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Journal Cover Advances in Horticultural Science
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0394-6169 - ISSN (Online) 1592-1573
   Published by Firenze University Press Homepage  [41 journals]
  • Fungal colonization improved growth and modulated the expression of
           myrosinase in black cabbage

    • Authors: R. Del Carratore, A. Podda, B.E. Maserti
      Abstract: The role of beneficial microorganisms, such as mycorrhizas, in improving the resistance to environmental stress of colonized plants is well-known. Plants of Brassicaceae family are of large economic importance, especially for the synthesis of anticarcinogenic compounds such as glucosinolates and their derivatives isothiocyanates. The endophyte fungus Piriformospora indica is able to colonize them and improves their growth and response to environmental stress. However, no information are available on the impact of colonization on glucosinolate metabolism. In this work, colonization of black cabbage (Brassica oleracea cv. Acephala sabellica) is reported as well as the effects on plant growth and on the expression of myrosinase encoding genes, the isothyocianate producing enzymes. Results indicate that P. indica successfully colonized black cabbage as validated by the expression of the marker gene Ptef1. Colonized plants showed increase of biomass weights and shoot length respect to the uncolonized plants and a decrease of myrosinase gene expression. This last finding indicates that P. indica might affect the resistance against biotic stress of black cabbage.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of adaptability potentials in seven iranian pomegranate
           cultivars based on comparison of physiological characteristics and leaf
           minearl composition

    • Authors: B. Jamali, A.R. Bonyanpour
      Abstract: Present study was carried out to compare leaf mineral composition and some physiological parameters in seven Iranian pomegranate cultivars for evaluation of their adaptability differences in Arsenjan region/Fars province/southern Iran and selecting probable more abiotic tolerant cultivars in this region. Uniform and healthy rooted plants of seven commercial pomegranate cultivars were purchased from a commercial nursery and planted in a completely randomized block design in an orchard site in Arsenjan region. After full establishment the orchard samples (fresh leaves) were taken and transferred to lab for analysis. Cultivars included: Malas Yousefkhani Saveh, Naderi Badroud, Malas Daneh Ghermez Yazd, Rabab Neiriz Fars, Shirin Shahvar Fars, Shirin Poust Daneh Ghermez and Zard Anar Arsenjan. Significant differences were found among studied pomegranate cultivars for concentrations of leaf potassium, calcium magnesium, sodium and Iron concentrations. Also parameters such as leaf total chlorophyll and carotenoids content, total sugars, relative water content and electrolyte leakage, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid concentration were significantly different in studied cultivars. ‘Zard Anar Arsenjan’, an indigenous cultivar of the region, and ‘Rabab Neiriz Fars’ were evaluated as probable more tolerant cultivars in comparison to other cultivars. This can be attributed to their more optimized leaf mineral composition and antioxidant statues.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2017)
       
  • Characterization of volatile compounds in Mentha spicata L. dried leaves

    • Authors: E. Masi, S. Caparrotta, C. Taiti, F. Ieri, P. Fiume, N. Moselhy, S. Mancuso, A. Romani
      Abstract: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is one of the most common techniques used to measure and to characterize volatile organic compounds (VOCs). At the same time, the proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) represents a recent innovative tool that allows the on-line monitoring of VOCs providing the whole mass spectra with short response time, high mass resolution and without sample preparation. We reported as major constituents of headspace in spearmint dried leaves the monoterpenes carvone, followed by dihydrocarvone, limonene and 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol) although other monoterpenes such as a-pinene, 3-carene, terpineol and neodihydrocarveol, alcohols (3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol and 3-methyl-1-butanol), esters and ketones (3-octanone) were detected in low concentrations. In this study, the analytical GC-MS and PTR-ToF-MS techniques allowed to characterize the entire volatile profile of the sample bypassing the limitations of each tool.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2017)
       
  • Seeds and oil polyphenol content of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown
           with different agricultural management

    • Authors: A. Romani, P. Pinelli, V. Moschini, D. Heimler
      Abstract: Using a long term experiment (20 and 11 years of organic cultivation on the same soil), sunflower was cultivated on these soils under organic management and in a different part of the same farm under conventional management. Kernels, teguments and oils were analyzed for their polyphenols content. Five caffeoylquinic acids were identified. No qualitative differences were found in the three cases, while quantitative differences have been pointed out and discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2017)
       
  • Foreword

    • Authors: A. Alpi
      Issue No: Vol. 31
       
  • Chemical characterization and sensory analysis by blind and visually
           impaired people of local peach varieties

    • Authors: S. Bartolini, R. Viti, E. Ducci
      Abstract: The interest in locally produced foods by the reintroduction of old varieties is due to their environmental hardiness and suitability for low-input agricultural systems. These managements can often produce fruits with imperfections, preventing the consumer acceptance. We have settled a new sensory evaluation going beyond the appearances, involving blind and visually impaired people to provide a quality evaluation of fruits linked to intrinsic rather than exterior characteristics. The research was conducted over two consecutive harvest seasons on three peach old local varieties (‘Alberta’, ‘Mora di Dolfo’ and ‘Regina di Weinberger’ called in loco ‘Regina di Bember’) grown in central Italy. On fruits, physicochemical traits (fruit weight, peel and flesh color, flesh firmness, pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity), antioxidant content (total antioxidant capacity and total phenols) and sensory analysis were assessed. The three local peach varieties showed interesting fruit attributes in both studied growth-ripening seasons. The white-fleshed ‘Mora di Dolfo’, characterized by the highest antioxidant contents, was particularly appreciated by panellists for its aroma. The new sensory analysis, providing an evaluation based on judgment of intrinsic characteristics of peaches, emerges as a valid tool to assess the interest and appreciation of fruits for a conscious consumer’s choice.
      Issue No: Vol. 31
       
  • Rocket salad: crop description, bioactive compounds and breeding
           perspectives

    • Authors: P. Tripodi, G. Francese, G. Mennella
      Abstract: Rocket salad is a plant member of the Brassicaceae family whose name encloses species of the Eruca and Diplotaxis genera characterized by leaves with peculiar pungent taste and strong flavour. It has been originated in the Mediterranean area and nowadays is worldwide cultivated and consumed as food condiment and in ready-to-use mixed salad packages. Several other uses are recognized in cosmetics and medicine. This crop represents a valuable source of health benefits due to the presence of a range of health-promoting phytochemicals including carotenoids, vitamin C, fiber, polyphenols, and glucosinolates. These compounds are potentially linked in the prevention of certain diseases and types of cancer. Glucosinolates, represent the major class of compounds in rocket, and their hydrolysis products are responsible of the typical pungent aromas and flavours. Despite the continuous increase of the global consumption during the recent years, few efforts have been carried out in genetic improvement programs aimed to constitute new varieties due to biological and reproductive barriers. In the present article is provided a brief overview of the principal species of rocket salad used in dietary and discussed the qualitative properties as well as the potentiality and constraints for breeding.
      Issue No: Vol. 31
       
  • Morpho-chemical and aroma investigations on autochthonous and
           highly-prized sweet cherry varieties grown in Tuscany

    • Authors: C. Taiti, S. Caparrotta, S. Mancuso, E. Masi
      Abstract: The morpho-chemical and aromatic characteristics of four sweet cherry cultivated varieties (Prunus avium L.) grown in the area of Lari (Pisa, Central Italy) were evaluated with the aim to investigate their properties, mainly concerning volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Of these, three cultivars (‘Di Giardino’, ‘Di Nello’, and ‘Marchiana’) represent ancient sweet cherries recovered through a private cultivation program (belonging to the group of the so-called ‘Ciliegia di Lari’); their evaluation was compared with the commercial cultivar Ferrovia, highly-prized variety marketed in Italy and abroad. Morpho-chemical analyses highlighted statistical differences among the cultivars under study, mainly on total soluble solids (TSS) and tritatable acidity (TA). Aroma investigation was performed with PTR-ToF-MS (proton transfer reaction - time of flight - mass spectrometer) approach, employed here for the first time in cherry fruits. About 50 VOCs were detected; among them, those belonging to the chemical classes of aldehydes and alcohols were the most represented although with different intensities between samples. Tentative identification of some key VOCs for cherry fruit was also performed and preliminary conclusions on the characterization of ancient and wide spread Italian cultivars were given.
      Issue No: Vol. 31
       
  • Effects of salinity stress on certain morphological traits and antioxidant
           enzymes of two Carica papaya cultivars in hydroponic culture

    • Authors: A. Refahi, A.R. Shahsavar
      Abstract: Carica papaya L. is the only species belonging to the Carica genus. Salinity stress in soil or water, especially in hot, arid regions, could limit plant growth and reduce its yield. This research studied six-month old seedlings of two cultivars of papaya (‘Sinta’ and ‘Solo’), in solid, disease-free form for two weeks inside a half-dose of Hoagland solution. Results obtained from the effects of salinity stress indicated that the longest root and shoot were observed in the control treatment in ‘Sinta’. Moreover, there was no significant difference between the two cultivars in terms of root length, shoot length, fresh weight of roots and fresh weight of shoots in different salinity levels. The highest dry weights of roots and shoots were found in the ‘Sinta’ control treatment, while the lowest was observed in ‘Solo’ 6 dS/m treatment. There was no significant difference between the two cultivars in terms of dry weights of roots and shoots. Finally, the interaction of salinity levels showed that increasing salinity in both cultivars led to higher peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbic peroxides activity. By increasing the salinity level, the total protein and proline greatly increased in both cultivars, where the maximum value was found in the ‘Sinta’ 6 dS/m salinity treatment, and this was significantly different from other treatments. A comparison of the different salinity levels showed that there was a significant difference between the 6 dS/m salinity treatment and other treatments.
      Issue No: Vol. 31
       
  • HPLC/DAD, GC/MS and GC/GC/TOF analysis of Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis
           L.) sample as standarlized raw material for food and nutraceutical uses

    • Authors: F. Ieri, L. Cecchi, P. Vignolini, M.F. Belcaro, A. Romani
      Abstract: Melissa officinalis L., commonly known as lemon balm, is a perennial herb belonging to Lamiaceae family. Traditionally administered in infusion form, it has therapeutic properties, such as sedative, carminative and antispasmodic, but also it is used for treatment of headache, rheumatism, indigestion and hypersensitivities. Lemon balm has a complex chemical composition. The aim of this work was the comprehensive characterization of secondary metabolites of a dried Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) sample, through HPLC/DAD, GC/MS and GC/GC/TOF analysis, as raw material for the standardized phyto-complexes production useful for food and nutraceutical application. This sample contained rosmarinic acid (caffeic acid dimer) as the main compound of phenolic fraction (32.4 mg g-1). Citronellal was the most abundant compound in the volatile fraction, followed by α-citral and β-caryophyllene. The total citral amount, in terms of sum of α- and β-citral, was 149.4 mgcitral kg-1. Comprehensive two-dimensional GC fingerprint analysis of lemon balm produced rationalized peak patterns for up to 200 volatile compounds.
      Issue No: Vol. 31
       
 
 
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