. Lykhovyd
      Pages: 11 - 15
      Abstract: Artificial neural networks and linear regression are widely used in particularly all branches of science for modeling and prediction. Linear regression is an old data processing tool, and artificial neural networks are a comparatively new one. The goal of the study was to determine whether artificial neural networks are more accurate than linear regression in sweet corn yield prediction. In the study we used a dataset obtained from field experiments on the technological improvement of sweet corn cultivation. The field experiments were conducted during the period from 2014 to 2016 on dark-chestnut soil under drip irrigated conditions in the Steppe Zone of Ukraine. We studied the impact of the moldboard plowing depths, mineral fertilizer application rates and plant densities on the crop yield. A significant impact of all the studied factors on the sweet corn productivity was proved by using the analysis of variance. The highest yield of sweet corn ears without husks (10.93 t ha–1) was under the moldboard plowing at the depth of 20–22 cm, mineral fertilizers application rate of N120P120, plant density of 65,000 plants ha–1. Data processing by using the linear regression and artificial neural network methods showed that the latter is a great deal better than linear regression in sweet corn yield prediction. Higher accuracy of the artificial neural network prediction was proved by the higher value of the coefficient of determination (R2) – 0.978, in comparison to 0.897 for the linear regression prediction model. We conclude that artificial neural networks are a much better data processing tool, especially, in the life sciences and for prediction of the non-linear natural processes and phenomena. The main disadvantage of the neural network models is their “black box” nature. However, linear regression will not lose its popularity among scientists in the nearest future. Linear regression is a much simpler data analysis tool, it is easier to perform the prediction, but it still provides a sufficiently high level of accuracy.
      PubDate: 2018-02-16
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2018)
  • Influence of river water quality on homeostasis characteristics of
           cypriniform and perciform fish

    • Authors: M. O. Klymenko, O. O. Biedunkova, O. M. Klymenko, I. I. Statnyk
      Pages: 16–2 - 16–2
      Abstract: Within an integrated ecosystem approach, it is preferable to evaluate the effects of pollution of surface waters through research on the organisms of fish. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of a set of water quality indicators on the homeostasis of fish, in order to determine the response of a hydro-ecosystem to the impact of human activity. Fish samples were obtained from control catches in 16 control sites located in the rivers of Rivne Oblast which differ in intensity of anthropogenic load. The researchers observed that increased concentrations of phosphates and suspended substances, heavy metals, iron, fluorides and nitrogen compounds have violated the environmental state of the examined hydro-ecosystems. Parameters of the morphological homeostasis were assessed by the levels of the fluctuating asymmetry of the meristic signs of fish.The scientists recorded significant impairments (within IV points of body stability) in case of roach and bleak in the majority of the control sites. We carried out the analysis of cytogenetic parameters of fish homeostasis using a micronuclear test of blood erythrocytes.The investigation revealed a significant excess of spontaneous mutagenesis (1.1–1.7 times) in such species as roach, bleak and perch, and this is certainly a clear indicator of unfavourable ecological conditions of the water environment in seven areas of hydro-ecosystems. Given the results of the analysis, the authors found that different ecological groups of fish have their own complex and multifactorial processes of morphological and cytogenetic homeostasis formation. Furthermore, the regression dependences set out in the paper indicated the decisive impact of the oxygen regime of the water environment (COD, BOD5, О2), pollutants (Cu2+, Zn2+, Mn2+), and substances of biogenic group (NH4+, NO2–, PO4‑) upon fish homeostasis. differences in scope of homeostasis characteristics of different fish species were complemented by the differences in the composition of the regression equations. In particular, in case of species that had signs of homeostasis violation, the equation consisted of a greater number of members. The dependences for morphological and cytogenetic homeostasis of bleak and roach appeared to multifactorial. This finding suggests that these species are sensitive local indicators of the water environment both at early and late stages of ontogeny . Finally, as an outcome of the research we obtained prognostic forms of the relationship between water quality indicators and fish homeostasis that may form the basis of an environmental assessment method in which fish characteristics are used to assess the health of hydro-ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2018-02-14
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2018)
  • Biotic links in the fouling community of Odessa Bay (Black Sea)

    • Authors: A. Y. Varigin
      Pages: 24 - 29
      Abstract: This paper reveals the character of the biotic links between the various organisms that compose the fouling community of Odessa Bay (Black Sea). The fouling community of solid substrates is formed by 62 species of invertebrates and 12 species of macrophytes. The edificator species of the community is the Black Sea mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819. The environment-forming role of the mussel, which is represents the core of the corresponding consortia, was examined. The leading role of sessile organisms in the formation of a superorganismic structure that significantly modifies the properties of the environment was revealed. Together with the mussel, this structure is formed by the bivalve mollusc Mytilaster lineatus (Gmelin, 1791) and the barnacle crustacean Amphibalanus improvisus (Darwin, 1854). The proportion of sessile organisms accounts for 24.6% of the total number of species in the community. In this case, they significantly dominate in relative abundance and biomass (78.9% and 98.8%, respectively). The mussels during the process of growth form complexly organized druses, which are peculiar three-dimensional formations, consisting of mussels of different sizes, fastened together with a substrate by an entire network of strong byssus threads. These formations increase the level of heterogeneity of the substrate and increase the variety of available habitats for other animals. The aggregate of these druses is a kind of sedimentary trap in which particles of nutritive detritus accumulate. The availability of accessible habitats, convenient shelters and food reserves attracts various species of invertebrates to the community. Around the core of the consortia a cluster of organisms formed associated with edificator species. An important role is played by trophic links between different mobile organisms and the phyto-component of the community. The ability of the Black Sea mussel to condition the environment, creating favourable conditions for the development of other organisms, characterizes it as an autogenic ecosystem engineer. Trophic and mediopathic links between the organisms that compose the fouling community go beyond it and extend to the inhabitants of the pelagic environment.
      PubDate: 2018-02-15
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2018)
  • The zone of temporary flooding of small rivers as an area of increased
           floristic diversity

    • Authors: E. G. Krylova, A. V. Tikhonov, E. S. Ivanova
      Pages: 30 - 36
      Abstract: During fluctuating water levels in the lower reaches of rivers, large areas of shallow water are exposed, forming a zone of temporary flooding (TFZ). The level regime of the water body determines the conditions for the growth of plants, the period available for vegetation of species and the path of seed migration. The seed bank is an integral part of a riparian biocenosis, experiencing the characteristics of environmental factors which influence its structure. Our study of the vegetation cover was carried out by the method of route survey of ecotopes in the estuaries of the Korozhechna and Ild rivers, tributaries of the Rybinsk Reservoir. Species composition of the flora is given in accordance with APG IV. The cenotic structure is characterized in terms of the Brown-Blanke school. To assess the species composition of the seed bank, a transect was placed along the width of the TFZ, on which cores were selected. Flora of the Korozhechny river is represented by 59 species from 24 families and 45 genera. Most numerous families: Poaceae (12%), Cyperaceae (10%), Polygonaceae (10%), Asteraceae, Ranunculaceae and Brassicaceae (by 7%). Flora of the Ild river is represented by 42 species from 18 families and 29 genera. Most numerous families: Cyperaceae (21%), Ranunculaceae (14%), Poaceae (12%), Plantaginaceae (7%). We found two rare species: Carex bohemica – on the Ild river and Ranunculus reptans – on both rivers. The difference in the species composition is explained by the greater riparian area of the TFZ on the Korozhechna river, characterized by a wide low floodplain. Phytocenosis form multicomponent complexes and are represented by associations Scirpetum lacustris, Phalaroidetum arundinaceae, Caricetum gracilis, Phragmitetum communis – on both rivers, Hippuridetum vulgaris и Batrachietum circinati – in terrestrial form on the Korozhechna river, and Eleocharitetum palustris and Oenantho-Rorippetum on the Ild river. In the seed bank composition of the TFZ of the transition zone of the Korozhechna river receiver 25 species were found, Ild river – 30 species. The ecological structure of the flora of both rivers and the seed bank is dominated by species of waterlogged and humid habitats. Their share (hygrophyte and hygromeso-and mesophyte) accounts for about 50%. With prolonged drying, they can normally develop in the TFZ. In the biomorphological structure, the main part of the flora and seed bank species are perennial grasses, characterized by great environmental plasticity, adapted to extreme conditions of habitat, having wide ecological amplitude with respect to the ground and which can withstand considerable fluctuations in the water level. As a result, our work has confirmed that the seed bank is a hidden component of plant communities and reflects the floristic potential of ecologically unstable territories.
      PubDate: 2018-02-11
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2018)
  • Sozological peculiarities of the flora of the Desna Plateau (Ukraine)

    • Authors: L. V. Koval, L. M. Horshkova, L. O. Kuzmenko, O. M. Mehem, L. V. Burchak, A. S. Polyakova
      Pages: 34 - 45
      Abstract: According to the goals and objectives of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation for 2011–2020 studying and monitoring the rare component of regional floras is highly relevant. This article presents the results of a nature conservation study of the flora of the Desna Plateau (Кrolevets’ and Hlukhiv geobotanic region), situated in the northeast part of Ukraine at the border line of two geomorphological regions (the Central Russian Upland and the Polesia-Dnipro lowland) and of two physical-geographical zones (Novhorod-Sivers`ke Polesia and the Sums`ky forest-steppe. In the orographic aspect, the territory is made up of the western spurs of the Central Russian Upland with the dissectioned forms of the relief. The studied area consists of about 4000 km2. Field route studies aimed at compiling floral lists, geobotanical description and herbarizing were conducted in the period 2002–2016. Separate sites of nature conservation interest were re-examined in different seasonal periods. The basis of the annotated summary of the rare species of vascular plant flora is made up by the materials of original research, as well as herbarium (KW) and literary reviews. The complex floristic analysis of the rare component of the regional flora was carried out in cameral conditions, which made it possible to identify the systematic, geographical, ecological, phytocenological and nature conservation structures of the rare species of vascular plant flora in the investigated area. According to the data received, the total number of species of vascular plants endangered by anthropogenic impact is composed of 85 species belonging to 32 families, 54 genera. Among the families, the following predominate: Orchidaceae (14 genera), Asteraceae, Ranunculaceae (8 genera in each), Iridaceae (5), Aspidiaceae, Cyperaceae (4 genera in each). Among the genera, the following predominate – Carex (4 species); Dryopteris, Orchis, Iris, Jurinea – 3 species in each. It was concluded that among the rare species there are plant species of different physical and geographical zones and this corresponds to the ecotone location of the region. Among species at the edge of their range, 14 are on the extreme northern border of their typical range (Linum flavum L., Carex rhizina Blytt ex Lindb., Centaurea ruthenica Lam., Trinia multicaulis Schishk, Aster amellus L., Galatella linosyris (L.) Rchb. f., Stipa tirsa Steven), 7 species are found on the southern border of their range (Cypripedium calceolus L., Pedicularis sceptrum-carolinum L., Parnassia palustris L., Lycopodium annotinum L., 4 species (Anemone nemorosa L., Salix myrsinifolia Salisb., Galanthus nivalis L., Gladiolus imbricatus L. are found on the eastern border of their distribution. The nature conservation structure includes 4 species from the Bern Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Dracocephalum ruyschiana L., Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill s.l., Salvinia natans L., Ostericum palustre (Bess) Bess); 3 species from the supplement to the CITES Convention (Adonis vernalis L., Cypripedium calceolus L., Orchis militaris L.), 27 species from the Red Book of Ukraine (Lilium martagon L., Allium ursinum L., Neottia nidus-avis (L.) Rich, Stipa pennata L.), 49 species from Sumy region rare species list (Clematis recta L., Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill., Eremogone saxatilis (L.) Ikonn., Drosera rotundifolia L., Pedicularis kaufmannii Pinzg., Carex limosa L., C. umbrosa Host.). In addition, we suggest including into this list Sanquisorba officinalis L., Briza media L., Beckmania eruciformis (L.) Host., Melica nutans L., Coronilla varia L., Salvia nutans L., Scilla siberica Haw., Corydalis solida (L.) Clairv., Valeriana officinalis L., Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Medic., Menyanthes trifoliata L., Hesperis matronalis L., Naumburgia thyrsiflora (L.) Rchb., Thalictrum aquilegifolium L., T. minus L., Verbascum nigrum L., Polygonatum multiflorum (L.) All. It was found that among the rare species of the region mesophytes predominate and they are confined to meadow and forest habitats. To a lesser extent, xeromesophytes and xerophytes of meadow-steppe, as well as hygrophytes and hydrophytes of shoreline and water habitats are represented. The nature reserve fund of the region was analyzed according to the methodology of assessing the nature reserves by botanical value priority criteria. To optimize the region's nature reserve fund, a rationale for creating a landscape reserve of local significance “Zvenyhorods'ky” with a total area of 2,000 hectares was compiled, giving it the status of a regional biodiversity centre.
      PubDate: 2018-02-09
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2018)
  • Influence of the herbaceous layer and litter depth on the spatial
           distribution of litter macrofauna in a forest plantation

    • Authors: L. I. Faly, V. V. Brygadyrenko
      Pages: 46 - 51
      Abstract: The litter invertebrate community consists of species from different size, trophic and taxonomic groups. The distribution of the animal population of the litter horizon depends upon many factors, especially the content of the phytocoenosis, the projective herbaceous plant cover, moisture, litter thickness and the soil texture. This article analyses the variability of the main characteristics of litter invertebrate communities (total number, number of species, diversity according to the Shannon–Wiener and Pielou indices) on plots with different herbaceous plant composition and cover in plantations of Robinia pseudoacacia L. in the South steppe zone of Ukraine (territory of the “Tiligulsky” Regional Landscape Park). The taxonomic structure of the litter communities in the Robinia plantation was dominated by predatory groups of invertebrates (Carabidae, Aranea, Formicidae). The abundance of Julidae, Isopoda, Silphidae and Staphylinidae was relatively low. The studied forest plots were characterized by the simplified size structure of the litter macrofauna. The absence of species with body length of 16–20 mm and length over 20 mm indicates damage to the most significant trophic chains. The forest belt studied is in a highly disturbed condition, the plots being dominated by steppe species of herbaceous plants. The analyzed factors (diversity and extent of cover of herbaceous plants) do not determine the structure of the litter macrofauna community but affect it indirectly: a slight increase in the total number of invertebrates was observed in areas with minimal and maximum number of species of herbaceous plants. The relationship between the abundance of invertebrates and the percentage of herbaceous plant cover is manifested insignificantly. We noted a tendency for the number of invertebrate species to decrease along the gradient of herbaceous plant cover due to the concentration of dominant predatory species which exterminate other trophic groups of macrofauna.
      PubDate: 2018-04-05
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2018)
  • ntra-species profiling of Cleome viscosa growing in Swat district

    • Authors: N. Muhammad, S. F. Wadood, W. Khan, N. Ali, M. Nisar
      Pages: 52 - 55
      Abstract: Intra-specific genetic variation was studied in 28 genotypes of Cleome viscosa L. growing in Swat district, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. It was found that genotypes showed the utmost allelic variation for leaf upper and lower surface with emerald green (75%), and yellow green (75%) respectively, other leaves lower and upper surfaces were (25%) green and yellow green (26%) respectively. The majority of C. viscosa genotypes were (50%) yellow flowers while others were with (29%) white yellow colour and (21%) dull yellow. Most of the seeds were with black (46%). The protein profiling was carried out on 12% gel electrophoresis; seven reproducible bands with molecular weight ranges from 180 to 10 KDa were detected in C. viscosa, the locus contribution toward genetic disagreement (LCTGD) of C. viscosa was 57%. Notably, L-3, L-4 L-5, was monomorphic in C. viscosa and was treated as species specific. L-1, L-2, L-7 were polymorphic. These bands showed 79%, 4%, 14% and 79% variation respectively. In the current investigation the intra-specific variation was observed limited and alone SDS-PAGE did not determine the high level of intra-specific variation; however, diverse germplasm were suggested to be acquired from various sources.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2018)
  • Ethno-botanical and geo-referenced profiling of medicinal plants of
           Nawagai Valley, District Buner (Pakistan)

    • Authors: S. U. Zaman, K. Ali, W. Khan, M. Ali, T. Jan, M. Nisar
      Pages: 56 - 61
      Abstract: The prime objective of the research was to list the important ethnomedicinal plants of Nawagai village, District Buner. During the survey, 44 plant species from 27 families were observed and collected from the targeted area of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Lamiaceae members were the most dominant (54%) followed by members of Asteraceae (30%), Poaceae (18%) and Solanaceae (12%). Relevant information such as field data, GPS coordinates family names, local names, therapeutic uses and plant habits were recorded for each species. For preservation purposes, specimens were mounted on herbarium sheets, and identified with the help of flora of Pakistan, flora of Australia and other relevant floristic records. During this research work all the collected specimens were preserved in the (BG&H, UOM) Botanical Garden and Herbarium, the data were also provided to the Department of Botany, University of Malakand Dir (Lower), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
      PubDate: 2018-02-25
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2018)
  • Biodiversity and dynamics of plant groups of Chebket El Melhassa region

    • Authors: B. Maamar, B. Nouar, L. Soudani, M. Maatoug, M. Azzaoui, M. Kharytonov, O. Wiche, O. Zhukov
      Pages: 62 - 70
      Abstract: This article examines phytoecological aspects of plant groups in the Chebket El Melhassa region (Tiaret-Ouest Algérien) by several types of analysis: biological, biogeographic and statistical. From the plant analysis, a list of 103 taxa distributed in 36 families was compiled, biologically characterized by a dominance of therophytes (45.6%) with species of the Mediterranean biogeographic type 20 species (19.8%) assuming particular importance. The ordination of the plant community was performed in the search for the optimum solution based on correlation with environmental factors, estimated using the phytoindication approach. The results reveal that the plants represented in the community, mostly prefer strongly lit places. Phytoindication shows a warm sub Mediterranean climate. Continentality corresponds to the sub-oceanic climate. The moisture regime ranges from strongly dry to dry soil. The plant community is formed on moderately acid soils. Plants are able to grow on both strongly acidic and neutral soils. The soil is very poor or poor in nitrogen. A four dimension variant of multidimensional scaling procedure was selected as the most appropriate decision. Dimensions selected after nonmetric multidimensional scaling were interpreted by computing weighted average scores of ecological factors for ordination configuration. Four of the plant species clusters were found to be the optimal solution on the basis of the Calinsky-Harabasz criteria. The clusters can be viewed as a functional group. Functional group A is quite diverse and represented by 42 species. This functional group is closest to the community optimum because in all four space dimensions the corresponding cluster is near the origin, which corresponds to the most typical ecological conditions. Species that constitute the group B prefer minimum values of dimension 2. This indicates a preference for illuminated sites with high temperature regime and low soil humidity. This group includes 32 species. A feature of group С is that it is located in the area of maximum values for dimension 2. Thus, this functional group is opposite to functional group B. This indicates a preference of species included in the functional group C for wetter soils. Functional group C comprises 21 species. Functional group D differs considerably from all others in its ecological characteristics. The difference is in the preference for minimum values for measurement 1. This suggests that more acid soils are optimal for a given functional group. Functional group E comprises 8 species.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2018)
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