Journal Cover Advances in Horticultural Science
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0394-6169 - ISSN (Online) 1592-1573
   Published by Firenze University Press Homepage  [41 journals]
  • Commercial advantages on basil architecture by ultraviolet-B irradiation

    • Authors: A. Ciurli, T. Huarancca Reyes, L. Guglielminetti
      Abstract: Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is one of the most important herbs widely used for its medicinal properties and as food ingredient. The marketing of this product highlights the problem that these plants have long and slender stems, which are easy to break off and thus making difficult their market distribution. In this work, two cultivars of basil (Genovese and Profumo) at the adequate development stage for sale were used. We evaluated the effect of supplemental ultraviolet (UV)-B irradiation (15 W m-2; 3 h day-1) on plant growth and market quality. Both cultivars of basil plants under UV-B irradiation resulted in increased leaf size and biomass, and decreased shoot length in comparison to that of under control growth conditions. These results indicate that the application of UV-B irradiation beneficially influenced plant architecture in basil improving their greenhouse production for fresh market.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2017)
       
  • Aggressiveness of four Fusarium head blight species on wheat cultivars

    • Authors: N. Sakr
      Abstract: Aggressiveness of four Fusarium head blight species (F. culmorum, F. solani, F. verticillioides and F. equiesti) was studied on six Syrian wheat cultivars under controlled conditions. Two aggressiveness criteria: diseased-head severity (DHS, Fusarium infection) and disease development (DD, Fusarium spread) were visually estimated as percentage of heads showing Fusarium symptoms in wheat cultivars at the soft dough stage. Results showed significant differences among fungal isolates and wheat cultivars for the two tested criteria. The mean values of DHS evaluations ranged from 33.27 to 45.49% among fungal isolates, and from 29.62 to 42.22% among tested cultivars. The mean DD rating varied from 25.58 to 35.43% among fungal isolates, and from 25.33 to 34.01% among tested cultivars. Results in the current research highlighted that the level of resistance in Syrian cultivars to Fusarium species is characterized with low to moderate DHS and DD evaluations (%). Also, the results were comparable with those previously obtained using the same fungal isolates and wheat cultivars in vitro. The current study confirmed the suitability of in vitro method to be used as fast and reliable test to analyze aggressiveness in Fusarium species.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2017)
       
  • Field evaluation of three biopesticides for control of the raspberry cane
           midge, Resseliella thobaldi (Barnes) in Bulgaria

    • Authors: M. Mohamedova
      Abstract: The raspberry cane midge, Resseliella theobaldi is a key pest on red raspberry, Rubus idaeus. The larvae of the insect severely attack the raspberry canes, resulting in premature death of the plant canes. In the last decade, organic production of raspberry fruits has significantly increased in Bulgaria. At the same time there are few products of botanical or microbiological origin that might be used for control of this pest. In present study the effect of NeemAzal® T/C (azadirachtin A), Sineis 480 SC® (spinosad), and Bacillus subtilis on R. theobaldi was evaluated. The experiments were conducted in two raspberry fields at different altitude. In the field at lower altitude (196 m), the raspberry cane midge has developed four generation per year, while in the field at higher altitude (960 m) three generations of the pest have been completed. Lowest number of larvae in raspberry canes was observed after application of NeemAzal® T/C, and B. subtilis in both raspberry fields. Both products demonstrated highest efficacy at 7th day after treatment, when the number of larvae per splits was 67.1-82.5% for NeemAzal® T/C, and 75.1-81.2% for B. subtilis lower compared with the control at the two experimental sites.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2017)
       
  • Tuber yield and processing traits of potato advanced selections

    • Authors: S. Melito, V. D'Amelia, R. Garramone, C. Villano, D. Carputo
      Abstract: World potato production continuously requires new cultivars to satisfy farmers’ and consumers’ demand. Tuber yield and quality are some of the main potato breeding targets. In this study, 27 advanced potato clones from 7 hybrid families were evaluated for yield, tuber specific gravity and chipping ability. Variability in tuber yield was found between families as well as between clones. Forty-eight percent of clones showed higher productivity compared to the best control (Agria, 1.1 Kg). Families displayed significant differences also in terms of tubers specific gravity, with about 70% of clones with a score higher than 1.080, which was considered the minimum acceptable value for processing. Chipping ability was evaluated at harvesting time and after cold storage with and without reconditioning. The majority of studied clones showed a good chipping ability score (<4.5) at harvest; five samples chipped well after cold storage with reconditioning, while good chippers were not identified after cold storage without reconditioning. The use of an arbitrary index calculated for each clone is proposed to assist the selection of materials with a good trait combination.
      Issue No: Vol. 31
       
  • Salicylic acid improves salinity-alkalinity tolerance in pepper (Capsicum
           annuum L.)

    • Authors: A.-A. Amirinejad, M. Sayyari, F. Ghanbari, S. Kordi
      Abstract: Salinization and alkalization of soils are agricultural problems in arid and semiarid regions of the world such as Iran. In this experiment the effects of salicylic acid (SA) on resistance of pepper plants under salt stress (SS) and alkali stress (AS) were evaluated. Treatments include 0 and 150 mM of SS, 0, 50 and 100 mM of AS and 0, 0.75 and 1.5 mM SA. Results showed that SS and AS imposed negative effects on pepper plant growth and productivity. Reduction in growth and yield in SS was higher than AS and maximum reduction occurred in high mixed stresses. SA application improved growth parameters and increased yield, relative water content (RWC) and chlorophyll of plants subjected to SS and AS and provided significant protection against stress compared to non-SA-treated plants.  For most traits, 0.75 mM of SA was more effective than 1.5 mM concentration. SA ameliorated the injury caused by SS and AS by increasing chlorophyll and RWC and inhibiting proline accumulation and leaf electrolyte leakage (EL). In general, results indicate that salinity and alkalinity have negative effects on growth and yield of pepper plants and these negative effects can be ameliorated by application of SA.
      Issue No: Vol. 31
       
  • Nuclear 2C DNA and genome size analysis in somatic embryo regenerated
           gladiolus plants using flow cytometry

    • Authors: A. Mujib, M. Ali, D. Tonk, N. Zafar
      Abstract: Gladiolus is a valuable asexually propagated plant of horticultural importance. Here, in the present communication, in vitro embryogenesis protocol and 2C DNA content of embryo regenerated plant are described. Callus was first induced from corms on 2, 4-D and NAA + BAP amended MS medium and the frequency was maximum (75.12%) in 0.5 mg/l NAA + 0.5 mg/l BAP added medium. The callus differentiated into embryos on 2, 4-D at variable numbers (3.13-5.32/callus mass); the addition of 1.0 mg/l BAP and 0.25 mg/l NAA was found very efficient in proliferating embryos (7.99/callus mass). Direct somatic embryos were also formed on corm surfaces on 2, 4-D (0.5-1.0 mg/l) amended medium at varying numbers. The embryos did not progress to maturity in same induction medium, so other PGR treatments containing GA3 and ABA were added. The amendment of GA3 was more responsive compared to ABA and 0.5-1.0 mg/l of GA3 was identified as best effective treatment. The embryos showed a maximum of 62.15% maturity in 0.5 mg/l GA3 added medium after 8th of culture. On BAP containing medium the mature embryos converted into plantlets and highest germination (42.65%) was noticed on 0.5 mg/l BAP added medium. The 2C DNA content of regenerated plant was measured by flow cytometry and was noted to be 1.34 pg. The somatic embryo derived plantlets are true-to-type, stable and grew normally in outdoor conditions, genome size is identical to corm derived gladiolus plants. This is the first flow cytometric DNA analysis description in somatic embryo regenerated gladiolus plant.
      Issue No: Vol. 31
       
  • Uniform and virus-free citrus rootstocks production via nucellus culture

    • Authors: A. Sepehrtaj, A.R. Shahsavar
      Abstract: Prevalence of various virus and virus-like diseases is among the main reasons for the decrease in quality and quantity of citrus crops. These diseases are mainly spread through the propagation method in citrus which is budding. Using nucellus culture of bitter orange and Mexican lime seeds, uniform and virus-free rootstocks could be produced so that the diseases prevalence could be prevented. In order to generate adventitious shoots from nucellus culture in each of the two rootstocks, direct organogenesis method is used. In all conducted experiments, Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium were used. Two plant growth regulators of benzyl adenine (BA) in 0, 1, 1.5 and 2 mg l-1 concentration and gibberellins (GA) in 0, 1 and 2 mg l-1 concentration were used in the medium and the main effects of each plant growth regulator were studied separately and their interaction on shoot generation were also surveyed. Considering the retrieved data, it was determined that the interaction of BA and GA have a higher impact on shooting, comparing to the cases where each of the regulators is used alone. In Mexican lime rootstock, the best culture medium for generating shoots from nucellus culture is the culture medium containing 2 mg l-1 BA and 2 mg l-1 GA and in bitter orange rootstock, the highest shooting rate was attributed to the culture medium containing 2 mg l-1 GA and 1 mg l-1 BA. For the Mexican lime and bitter orange shoots rooting, indole butyric acid (IBA) was used. The concentrations of this plant growth regulator used in Mexican lime were 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mg l-1 and for bitter orange were 0, 1 and 1.5 mg l-1. The highest rooting rate for Mexican lime was in culture medium containing 0.5 mg l-1 IBA and for bitter orange, it was the culture medium containing 1 mg l-1 IBA. The obtained plantlets were gradually adapted with the external environment.
      Issue No: Vol. 31
       
  • An examination into the effects of frozen storage of olive fruit on
           extracted olive oils

    • Authors: M. Asheri, M.M. Sharifani, G. Kiani
      Abstract: This study was achieved to examine the effects of freezing olive fruits of the Arbequina, Koroneiki and Mission cultivars (the most common olive oil producing cultivars in Iran) on the standard indices used for assessing virgin olive oil quality. Oil was obtained from olive fruits stored at -4˚C for 1 week and 3 weeks, and compared with oil obtained immediately after harvest (control). The quality indices of oils obtained from frozen fruit showed no significant degradation in quality compared with the control samples. In fact the peroxide value of the frozen fruits decreased compared to the control, which is considered to have a positive effect on oil quality. In addition, compositions of the main fatty acids are not altered by freezing which demonstrate frozen storage as a viable option. Oil derived from frozen olive fruit is not of inferior quality to non-frozen fruit in the production of olive oil.
      Issue No: Vol. 31
       
  • Effect of different physio-chemical factors on sex expression and fruit
           yield in green-house cucumber

    • Authors: M. Golabadi, P. Golkar, A.-R. Eghtedari
      Abstract: Male flower expression is considered an important aim in greenhouse cucumber breeding for creating paternal lines as a base for hybrid progeny. The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of different treatments on sex expression and fruit yield of cucumber in two different season (autumn-winter and spring-summer), in particular this research focuses on the influence of 1) usage of two chemical agents: silver thiosulphate [Ag(S2O3)2-3] and silver nitrate (AgNO3) at different concentration, respectively 200 and 500 ppm and 100, 200 and 300 ppm 2) plant development stages at the moment of the treatment (5, 10, and 15-leaf growth stages) and 3) application of single or double sprayings. Analysis of variance showed that season, chemical applications and number of spaying had significant effect on the induction of a higher number of male flowers. A positive significant effect of season suggested that longer days and higher temperature promote the formation of male flowers in cucumber. This study showed that male flower production was induced by all concentrations of silver ions, especially high concentrations. Important traits related to change of sex expression such as the number of days to male flowering and the number of male flowers are more affected by different interactions of studied factors in contrast to vegetative and yield related traits. Also, the quadruple interaction effects indicated that silver ion could change sex expression at  higher temperatures and longer days (second season in summer) with high concentration when applied in 15 leaf stage for AgNO3 and 5 and 15 leaf growth stage for Ag(S2O3)2-3 with double spraying. Consequently, female lines can be induced to male flowering with silver ions, thus increasing the feasibility of large scale seed production of gynoecious × gynoecious cucumber hybrid.
      Issue No: Vol. 31
       
 
 
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