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Scienze del Territorio
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ISSN (Print) 2384-8774 - ISSN (Online) 2284-242X
Published by Firenze University Press Homepage  [41 journals]
  • Editoriale

    • Authors: Anna Maria Colavitti, Rossano Pazzagli, Giuliano Volpe
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • La storia alla prova del territorio

    • Authors: Rossano Pazzagli, Piero Bevilacqua, Giuliana Biagioli, Saverio Russo
      Abstract: Territory is the product of history, a history understood as a process in which man and nature constantly interact, both as active subjects. As a common good, especially in its visible dimension represented by landscape, territory is also the clearest expression of the identity of a place and of its social groups. For local communities, territory is the main connection between past and future and, therefore, the basis for social, economic, planning policies. There is indeed a deep connection between environmental history and the future of a population or a place, which gives rise to a full awareness of the importance of territorial heritage as a unique and non-reproducible resource. In the globalisation processes, however, the increasing detachment of the ends of economic growth from social welfare and the inability of the dominant economic system to organically deal with territorial problems have led to the marginalisation, degradation and de-contextualisation of places, landscapes, people’s living environments. In the light of these considerations, the paper illustrates the contribution of historical research towards the re-composition of different disciplines around a ‘humanistic’ approach to territorial planning, closer to the culture of the places. It describes and analyses the principles, the fields and also the future risks for historical research applied to territory and, in particular, to the relationship between urban and rural environment in the local dimension.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • Paesaggio e territorio, il possibile contributo della geografia. Concetti
           e metodi

    • Authors: Anna Guarducci, Leonardo Rombai
      Abstract: Geography can help knowing the territory-landscape nexus – a true “complex archive”(Lucio Gambi), a “historic document” made of “many stories at the same time” (Paola Sereno), “a sort of memoir recording and summarising the history of the territorial designs of humans” (Massimo Quaini) – thanks to a structuralist-objectivist line of research. This is focused on the construction of representations/interpretations, as general as possible, of territorial forms and contents, supported by a regional scale analysis. Such orientation is appropriate to the new Italian regulatory and planning framework for territory and landscape, reviving the traditional descriptive and interpretive value of geography renewed – in concepts and methods – by Gambi, Quaini and Sereno, and re-aggregating landscape and regional geography, at the sub-regional and local scale. For a structural knowledge of territory-landscape, in fact, Geography becomes crucial, provided that its analysis outlines the specific historical processes that generated it, coupling the study of places and heritage (whole categories and single cultural assets) to regional geography. This requires a diachronic approach and methods, techniques, tools and sources – on field as well as in libraries, archives and laboratories – strictly adequate to the topic each time addressed.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • Alcune brevi riflessioni su archeologia, territori, contesti, persone

    • Authors: Giuliano Volpe
      Abstract: ùClassical archaeology has its origins in the antiquaria, such as art history, which it has long been identified with. From this origins, archaeology has acquired a site-centric attitude toward the territory which still survives despite the discipline recognises the stratigraphic, topographic and typological analysis among its methodological cornerstones making use of advanced and ‘hyper-specialized’ technologies for the reconstruction of the site context, namely the territory. The main challenge for the contemporary archaeology is, therefore, in looking at ‘people beyond things‘, as summarised in the famous words of Sir Mortimer Wheeler: “the archaeological excavator is not digging up things, he is digging up people”. To which we should add the way the traces of past people are interpreted by today’s people, who attribute those ‘things’ different meanings and values. The paper addresses this issue with a focus on the protection system for cultural heritage and landscape in Italy, where a new holistic political vision of heritage has led to the reform of the peripheral ministerial offices and to the creation of “Unified superintendences”. Offices where the archaeologists will be asked to work closely with other specialists going beyond any restricted or discipline-based attitude toward cultural heritage and landscape management.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • La storia del territorio nell’approccio territorialista
           all’urbanistica e alla piani-ficazione

    • Authors: Alberto Magnaghi
      Abstract: Territory, a highly complex living system, a neo-ecosystem produced by the uninterrupted interaction of settled communities with their own environment, is seriously ill at the moment: the rise of machinery civilisation and the explosion of urbanisation have broken the coevolutionary processes that have generated and transformed it in the longue durée of history; therefore, spatial planning’s task is to look for territorial rules of transformation pointed at a new balance between human settlement and environment. That is why the territorialist planning assumes the study of territorial history as the base of its own designing method, identifying such rules in the structural invariants which have presided over long-lasting processes and whose regulatory prescriptions become the founding elements of territorial statutes. In such processes, the rules of reproduction/evolution/transformation of territorial, urban, environmental or landscape morphotypes can only be observed and decoded through a dynamic reading of the territorialisation cycles, since it is through this that discontinuities and persistences reveal themselves. In the perspective of the last-generation planning instruments, which adopt these concepts, we can therefore interpret the statutes as corpus of rules for the good governance of transformation of territory as a whole, rather than as simple constraints related to cultural and landscape assets.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • Processi storici e forme della rappresentazione identitaria del territorio

    • Authors: Daniela Poli
      Abstract: The coevolutionary dimension of territories, understood as a match and a con-stant re-elaboration among socio-economic dynamics, environmental features and territorial structure, is a central assumption of the territorialist thinking. Ter-ritory is in fact both the material and cognitive outcome of a long historical pro-cess, marked by continuity and fractures, which has deposited sediments to be incessantly re-possessed and re-elaborated by the settled societies. The meth-odological appeal to a historical perspective appears inevitable. In the current phase of de-territorialisation, historical configurations take on both a cognitive and a design value. In an interested perspective, the history of territories is put into interaction with the needs of the present, to understand the reasons and dynamics of the longue-durée and to identify the invariant rules of construction, maintenance and reproduction of territorial heritage. The heritage representa-tion depicts such processes, giving great importance to the relational and com-municative dimension of figuration. This paper deals with the use of operational and cartographic tools for the morphologic and the historical-structural inter-pretation of territory, consistent with the methodology illustrated in the paper by Alberto Magnaghi in this same number. It consists of two parts: 1) the mor-pho-typological representation; 2) the historical-structural analysis for the defi-nition of territorialisation processes and heritage syntheses.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • Per un’ecologia della memoria: territori tra passato e futuro

    • Authors: Antonella Tarpino
      Abstract: Memory is a gauntlet thrown down to the present – nowadays, unfortunately, increasingly holding as its own only horizon – in the name of what can be defined as a compatible future. looking for a coherence beyond the inevitable discontinuities and fractures. This could be achieved through the experience of Return: not a backwards motion but, first of all, a mental, cultural, experimental operation pointing forwards which it is urgent to get educated to. Return to the too many blanks of mountains et inlands where territories and places, mainly those in a state of misery and abandonment, challenge the very meaning of the words we use to describe them.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • Memories, territories, identities: from unity to dissonance

    • Authors: Dominique Poulot
      Abstract: Concepts like memory, identity and heritage enjoy an almost unprecedented success in these years, so as to take on much of the interest – both public and personal or family – traditionally devoted to history. This success is, at least in part, the result of those co-ordinated and parallel cultural operations in the European states, in the XIX and XX centuries, which were to build a series of consolidated and unified national identities, able to contend to others the supremacy on the continental or even – due to the continuation of colonialism – the global stage. In this view, the creation of chairs of history, the opening of national museums, the protection of monuments and the multiplication of collections and collectors showed, as common watermark, the idea of building the historical narration of a cultural unity paired with the territorial one, with no uncertainty even before what Hobsbawm and Ranger would call “the invention of tradition”. The decay of such monolithic structure in the face of traumatic historical events, since a few decades ago, leaves now room for an image of historical memory which is much more problematic and dissonant: in its framework, local and national communities confront with their past with increasingly less ideological filters, and try to metabolise it as the fuel for a disparate series of possible futures.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • L’antropologia storica fra antropologia e storia

    • Authors: Lucia Carle
      Abstract: The different orientations of historical anthropology in various countries depend largely on the type of anthropology that historians have faced. Since the 1960s, the environment of the Annales has led to a strong interest to introduce historical anthropology as a new discipline with its own methods and research fields, mediated by anthropology and history. Today at the international level historical anthropology has taken very different directions, developing interests which are not always parallel. In Italy, since its origins, it appears not as a specific discipline, native or imported, but rather as a meeting area between historians and anthropologists. Many historians practice it at least occasionally. Many anthropologists, as well, introduce elements of historical anthropology in their courses or practice it in their research. In 2004, the activation of the academic teaching of Historical anthropology of human settlements at the Empoli school of the University of Florence, activated since 2004, was motivated by a strong interest in a method of historical and anthropological research, already applied to investigations about identity, that was deemed useful in the territorial analysis preliminary to plans in order to depict the collective social identity of the population in the relevant territories. As a part of territorial sciences in a territorialist view, the contribution of historical anthropology to the survey of the human components of territorial nexuses turns often out as essential.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • Le ‘mutazioni’ del territorio storico. Patrimonio ed economia creativa
           nella dimensione locale. Il caso sardo

    • Authors: Alessia Usai
      Abstract: In Italy, the application of the organizational model of the traditional industrial district to the management of cultural heritage and activities has fostered the establishment and the diffusion of cultural districts throughout the country. Research conducted on Italian Regions, including Sardinia, have revealed the peculiarities of the organizational models that govern the sector of cultural heritage from protection to valorisation: the ability to generate ‘hybrid’ district forms linked to technological innovation, agribusiness and tourism, but even the weak emergence of advanced cultural districts and meta-districts as supra-local business conglomerates (creative and cultural clusters). Analysing the experiences of the Sulcis and Iglesiente areas in Sardinia, selected as case studies, the paper investigates the reasons and factors that influence and limit the affirmation of supra-local clusters in the valorisation of the historical territory, highlighting the contribution of urban planning to overcome them.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • Tra archeologia della complessità e archeologia dei paesaggi

    • Authors: Gian Pietro Brogiolo, Annalisa Colecchia
      Abstract: An historic landscape is a systemic construction in progress, created by various elements such as infrastructures (roads, fluvial network), settlements, fortifications, production sites, ideological and cultural places. In order to investigate it, we must adopt a diachronic, complex and relational approach. Written sources, archaeological evidences and environmental indicators contribute towards outlining the various landscapes in their qualifying aspects and in their historical depth. In the last ten years we have efficiently carried out some research projects applying innovative methodologies and techniques, like the airborne laser scanning (LiDAR). GIS and WebGIS platforms allow for the control of the diachronic and synchronic relations between the different objects and favour a continuous increase in knowledge; they also allow for a multiple-perspective analysis and for a dynamic approach to the economic and social-cultural reality of the past. This holistic approach to the territory also promotes the variety of educational offers and the high-quality of geo-touristic proposals through thematic itineraries and summer schools. Sustainability and holistic reading are expressed in projects aimed at recovering the autochthonous genetic agricultural resources, at restoring disused structures, at enhancing traditional know-hows and ancient crafts. These initiatives involve local communities and encourage them to discover their own heritage and to play a crucial role in self-sustainable development.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • Participatory shaping of historic territory. Civil society and
           culturepreneurs’ actions in the recovery of urban historic landscape in
           Cluj-Napoca, Romania

    • Authors: Kinga Xénia Havadi-Nagy
      Abstract: Strategies to commodify urban space often fail, producing devalorised, crisis-driven urban and regional landscapes. In many cases, the municipality is overstrained with the long-term recovery of these sites, but reintegrating such spaces in the city, either for limited duration or long-range, is something that some stakeholders actively pursuit. Owing to the pioneering spirit of such recovery projects, these actors are known as urban pioneers or space pioneers. This paper deals with these innovative actions that emerge in Cluj-Napoca and their contribution to the recovery of historic landscape and the creation of social space. Firstly, the paper defines the concepts of space pioneer/culturepreneur/temporary use, followed by a presentation of the socio-political frame in which these actions take place. Afterwards, the survey depicts major examples in Cluj-Napoca and finishes with a few conclusions about the impact of the participatory recovery of the urban historic territory and on spatial planning.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • Historic territory in the context of countryside transformation. The
           experience of the old, traditional, rural landscape in the Wielkopolska
           Region, Poland

    • Authors: Iwona Markuszewska
      Abstract: Old agricultural landscapes are valuable, mostly due to cultural values: the history of the place and its tradition. However, in these kinds of landscape, not only the cultural aspects that are important, but also the natural elements which are essential in the holistic assessment of landscape. For this reason, both the cultural heritage and the natural beauty of landscape should be taken into consideration when it comes to the issue of the protection of traditional agrarian landscapes, especially in rural areas located in the close vicinity of cities and towns. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study on changes in an old, traditional, rural landscape as a consequence of urban sprawl and development of non-farming purposes. As a study case, the environs of NowyTomyśl, the area of a Dutch settlement in the Wielkopolska Region (Poland) was chosen. In this region the remnants of a unique landscape pattern, rural settlement and rural architecture design can still be found despite the ongoing intensive process of landscape alteration.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • La messa in valore del patrimonio storico nel Piano paesaggistico della
           Regione Toscana

    • Authors: Maria Rita Gisotti
      Abstract: The Tuscan Landscape plan reads the dimension of history in a coevolutionary way between the man and the environment. To illustrate the consistency of these processes and their outcomes, the Plan has prepared a number of products, from the landscape heritage maps to the studies included in the “Interpretive description” concerning the great phases of geological structuring, those of territorialisation and the ‘artialisation’ processes - as the French would call it. Moreover, the Plan has devoted a dedicated study to the historical landscapes, tracing the founding matrices of the  current configurations. The historical landscape structures identified and described in these products have a testimonial, cultural and aesthetic-perceptual value which is at once a functional and economic one. They contain principles of sustainable use of territories concerning hydro-geomorphologic balance, settlement stability and quality, preservation of biodiversity and ecological connectivity, the agricultural productivity functions and so on. Principles that the Plan aimed at re-actualizing as rules ordinarily orientating territorial transformation. In this view, the Plan suggests an interpretation of landscape heritage as a carpentry of innovation, as a framework on which we can build the future territorial and landscape project.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • Paesaggi rurali in Sardegna: ‘interferenze’ progettuali nella regione
           storica della Marmilla

    • Authors: Carlo Atzeni, Silvia Mocci
      Abstract: The settlement system of Marmilla, historic hill area of central Sardinia, has endured for decades with increasing difficulties to depopulation and crisis of belonging of communities. The historic balance that characterized the mutual rooting between communities and places is questioned and sets questions on the meaning of living in these places and on the sense of the redevelopment of historic and traditional rural heritage. The community initiatives adopted by Regione Sardegna for the redevelopment of these areas point at the definition of quality projects for networks of small towns with cultural, territorial, economic common characters. In accordance with such objectives, the project of architectures and public spaces tries to share principles, targets, tools, languages, techniques and materials with in order to give form to a system strategy at the territorial scale. Marmilla already holds design micro-actions that contribute to create quality spaces transforming the territory into an extraordinary place for the experimentation of the construction and the continuous renewal of local specificities. the architecture project becomes, then, an instrument to measure the quality of places and their capability to go beyond the test of time adapting itself and reformulating their space-time, value, cultural coordinates: in other words, their resilience capability.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • Memorie di guerra. Verso la riapertura del Bunker della Prefettura e della
           Torre delle Sirene di Milano

    • Authors: Maria Antonietta Breda, Maria Fianchini
      Abstract: The paper concerns the project, promoted by Metropolitan city and Polytechnic university of Milan, of returning to public use Torre delle Sirene – seat of the Milan air-raid alert control unit – and Bunker della Prefettura. Two buildings connected to each other and very significant as memories of the Second World War and, most of all, of the ordinary life of civilian people under siege, a condition still regarding so many people around the world at present. Both the buildings have been neglected and deteriorated since a few years, but they still preserve traces of the past use. The reopening project is difficult due both to the typological and location characters of the buildings and to the lack of available financial resources. The objective of the project is to transform the former central point of the air-raid defence system into the epicentre of a new collective alert system on the topic of war, operating through memories of the past. Moreover, this could become the centre of a wider and widespread heritage system of local air-raid shelters: a network of material and immaterial goods organized by the common logic of enhancing memory, in order to strengthen the culture of peace and realize in the city a cultural itinerary based on historical values.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • La Summer school “Emilio Sereni” sulla storia del paesaggio
           agrario italiano

    • Authors: Gabriella Bonini
      Abstract: The Summer School “History of the Italian agricultural landscape” is dedicated to Emilio Sereni and has been taking place for 9 years, always in the last week of August, at the Alcide Cervi Institute in Gattatico (RE). For the first five years, as in Emilio Sereni’s writing, the objects of study have been following the chronological order, from the prehistoric and ancient age to the XXI century. The highlighted concepts have been mainly those of heritage-territory and citizenship-territory. Later, the studies on landscape have been conducted through a comparative reading of several disciplines and has been seen as the result of a territoriality relationship, in an interactive long term process, between a society and a territory. The landscape as a product of the incessant human activity, the visible manifestation of the co-evolution process between local society and physical environment. This is the legacy that Emilio Sereni left to us in his definition: our agricultural landscape is “that form that humans, in the course and for the purpose of agricultural production, consciously and systematically gives to the natural landscape”. The Emilio Sereni Summer School is an experience that shows how, starting from the history of landscape, can widen the perspective to other disciplines as for territorial reading and planning. Rossano Pazzagli is the current Director.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • Cultural functions of ecosystem services in national and regional policies
           towards an integrated and sustainable management of rural landscapes

    • Authors: Kinga Xénia Havadi-Nagy, Alessia Usai
      Abstract: Contemporary ecology has played a key role in the search for innovative and holistic approaches to policy-making, as it provided new models and tools for the analysis of environmental relationships linking the mankind to the biotic and a-biotic components of human living ecosystems, and for the identification and quantification of the economic, social and cultural benefits that communities receive by them in terms of services. An increasing number of international and national studies focuses on these Ecosystem services (ESs) to build a common framework and (re)define public policies on environment and land-uses. Policies that are still characterized by a partial approach which hinders any form of integration and coordination reducing the effectiveness of interventions. This is a key point especially for the historical agricultural landscapes where the reduction of multifunctional agriculture, the intensification of agribusiness and urban expansion have caused fragmentation of ecosystems, disruption of natural ecological corridors and a significant loss of biodiversity. The paper focuses on these issues by investigating the role of ESs in the definition of rural policies for historical agricultural landscapes in Europe, through a comparative analysis of qualitative nature which involves policy documents produced at the national and regional level in two European regions at the NUTS 2 statistical level, Sardinia (IT) and Central development region (RO), selected as case studies.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • Pianificazione agraria in Età medievale in Friuli: San Quirino

    • Authors: Moreno Baccichet
      Abstract: The tributes that the residents in a small village in the upper plain of Pordenone used to pay to the Duke of Styria, at the end of the XII century, passed on to the Templar knight and then to the Order of Malta. The soldier monks used the place as a travelling station and as location for stocking and selling goods converging there from the entire right side of Tagliamento. The rituality that marked the gathering of such tributes materialised into a series of cadastres called ‘cabrei’, recording changes in crop and property regime. A comparison between the lots and the current structure of particles shows that the latter has essentially remained unchanged, whereas the system for private land management, landscapes and farming techniques have undergone a dramatic change. Once geo-referenced the 1792 cabreo, a reconstruction of the medieval particles and a comparison with historical cartography allowed us to identify the different agrarian regions defined by late medieval agrarian planning. We turned out with a framework that confirms the existence of a system of masi (traditional rural residences), condensed around a probably pre-existent nucleus with its road system. The village created a poly-focal and informal built environment, surrounded by a system of agrarian regions identified according to the pedologic characters of grounds which were peculiarly dry.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • Relazioni rurali storiche per la città contemporanea: esperienze
           condotte nel milanese

    • Authors: Paola Branduini
      Abstract: The historical relationship between city and countryside is explicitly rural in its legacy, or in its tangible and intangible persistences. In the search for new balances and ways of living within the contemporary city, how does the role of rural heritage explicate for the quality of life of places' The reflection begins with an investigation into the ways of transmitting historical heritage through urban agriculture initiatives in Milan, then reflects on a method for the analysis of the current and historical landscape implemented in some initiatives undertaken in the Milan area and focus on the effectiveness of the adopted communication tools.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • O planejamento da paisagem histórica: o paradigma europeu e o caso da
           Toscana (Itália)

    • Authors: Ilaria Agostini
      Abstract: The concept of landscape in European culture, from Petrarca to Camporesi, from Marc Bloch to Sereni, is the subject of the lecture here transcribed, held in the PhD course in Urban planning at a university in Brazil, where planning faces territories which man has had no time to “elevate to the rank of landscape through a slow and unremitting cohabitation” (LÉVI-STRAUSS 1955). Conversely, in the old Continent, forms and modes of living have their roots in archaic civilisations: territorial transformation constantly renews, confirms or destroys ancient settlement structures. In Italy, both non-urban and urban historical landscapes are therefore highly human labour-intensive artefacts. Planning treats both according to similar principles: since the 1960’s, every old town is considered a monument as a whole in the complexity of physical, aesthetic and social relationships existing between prominent buildings and minor architecture; today, the attribution of cultural-asset value to rural territories as a whole is at an advanced stage of definition: which is evident in the case of Tuscany, described at the end of the paper.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • La Rete ecologica della Regione Toscana: tra biodiversità e storia
           del territorio

    • Authors: Michele Giunti, Leonardo Lombardi
      Abstract: Land consumption processes in alluvial plains and abandonment of agricultural and breeding activities in mountain areas, both of which result in the loss of agricultural land, are today the major threats to biodiversity in Tuscany. These processes result in an increase in environmental fragmentation in the plain and in the homogenisation of mountain landscapes. The Project for a Tuscan ecological network, as an invariant element of the Regional landscape Plan, is a new tool to counteract such dynamics, highlighting the remarkable naturalistic interest of traditional agricultural landscapes. In the context of biodiversity conservation policies, the ecological network also highlights the need to overcome the 'protected islands' approach by using planning tools apt to improve the levels of quality and widespread permeability of the regional territorial ecosystem.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • Fra visibile e invisibile: il paesaggio nelle fonti cartografico-storiche

    • Authors: Carlo A. Gemignani, Luisa Rossi
      Abstract: This work, which summarises the results of prolonged archival research, deals with the role that historical cartography can have in a territorialist perspective. The works carried out by French topographers in Piedmont and Liguria, between the late eighteenth and the early nineteenth century, exemplifies the capabilities of displaying territorial phenomena of these figures and therefore their current ‘value in use’. Heirs of the Enlightenment’s advances in astronomy, mathematics and geometry, from a topographic point of view they are indeed witnesses of the pictorial paradigm of imitation of nature. During the nineteenth century, the growing trend towards standardisation, objectiveness and abstraction, would have defined the almost complete disappearance of landscape from maps.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • Riforma agraria, bonifica e territorializzazione nelle Maremme toscane;
           alcuni spunti dall’archivio storico dell’Ente Maremma (1951-1965)

    • Authors: Nicola Gabellieri
      Abstract: This paper deals with the topic of the Agrarian reform in southern Tuscany (1951-1965) using a territorial history approach; that is, it focuses on the reshaping of local society, economy and environments due to a national process as the Reform, it highlights the importance of discontinuities in territorialisation trends. Methodologically, the use of a local approach allows a better understanding and depiction of social actors and past practices, avoiding the decontextualisation of places and historical processes. The first section of the paper presents some discussion topics emerging from an analysis of the historical archives of the public body competent for the Reform in Maremma; the second section presents a first hypothesis for a history of the Agrarian reform as a moment of requalification of environmental resources – changes in ownership, access and use – using water as a case study.  Finally, the paper highlights how the relations among social actors, environmental resources and territorial projects have been – and still are – a key point in territorialisation processes.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • L’ambiente come storia: una rilettura dell’ultimo Muratori

    • Authors: Giampiero Lombardini
      Abstract: Saverio Muratori’s reflection on the territory can be interpreted in the light of the concept of environment. When the territory is defined as a 'global architecture', material manifestation of a civilisation within its habitat, in parallel, the environment becomes the stable heritage of civilisation. Thus read, environment acquires a prominent role because, in fixing, testing and maintaining the historical changes and transmitting them as the basis and condition of future changes (similar to what happens to a living organism), it becomes the substantial space-time synthesis of a territory,. As for the territory, the concept of “operating history” fades away in the search for a virtuous man-environment relationship, that should provide a variety of sustainable settlement patterns. In this framework, any environmental modification programme is not reducible to a predetermined pattern, sincethe environment always offers a set of individual opportunities. But this may happen only as a development of its historical process, from which it cannot be separated since it is conditioned even if not bound by it. a responsible management of territorial environmental heritage management will find solutions, deriving from the past not pre-established neither perhaps ‘genetic’ rules, but rather a history of successful solutions in the balance of man and environment that can provide the basis for new hypotheses of coevolutionary development.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • Alghero, il disegno delle trasformazioni

    • Authors: Vincenzo Bagnolo, Andrea Pirinu
      Abstract: Drawing may be interpreted as the tool that allows us to recognize, break down and sort the different parts of a phenomenon, translating them into signs, expressing the sense of reality, revealing and transposing in the graphic expression the different meanings you want to state. Distinguishing between the perceived data and the ones derived from interpretation, there is no one single truth, but a plurality of worlds with several parallel representations all equally valid. The perception returns ‘images’ of reality, and the drawing turns on new levels of meaning: everything can be reduced to an image, but graphing only evokes some aspects of physical reality. The path of knowledge can seek a vision of objective, empirical reality, or a symbolic image leading to the recognition of the urban structure as a concept connected to a reference model. In the graphic investigation of the form of Alghero, different approaches have been taken. A first assumption has been that the representation of the city can be understood as a translation of the life space of a community. A second approach has assumed drawing as a tool to emphasize the urban invariants noticeable within a fixed period of time, in order to return a transformations pattern in a historical and morphological context. The third criterion, finally, has been aimed at identifying an ‘ideal form’ representing the ‘archetype’ of the city.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • Topografia storica, territorio e pianificazione. alcuni usi possibili

    • Authors: Anna Maria Colavitti
      Abstract: The task of the ancient topography scholar is similar to the urban planner’s. The first integrates the second because is able to decipher man’s work on territories, to recognize the ‘shape’ man gave to spatial organisation. The study of ancient topography uses a wide documentary base which starts from comparative analysis of ancient literary sources and comes to the interpretation of cognitive data. It provides an historicized and never trivial vision of the territory, by using a scientific method always reproducible in its phases. The corpora of the territorial invariants on which the future projects of human spaces are built start just from the knowledge of such methods: issues such as territorial governance are the core business of the discipline, which has then important effects on planning, also as regards conservation and valorisation. The historic interpretation of territorial and landscape evolution is inescapable in planning strategic scenarios of coexistence with the irreproducible resources around us. If during the XX century the will to make autonomous every knowledge produced an intra-disciplinary improvement of research methodologies, it also entailed an extension of research fields which challenges, moves or flusters the boundaries of different disciplines. In this sense, the methodological autonomy of historic topography can be received by regional planning.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • Il cibo come questione territoriale. Riflessioni alla luce della
           pianificazione alimentare

    • Authors: Aurora Cavallo, Ilaria Corchia, Benedetta Di Donato, Davide Marino
      Abstract: In the recent years, agriculture has played a key role in reshaping rurality, in the view of a reconstruction of social and production structures accompanying the current re-territorialisation process, coming after a phase of de-territorialisation of the role of the agricultural sector as the focus of local balances. At the same time, the contemporary urban phenomenon is rewriting, even though not orderly, its relationship with agriculture and food, overcoming the traditional idea of city in which countryside is only extra muros. If the main experiences of the Italian food policies have concerned the great urban systems, the topic here discussed are food policies as an opportunity, offered to Italian small and medium-sized centres, to re-contextualise their own agro-food systems and their functions for the community. The ability of plans and policies to understand and orientate these processes shows, actually, growing difficulties. The breadth between civic or market practices and the regulatory, political and planning framework is territory, the place where we should build and experience new forms of governance, institutions and tools where citizenship, labour and market meet agriculture and territorial diversity. The paper focuses on the meaning and functions of food planning and discusses some possible implementation on the polycentric geography of the Italian territory.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • Il “Dizionario delle parole territorialiste”: un progetto non
           più rinviabile

    • Authors: Massimo Quaini
      Abstract: The paper focuses on social sciences in Italy and their difficulty in creating a common lexicon for territorial sciences. The author wonders why in Italian geography, despite its very varied and interdisciplinary history, no geographer has so far felt the need of a dictionary or glossary that would make clarity on an unstable if not contradictory terminology, as is the case of words such as ‘space’, ‘place’, ‘territory’, ‘environment’ and ‘landscape’. To answer this question, the author turns to France where a geographical dictionary is usually published every 20 years, witnessing the change, for each generation, not only of the conception of geography but of the entire cluster of territorial sciences due to the increasing openness of geography towards spatial and social sciences and to the fruitful, mutual exchanges occurred. Through a detailed analysis of the Dictionnaire de la Géographie edited by George Pierre in 1970, of Les mots de la Géographie. Dictionnaire critique edited by Roger Brunet in 1992 and of the Dictionnaire de la Géographie et de l'espace des sociétés edited by Levy and Lussault in 2003, the author offers interesting insights and elaborates viable proposals for the development of a common dictionary for geography and territorial sciences.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • Recensioni, Letture, Segnalazioni

    • Issue No: Vol. 5
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