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JBJS Open Access
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2472-7245
Published by LWW Wolters Kluwer Homepage  [286 journals]
  • The Effect of Rotator Cuff Repair on Natural History: A Systematic Review
           of Intermediate to Long-Term Outcomes

    • Authors: Chalmers; Peter N.; Ross, Hunter; Granger, Erin; Presson, Angela P.; Zhang, Chong; Tashjian, Robert Z.
      Abstract: imageBackground: Rotator cuff disease can have a progressive natural history of increasing tear size and worsening function. It remains unknown whether rotator cuff repair alters this natural history.Methods: A systematic review of the intermediate to long-term (minimum 5-year) results of operative rotator cuff repair and no repair of rotator cuff injuries was performed to compare (1) patient-based outcomes, (2) future surgical intervention, (3) future tear progression or recurrence, and (4) tear size. The no-repair group included both conservative treatment and surgical treatment without repair. After the application of selection criteria, 29 studies with 1,583 patients remained. Meta-regression was conducted to adjust for baseline age, sex, tear size, and duration of follow-up.Results: Comparison of the repair and no-repair groups revealed no significant differences in terms of age (p = 0.36), sex (p = 0.88), study level of evidence (p = 0.86), or Coleman methodology score (p = 0.8). The duration of follow-up was significantly longer for the no-repair group (p = 0.004), whereas baseline tear size was significantly larger in the repair group (p = 0.014). The percentage of patients requiring additional surgery was significantly higher in the no-repair group after adjustment for age, sex, duration of follow-up, and tear size (9.5% higher in estimated means between groups [95% confidence interval, 2.1% to 17%]; p = 0.012). The likelihood of a recurrent defect (repair group) or extension of the prior tear (no-repair group) was not different between groups after adjustment for age, sex, duration of follow-up, and tear size (p = 0.4). There were no differences between the repair and no-repair groups in terms of the Constant score after adjustment for age, sex, duration of follow-up, and tear size (p = 0.31). The final tear size was significantly larger in the no-repair group than the repair group (967 mm2 higher in estimated means between groups [95% confidence interval, 771 to 1,164 mm2]; p < 0.001).Conclusions: At intermediate to long-term follow-up, rotator cuff repair was associated with decreased final tear size and decreased need for future surgery after adjusting for age, sex, duration of follow-up, and tear size. The likelihood of a recurrent defect after rotator cuff repair did not differ from that of tear extension after nonoperative treatment. Thus, rotator cuff repair may not alter natural history.Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for
      Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
  • A New, Easy, Fast, and Reliable Method to Correctly Classify Acetabular
           Fractures According to the Letournel System

    • Authors: Riouallon; Guillaume; Sebaaly, Amer; Upex, Peter; Zaraa, Mourad; Jouffroy, Pomme
      Abstract: imageBackground: Accurate classification of acetabular fractures remains difficult. To aid in the classification of acetabular fractures and to aid in teaching, our department developed a diagnostic algorithm that involves the use of 1 standardized 3-dimensional reconstruction of a computed tomography (CT) scan (an exopelvic view without the femoral head) with 8 anatomical landmarks. The algorithm was integrated into a smartphone application (app). The main objective of this study was to test the efficacy of this algorithm and smartphone app.Methods: Fourteen reviewers (3 experts, 3 fellows, 3 residents, and 5 novice reviewers) evaluated a set of 35 CT scans of acetabular fractures in 2 phases. During the first phase, the scans (including axial 2-dimensional views and 3-dimensional (3D) multiplanar reconstruction views) were assessed by each reviewer twice, with an interval of 4 weeks between the readings to decrease recall bias. During that phase, the reviewers were provided with a diagram of the Letournel classification system with no guidelines for interpretation. During the second phase, performed 4 weeks after the first phase, 1 standardized 3D reconstruction (an exopelvic view without the femoral head) was reviewed twice, with an interval of 4 weeks between the readings. During that phase, the reviewers used the smartphone app. The primary outcome was the accuracy of classification. Interobserver reliability, reading time, and time needed for accurate classification were noted.Results: The accuracy of fracture classification was 64.5% when the standard method of analysis was used and 83.4% when the app was used (p < 0.001). Improvement was noted in all groups, with the expert group showing the least improvement (88.6% to 97.2%, p = 0.04) and the novice group showing the most improvement (42.0% to 75.5%, p < 0.001). Furthermore, use of the app greatly increased the accuracy of classification of complex fractures. The average reading time was 71.8 minutes when the standard method was used and 37.4 minutes when the app was used. The interobserver reliability improved in all groups to an excellent reliability (interclass correlation coefficient [ICC]> 0.79).Conclusions: The Letournel classification system is difficult to understand and to learn but remains the only system guiding the surgical strategy for acetabular fractures. The impact of diagnostic algorithms is debatable. The most important finding of the present study is the high accuracy for inexperienced groups when the app was used. Another important finding is the high reliability of this method for the diagnosis of complex acetabular fractures.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Preoperative Skin-Surface Cultures Can Help to Predict the Presence of
           Propionibacterium in Shoulder Arthroplasty Wounds

    • Authors: MacNiven; Ian; Hsu, Jason E.; Neradilek, Moni B.; Matsen, Frederick A. III
      Abstract: imageBackground: Propionibacterium species are commonly cultured from specimens harvested at the time of revision shoulder arthroplasty. These bacteria reside in normal sebaceous glands, out of reach of surgical skin preparation. The arthroplasty incision transects these structures, which allows Propionibacterium to inoculate the wound and to potentially lead to the formation of a biofilm on the inserted implant. To help identify patients who are at increased risk for wound inoculation, we investigated whether preoperative cultures of the specimens from the unprepared skin surface were predictive of the results of intraoperative cultures of dermal wound-edge specimens obtained immediately after incision of the surgically prepared skin.Methods: Sixty-six patients (mean age, 66.1 ± 9.4 years [range, 37 to 82 years]; 73% male) undergoing primary shoulder arthroplasty had preoperative cultures of the unprepared skin surface and intraoperative cultures of the freshly incised dermis using special culture swabs. For the first 50 patients, a control swab was opened to air during the same time that the dermal specimen was obtained. The results for female and male patients were characterized as the Specimen Propionibacterium Value (SpPV). We then determined the degree to which the results of cultures of the skin surface specimens were predictive of the results of culture of the dermal specimens.Results: The skin-surface SpPV was ≥1 in 3 (17%) of the 18 female patients and 34 (71%) of the 48 male patients (p < 0.001). The dermal SpPV was ≥1 in 0 (0%) of the 18 female patients and 19 (40%) of the 48 male patients (p < 0.001). None of the control samples had an SpPV of ≥1. The predictive characteristics of a skin-surface SpPV of ≥1 for a dermal SpPV of ≥1 were as follows: sensitivity, 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82 to 1.00); specificity, 0.62 (95% CI, 0.46 to 0.75); positive predictive value, 0.51 (95% CI, 0.34 to 0.68); and negative predictive value, 1.00 (95% CI, 0.88 to 1.00).Conclusions: A preoperative culture of the unprepared skin surface can help to predict whether the freshly incised dermal edge is likely to be positive for Propionibacterium. This test may help to identify patients who may merit more aggressive topical and systemic antibiotic prophylaxis.Clinical Relevance: This study shows that surgeons have the opportunity to use preoperative skin cultures to determine the likelihood that the shoulder arthroplasty wound will be culture-positive for Propionibacterium.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Total Knee Arthroplasty in a Low-Income Country: Short-Term Outcomes from
           a National Joint Registry

    • Authors: Graham; Simon Matthew; Moffat, Chipiliro; Lubega, Nicholas; Mkandawire, Nyengo; Burgess, David; Harrison, William J.
      Abstract: imageBackground: We describe our 10-year experience with total knee arthroplasty in patients who are included in the Malawi National Joint Registry.Methods: A total of 127 patients underwent 153 total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) between 2005 and 2015. The mean duration of follow-up was 4 years and 3 months (range, 6 months to 10 years and 6 months). The study group included 98 women and 29 men with a mean age of 65.3 years (range, 24 to 84 years). Nine patients were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive.Results: The primary indication for surgery was osteoarthritis (150 knees), and the mean preoperative and postoperative Oxford Knee Scores were 16.81 (range, 4 to 36) and 45.61 (range, 29 to 48), respectively. Four knees (2.6%) were revised because of early periprosthetic joint infection (1 knee), aseptic loosening (1 knee), and late periprosthetic joint infection (2 knees). There were no perioperative deaths. In the group of 9 patients who were HIV-positive, there were no early or late complications and the mean Oxford Knee Score was 47 (range, 42 to 48) at the time of the latest follow-up.Conclusions: This study demonstrated good short-term results following 153 primary TKAs performed in a low-income country.Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for
      Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Prevalence of and Predictive Factors for Scoliosis After Surgery for
           Congenital Heart Disease in the First Year of Life

    • Authors: Kaito; Takashi; Shimada, Masatoshi; Ichikawa, Hajime; Makino, Takahiro; Takenaka, Shota; Sakai, Yusuke; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Hoashi, Takaya
      Abstract: imageBackground: The surgical treatment of congenital heart disease is reported to be associated with a high prevalence of scoliosis, although the detailed etiology is unknown. Surgical interventions involving the rib cage are considered to increase the risk of scoliosis. However, whether the cardiac condition or the procedure performed makes patients more susceptible to the development of spinal deformity is controversial.Methods: The present study included 483 patients who underwent surgery for the treatment of congenital heart disease with use of procedures involving the immature rib cage (sternotomy and/or thoracotomy) during the first year of life, followed by the evaluation of standing chest radiographs at ≥10 years of age. Patients with congenital spinal deformity and potential neuromuscular disease were excluded. The prevalence of and predictive factors for scoliosis were evaluated. The presence of scoliosis (Cobb angle ≥10° to
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Iliopsoas Disorder in Athletes with Groin Pain: Prevalence in 638
           Consecutive Patients Assessed with MRI and Clinical Results in 134
           Patients with Signal Intensity Changes in the Iliopsoas

    • Authors: Tsukada; Sachiyuki; Niga, Sadao; Nihei, Tadahiro; Imamura, Shoichiro; Saito, Masayoshi; Hatanaka, Jindo
      Abstract: imageBackground: Although iliopsoas disorder is one of the most frequent causes of groin pain in athletes, little is known about its prevalence and clinical impact.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 638 consecutive athletes who had groin pain. Each athlete was assessed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). First, we identified the prevalence of changes in signal intensity in the iliopsoas. Then we classified the changes in signal intensity in the iliopsoas, as visualized on short tau inversion recovery MRI, into 2 types: the muscle-strain type (characterized by a massive high-signal area in the muscle belly, with a clear border) and the peritendinitis type (characterized by a long and thin high-signal area extending proximally along the iliopsoas tendon from the lesser trochanter, without a clear border). Finally, we compared the time to return to play for the athletes who had these signal intensity changes.Results: Changes in signal intensity in the iliopsoas were detected in 134 (21.0%) of the 638 athletes. According to our MRI classification, 66 athletes had peritendinitis changes and 68 had muscle-strain changes. The time from the onset of groin pain to return to play was significantly shorter for the patients with muscle-strain changes on MRI than for those with peritendinitis changes (8.6 ± 8.3 versus 20.1 ± 13.9 weeks, respectively; p < 0.0001).Conclusions: Changes in MRI signal intensity in the iliopsoas were observed in 21.0% of 638 athletes who had groin pain. Distinguishing between muscle-strain changes and peritendinitis changes could help to determine the time to return to play.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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