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Journal Cover JBJS Open Access
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2472-7245
   Published by LWW Wolters Kluwer Homepage  [289 journals]
  • A Patient-Focused Technology-Enabled Program Improves Outcomes in Primary
           Total Hip and Knee Replacement Surgery

    • Authors: Jayakumar; Prakash; Di, Jianing; Fu, Jiayu; Craig, Joyce; Joughin, Vicki; Nadarajah, Victoria; Cope, Jade; Bankes, Marcus; Earnshaw, Peter; Shah, Zameer
      Abstract: imageBackground: A patient-engagement and pathway-management program for patients undergoing primary total hip and knee replacement was evaluated. Health-service and multimedia features supported by technology were integrated with existing enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) practices. The primary objective was to demonstrate the impact on length of stay. The secondary objective was to assess the impact on clinical, patient-focused, and financial outcomes.Methods: Two thousand and eighty consecutive patients undergoing primary total hip replacement (n = 1,034) and total knee replacement (n = 1,046) were classified into “pre-program” (retrospectively assessed [n = 1,038]) and “program” (prospectively assessed [n = 1,042]) cohorts. Patients in the program cohort were subdivided according to those who were eligible for criteria-based outreach support (OS) (n = 401) and those who were ineligible for this service (NOS) (n = 641). Clinical outcomes were assessed for all patients, and patient-focused outcomes were assessed for a subset (n = 223).Results: The mean reduction in length of stay ranged from 20% (1.2 days) to 42% (2.5 days) following total hip replacement and from 9% (0.6 day) to 31% (2 days) following total knee replacement (p < 0.001). Clinical outcomes (readmissions, complications, emergency department re-attendance rates) were not significantly negatively impacted. The Oxford Hip Score had numerically larger improvement after total hip replacement in the OS group than in the pre-program group (4.1-point increase), and the Oxford Knee Score had numerically larger improvement after total knee replacement in the NOS group than in the pre-program group (0.8-point increase). The patients in the program cohort (either OS or NOS) rated overall health gain as higher than those in the pre-program cohort (gain in numerical rating scale, 1.4 points for patients managed with total hip replacement, 0.6 points for patients managed with total knee replacement). Older patients and those with higher comorbidity indices benefited most with respect to length of stay and multiple clinical outcomes. Patient experience was significantly improved across domains (p < 0.001 to p = 0.003). Potential savings for patients managed with total hip replacement (£401.64 [$267.76] per patient) exceeded estimated program charges of £50 [$33.33] to £60 [$40] per patient, whereas the potential savings for patients managed with total knee replacement (£76.67 [$51.11] per patient) were sufficient to achieve a reduction of total system costs.Conclusions: Technology-enabled programs may deliver enhanced care at lower costs for patients undergoing lower-limb arthroplasty. Shorter durations of inpatient stay without a negative impact on clinical outcomes and improved patient-focused outcomes and experience can deliver substantial value that can be especially beneficial for older patients and those with greater medical complexity.Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for
      Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Coinfection with Hepatitis C and HIV Is a Risk Factor for Poor Outcomes
           After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    • Authors: Mahure; Siddharth A.; Bosco, Joseph A.; Slover, James D.; Vigdorchik, Jonathan M.; Iorio, Richard; Schwarzkopf, Ran
      Abstract: imageBackground: As medical management continues to improve, orthopaedic surgeons are likely to encounter a greater proportion of patients who have coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis-C virus (HCV).Methods: The New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) database was used to identify patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty between 2010 and 2014. Patients were stratified into 4 groups on the basis of HCV and HIV status. Differences regarding baseline demographics, length of stay, total charges, discharge disposition, in-hospital complications and mortality, and 90-day hospital readmission were calculated.Results: Between 2010 and 2014, a total of 137,801 patients underwent total knee arthroplasty. Of those, 99.13% (136,604) of the population were not infected, 0.62% (851) had HCV monoinfection, 0.20% (278) had HIV monoinfection, and 0.05% (68) were coinfected with both HCV and HIV. Coinfected patients were more likely to be younger, female, a member of a minority group, homeless, and insured by Medicare or Medicaid, and to have a history of substance abuse. HCV and HIV coinfection was a significant independent risk factor for increased length of hospital stay (odds ratio [OR], 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.75 to 4.81), total hospital charges in the 90th percentile (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.12 to 3.67), ≥2 in-hospital complications (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.04 to 3.97), and 90-day hospital readmission (OR, 3.53; 95% CI, 2.02 to 6.18).Conclusions: Patients coinfected with both HCV and HIV represent a rare but increasing population of individuals undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Recognition of unique baseline demographics in these patients that may lead to suboptimal outcomes will allow appropriate preoperative management and multidisciplinary coordination to reduce morbidity and mortality while containing costs.Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for
      Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Bone Graft Augmentation for Severe Glenoid Bone Loss in Primary Reverse
           Total Shoulder Arthroplasty: Outcomes and Evaluation of Host Bone Contact
           by 2D-3D Image Registration

    • Authors: Lorenzetti; Adam; Streit, Jonathan J.; Cabezas, Andres F.; Christmas, Kaitlyn N.; LaMartina, Joey II; Simon, Peter; Frankle, Mark A.
      Abstract: imageBackground: The treatment of patients with severe glenoid bone loss using reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) is challenging because of the difficulty in obtaining glenoid fixation. The outcomes following primary RSA with structural bone-grafting for severe glenoid bone loss and the amount of native bone support necessary to achieve clinical improvement are unclear.Methods: We reviewed functional outcomes (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons [ASES] score, Simple Shoulder Test [SST], visual analog scale [VAS] for pain and function, patient satisfaction, and range of motion) for 57 patients who were treated with a primary RSA and glenoid bone-grafting for severe glenoid bone loss. Three glenoids were classified as type A2; 2, as type B2; and 2, as type C, according to the Walch classification; 16 glenoids, as grade E1; and 19, as grade E3, according to the Sirveaux classification; 9 glenoids, as grade 3, according to the Levigne classification; and 6 were unable to be classified. For the 44 patients with adequate preoperative computed tomographic (CT) data and postoperative radiographs, we evaluated native bone contact under the glenoid baseplate by matching the projected shape of the implant and scapula from the postoperative radiographs with a generated 3-dimensional (3D) model of the preoperative scapula. We then analyzed functional outcomes in relation to native bone support of the baseplate.Results: At a mean of 46 months (minimum, 24 months), the patients demonstrated significant improvements in function, motion, and pain (change in the ASES total score = 38.6, change in SST = 5.4, change in forward elevation = 72.4°, change in abduction = 67.7°, change in external rotation = 24.3°, and change in VAS pain score = −4.6; p < 0.001 for all). On the basis of the generated 3D model, the baseplate contact to host bone was a mean (and standard deviation) of 17% ± 12% (range, 0% to 50%). There was no significant correlation between host bone coverage and change in the ASES score (p = 0.51) for the 44 patients included in this analysis. There were 4 major complications (7%) in the study group but no glenoid baseplate failures.Conclusions: Glenoid bone-grafting in a primary RSA in a shoulder with severe bone loss produces good functional outcomes that do not correlate with the degree of native bone contact under the baseplate. We had observed no glenoid component failures at the time of writing.Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for
      Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Anatomic Coracoclavicular Ligament Reconstruction for the Treatment of
           Acute Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation: Minimum 10-Year Follow-up

    • Authors: Mori; Daisuke; Yamashita, Fumiharu; Kizaki, Kazuha; Funakoshi, Noboru; Mizuno, Yasuyuki; Kobayashi, Masahiko
      Abstract: imageBackground: The long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes following coracoclavicular (CC) ligament reconstruction for the operative treatment of acute acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation remain uncertain. The purpose of the present study was to determine the long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes of CC ligament reconstruction and to identify risk factors for unfavorable outcomes.Methods: We reviewed 20 cases of AC joint dislocation in 19 patients (18 male and 1 female; mean age, 32.3 years) that were treated with single-bundle reconstruction. The mean duration of follow-up was 12.7 years. We measured the CC vertical distance (CCD) on the anteroposterior view and compared the affected and unaffected sides (CCD ratio). We divided the patients into those with a CCD ratio of
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
  • The Use of Ultrasound to Exclude Extremity Fractures in Adults

    • Authors: Døssing; Kaj; Mechlenburg, Inger; Hansen, Lars Bolvig; Søballe, Kjeld; Østergaard, Helle
      Abstract: imageBackground: The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether ultrasonography can be used as a diagnostic tool to exclude extremity fractures in adults.Methods: This prospective comparative study involved 91 patients (age, ≥18 years) who had been referred by general practitioners for a conventional radiographic examination of a suspected extremity fracture. No additional clinical examination was performed. Ultrasound examination was consistently carried out prior to conventional radiographic examination, which was regarded as the gold standard. At the end of the study, the positive scans were confirmed by a specialist who was highly skilled in ultrasonography.Results: The prevalence of fractures in the study population was 27%. Ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 92%, a specificity of 94%, a positive predictive value of 85%, a negative predictive value of 97%, a positive likelihood ratio of 15.33, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.085. There seemed to be no association between the anomalous results and patient age or the specific anatomical region of the fracture.Conclusions: The present study indicates that ultrasonography, when performed and interpreted by experienced ultrasonographers, has high accuracy for the diagnosis of a suspected extremity fracture. No systematic differences were found between the results of radiography and ultrasonography, and ultrasonography showed a high sensitivity and specificity.Level of Evidence: Diagnostic Level II. See Instructions for
      Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Determinants of Health Status Three to Six Years After Surgical Treatment
           of Closed Ankle Fracture and Comparison with the General Population: A
           Historical Cohort Study

    • Authors: Stavem; Knut; Naumann, Markus G.; Sigurdsen, Ulf; Utvåg, Stein Erik
      Abstract: imageBackground: The purposes of the present study were to identify the determinants of health status 3 to 6 years after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for the treatment of closed ankle fracture and to compare the health status of patients who had undergone this procedure with that in the general population after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, body mass index (BMI), and smoking status.Methods: The present study was a historical cohort study combined with a postal survey. In total, 1,149 patients who underwent ORIF for the treatment of closed ankle fractures at 2 hospitals were eligible for chart review; 959 with low-energy fractures were eligible for a postal survey, and 471 (49%) responded to the Short Form Health Survey-36 (SF-36) health status questionnaire and provided data on BMI. Determinants of the physical functioning (PF), physical component summary (PCS), and mental component summary (MCS) scores of the SF-36 were analyzed by means of multivariable linear regression analysis. The health status of patients with an ankle fracture (n = 471) was compared with that in a sample of the general population (n = 5,396) by means of multivariable regression.Results: Age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class III, and complications following surgery were associated with PF and PCS scores, and a BMI of ≥30 kg/m2 and current smoking status was associated with PF and MCS scores. However, the PF, PCS, and MCS scores of patients with ankle fractures did not differ from those of the general population, with unstandardized regression coefficients of 0.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], –1.67 to 2.16; p = 0.80), 0.67 (95% CI, –0.35 to 1.70; p = 0.199), and –0.57 (95% CI, –1.63 to 0.49; p = 0.29), respectively.Conclusions: Age, ASA class III, and complications following surgery were associated with PF and PCS scores at 3 to 6 years after surgery for the treatment of closed ankle fractures. However, the health status of patients with ankle fractures did not differ from that in the general population after adjusting for differences in demographic variables, BMI, and smoking status.Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for
      Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Implant-Related Complications and Mortality After Use of Short or Long
           Gamma Nail for Intertrochanteric and Subtrochanteric Fractures: A
           Prospective Study with Minimum 13-Year Follow-up

    • Authors: Horner; Nolan S.; Samuelsson, Kristian; Solyom, Janos; Bjørgul, Kristian; Ayeni, Olufemi R.; Östman, Bengt
      Abstract: imageBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rates of implant-related complications and mortality after treatment of an intertrochanteric or subtrochanteric fracture with a short or long Gamma nail.Methods: Between September 1998 and August 2003, 644 patients at 2 centers treated with a long or short Gamma nail for a hip fracture were prospectively enrolled in this study. These patients were followed until they reached 1 of the study end points, which included death, a reoperation directly related to the Gamma nail, or the end date of the study.Results: The average age (and standard deviation) of the patients included in the study was 81.3 ± 8.6 years at the time of the operation, and 28.3% of the patients were male. The rate of implant-related complications was 9.9%. The most common complications included peri-implant fracture (4.2%), proximal lateral thigh discomfort requiring extraction of the implant (2.0%), and lag-screw cutout (1.1%). Interestingly, more than half (56%) of the 27 peri-implant fractures occurred>1.5 years after the index operation. The median time from the operation to death was 2.9 years (range, 0 to 17.1 years). The 30-day mortality rate after treatment was 9.5%. Patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class-3 or 4 physical status had a significantly higher risk of mortality than ASA class-1 patients.Conclusions: Gamma nails are effective in the treatment of intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures. However, 9.8% of patients had complications requiring additional surgery. The most common serious complications include peri-implant fracture and lag-screw cutout. Several peri-implant fractures occurred long after the index procedure. Patients had a high rate of mortality (27%) after 1 year, and higher preoperative ASA class was found to be a predictor of increased risk of mortality. Therefore, clinicians must carefully consider patients’ preoperative comorbidities when counselling patients on the risks of surgery.Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for
      Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
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