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Advances in Horticultural Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.177
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0394-6169 - ISSN (Online) 1592-1573
Published by Firenze University Press Homepage  [41 journals]
  • Detection of not allowed food-coloring additives (copper chlorophyllin;
           copper-sulphate) in green table olives sold on the Italian market

    • Authors: C. Negro, L. De Bellis, E. Sabella, E. Nutricati, A. Luvisi, A. Miceli
      Abstract: Table olives are a common and well-known food in the whole Mediterranean area, produced and consumed in great quantities. Many deep-green olives can be found on sale in the South of Italy. Sometimes their unnatural color could be the result of the fraudulent addition of a coloring agent (E141ii, copper chlorophyllins) during the pickling process, in spite of the European Union legislation that does not allow the addition of any colorant to table olives. The objectives of this study were to detect fraudulent color adulteration of table olives with E141ii in Italian market and to confirm the presence on the market of artificially colored table olives. We assessed the presence of compounds with chromatographic and spectral characteristics similar to the ones from the E141ii (Cu chlorin e6, Cu isochlorin e4, Cu pyropheophorbide a) in 8 samples out of 16. These result show that the fraudulent addition of colorant to table olives is a quite common practice. More pressing controls and analysis are required to ensure the complete food safety and the compliance with the current law.
      PubDate: 2017-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2017)
  • Solar radiation levels modify the growth traits and bromatological
           composition of Cichorium intybus

    • Authors: F. Schwerz, J. Sgarbossa, T. Olivoto, E. F. Elli, A. C.M. Aguiar, B. O. Caron, D. Schmidt
      Abstract: Shading greenhouse may be an effective method to achieve a suitable environment for crop growth and to enhance crop yield and quality in places or seasons where there is high light intensity. Therefore, solar radiation levels may modify the biomass accumulation and bromatological composition. Different solar radiation levels (100%, 70% and 50% of available solar radiation) were simulated in order to determine crop responses to these factors in chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. foliosum). A hydroponic experiment was conducted in an experimental greenhouse in the city of Frederico Westphalen, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Plants grown in lower solar radiation levels are more efficient in converting solar radiation into dry matter, had a higher lipid content, increased chlorophyll indices a, b and total, as well as reduced leaf thickness, acid deter- gent fiber, cellulose, and lignin content, presenting more attractive bromato- logical features for commercial production. In this study it was demonstrated that the use of shading screens is an effective method to attenuate the solar radiation, this is especially relevant in places or seasons where there is high light intensity, which contribute to achieve better characteristics of the chicory produced. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2017)
  • Gamma rays induced variations in seed germination, growth and phenotypic
           characteristics of Zinnia elegans var. Dreamland

    • Authors: B. Pallavi, S.K. Nivas, L. D'Souza, T.R. Ganapathi, S. Hegde
      Abstract: Zinnia elegans is a herbaceous annual with diverse flower colours, flower types and plant height. Zinnia elegans are popular as pot plants and also for landscape gardening. The commercial value of Zinnia can be increased with novel traits such as flower colour and form. One of the techniques to develop plant varieties with superior traits is to induce mutations using gamma radia- tion. Hence, three doses of gamma radiation (75Gy, 100Gy and 125Gy) were utilised to obtain new and novel varieties of Zinnia elegans var. Dreamland and to study the effect of gamma rays on germination of seeds, growth and survival of the seedlings, height of the plants. All the three gamma ray doses were found to decrease the germination and survival of seeds of Zinnia elegans. The higher doses of gamma rays were found to be detrimental for the germination and survival of seeds and height of the seedlings. Phenotypical variations such as plant height, the number of flowers and flower diameter of the third genera- tion mutants were highly significant as compared to the control. Eight floral variations could be obtained with novel form and colour. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2017)
  • EVOO or not EVOO' A new precise and simple analytical tool to
           discriminate extra virgin olive oils

    • Authors: C. Taiti, E. Marone
      Abstract: International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) states chemical and organolep- tic parameters to classify the commercial grade of olive oil. Finding tools or analytical procedures able to support the organoleptic evaluation would be helpful to streamline and facilitate the commercial classification. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a new tool and validate a procedure that allows a fast and non-invasive volatile compounds detection system, able to assign each sample to its right trade category. Moreover, we tried to test the capabili- ty of PTR-ToF-MS in grading olive oils according to their fruity intensity levels. A total of 273 olive oil samples collected from Argentina (21), Chile (10), Italy (191), Morocco (17), Tunisia (4) and EU (30) were analyzed and classified through: (1) Panel Test and (2) PTR-ToF-MS analysis. On the whole PTR-ToF-MS data EVOO and Not EVOO as resulted by Panel Test were clustered by PCA in two main groups and correctly classified by PLS-DA model, confirming the high confidence level (95%) in utilizing analytical spectral data for helping Panel Test and able to easy monitoring the quality formation in the oils, by a fast and cheap control from harvest until the store. The eight protonated masses detected as VIP by the model may be linked to negative olfactory notes. Finally, PCA applied on the volatile profile of 122 classified EVOO highlighted a shift of the samples distribution following the trend of the fruity intensity as assessed by the panelists. In conclusion, this trial confirmed the availability of a new, precise and simple analytical tool as the PTR-ToF-MS, which coupled with an appropriate multivariate data analysis, allows to classify EVOO according to their trade category and fruity intensity. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-05
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2017)
  • Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. growing in soil and containers for urban
           agriculture in developing areas

    • Authors: A. Pardini, F. Massolino, C. Grassi
      Abstract: Urbanization and poverty have brought to worse life conditions in towns of many developing countries, including difficult availability of food, especially fresh. Urban agriculture and horticulture can contribute to the avail- ability of fresh foods, officinal and medicinal plants, but the little availability of irrigation and surface to destine for cropping suggest the convenience of little water consuming species, with little needs of soil fertility and that can be eaten entirely. Opuntia fiscus-indica (L.) Mill. corresponds at all these requirements, and it is a very promising strategic species that can be eaten completely (green parts, fruits and even flowers), it has good nutritional values and also interest- ing medical properties. A trial has been done to compare the initial productivity of cladodes multiplied in pots, car tires and open field. Our results suggest that the prickly pear can be cropped better in large exhausted tires than in small plots also saving money for the materials. 
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2017)
  • Investigation on rooting ability of twenty olive cultivars from Southern

    • Authors: C. Cirillo, R. Russo, F. Famiani, C. Di Vaio
      Abstract: The effects of two different types of auxins (660 ppm alpha-naph-thaleneacetic acid - NAA - in liquid solution or 750 ppm alpha-naphthaleneac- etamide - NAD - dispersed in a talcum powder) and cuttings from three differ- ent portions of the shoots (basal, middle and apical) on the rooting ability of twenty autochthonous olive cultivars were investigated in two growing seasons (spring and autumn). The results showed that the autochthonous olive cultivars of the Campania Region are characterized by a wide variability in the potential rhizogenic ability. The two periods of cutting collection (March and September) significantly affected the rooting aptitude of the cultivars, indicating that in some cultivars the cuttings collected in autumn had a higher rooting rate than those collected in spring. The effects of NAA and NAD on rooting strongly depended on interaction with the cultivar, time of collection (autumn or spring) and type of cuttings (basal, medium or apical). Among the twenty cultivars tested, we found only eight cultivars with a satisfactory rooting ability after hor- monal applications (Ortolana, Racioppella, Tenacella, Tonda, Biancolilla, Carpellese, Cornia and Pisciottana). In general, the apical and the median portions of the shoots gave the best rooting results. 
      PubDate: 2017-10-26
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2017)
  • Phenolic metabolism and antioxidant activity during endodormancy of
           Kiwifruit buds

    • Authors: E. Abedi Gheshlaghi, V. Rabiei, M. Ghasemi, J. Fattahi, F. Razavi
      Abstract: Bud dormancy is an adaptability process in woody plants that enables them to survive in unfavorable conditions. In the present study, the phenols, antioxidant capacity, and activity of three enzymes were evaluated during endodormancy phases in two Hayward and Tomuri cultivars and two female and male Golden genotypes of kiwifruit buds. The buds were collected from ten-year-old own-rooted vines from the end of October 2015 until the end of January 2016 in the north of Iran. The results revealed that phenols, antioxidant capacity (RSA), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities of buds significantly increased at the beginning of endodormancy and subsequently decreased at the end of the endodormancy. The POD activity increased in Hayward and Tomuri from the onset of endodormancy and continued for two weeks after the endodormancy release. The total phenol had a positive and significant correlation with RSA and PAL enzyme activity. Furthermore, higher antioxidant capacity and phenols in both male and female Golden genotypes were attributed to the higher PAL enzyme activity in both genotypes. This study proposes that the RSA%, PAL activity, and phenol concentration could be employed as a biomarker to indicate bud dormancy phases in kiwifruit. 
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2017)
  • Anatomical and morphological changes in scion of some olive grafting
           combinations under water deficit

    • Authors: A. Dadashpour, A. Shekafandeh, R. Oladi
      Abstract: Effects of water stress deficit were studied on xylem anatomical fea- tures and some growth parameters among six olive grafting combinations; Amygdalifolia/Arbequina (Am/Ar), Amygdalifolia/Koroneiki (Am/Ko), Amygdalifolia/Zard (Am/Z), Conservallia/Koroneiki (Co/Ko), Conservallia/Zard (Co/Z) and Conservallia/Arbequina (Co/Ar) of about three-year-old olive trees (Olea europaea L.) under greenhouse conditions. To realize this, a factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design (CRD). The results showed that rootstocks exhibited significant effects on scions xylem anatomical physiognomies, such as vessel lumen area (VLA) and vessel diame- ter (VD) and additionally on some growth indices including main stem length (SL), lateral shoot number (LSN) and graft union-cross sectional area (GU-CSA). Xylem anatomical characteristics including VLA, porosity, vessel frequency (VF) and VD of scions decreased when they were grafted onto Arbequina and Koroneiki rootstocks, but increased onto Zard rootstock. All growth parameters showed a decrease under drought stress, while this reduction was more pro- nounced for Zard rootstock than the other rootstocks. However, Co/Z showed the highest VF and the lowest vulnerability index (VI) and exhibited a better performance at the end of recovery. 
      PubDate: 2017-10-05
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2017)
  • A mini-review of essential oils in the South Pacific and their
           insecticidal properties

    • Authors: R.R. Chand, A.D. Jokhan, R.D. Gopalan
      Abstract: Studies on traditional medicinal plants (TMPs) found in the South Pacific that holds potential for the insect controls have been reviewed. Few TMPs are known to have insecticidal properties, however many of those are still unknown in the South Pacific. The information on plants were collected using online databases such as Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and Springer Open in order to confirm the studies that support the insecticidal properties of plants present in the South Pacific. The following study confirmed that there is a potential for the selected TMPs suggesting enough evidence for their usage in the insecticidal activities. These plants would represent an alter- native in crop protection due to its novel, safe and eco-friendly substitutes for its effective insecticidal properties. 
      PubDate: 2017-10-05
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2017)
  • ‘Superior Seedless’ grapevine grafted on three rootstocks grown on
           calcare- ous soil under diluted brackish water irrigation. II. Expression
           of antioxidant genes

    • Authors: I.M. Qrunfleh, S. Abu-Romman, T.G. Ammari
      Abstract: Grapevine rootstocks that can absorb brackish water and maintain satisfactory growth of the grapevine scion might be a feasible management practice in areas suffering scarce water resources. The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of antioxidant genes in ‘Superior Seedless’ leaves grafted on R110 (Vitis berlandieri x V. rupestris), 41B (V. berlandieri x V. vinifera) and P1103 (V. berlandieri x V. rupestris) in response to diluted brack- ish water irrigation at three levels: 1.5, 3.0 and 5.0 dS m-1 in addition to the 0.8 dS m-1 control. Results revealed that after salinity exposure for two weeks, the transcript levels of APX, Mn-SOD and MDAR increased in ‘Superior Seedless’ leaves grafted on the different rootstocks. However, their expression levels in response to salinity were noticeably higher in plants grafted on P1103 and R110 compared to 41B. The expression of CAT gene showed obvious enhanced level in plants grafted on P1103 in response to salt exposure. Meanwhile, the expres- sion of CAT gene in ‘Superior Seedless’ scion grafted on 41B or R110 showed almost unchanged level in control and stressed conditions. Down-regulation of CuZn-SOD was recorded in leaves of ‘Superior Seedless’ grafted on P1103. Slight up-regulation of this gene in response to saline condition was recorded when scion was grafted on 41B or R110. The expression of GPX was enhanced in scion grafted on P1103 and 41B. On the other hand, scion grafted on R110 showed decreased expression of GPX in response to salt treatment. Grapevine root- stocks that have V. rupestris and V. berlandieri in their parentage are good can- didates for salinity tolerance. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-29
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2017)
  • The Influence of synthetic strigolactones and plant extracts on the
           morphological parameters of onion (Allium cepa)

    • Authors: T. Kopta, M. Antal, M. Jurica, J. Volkova, R. Pokluda
      Abstract: In recent years there has been frequent reference to the significance of strigolactones as a new group of hormones which might have a significant effect on horticultural production. The aim of this work was to find an ideal combination of stable synthetic strigolactones and plant extracts with potential effects on onion plants. The synthetic strigolactone Fenyl 7 (dihydro-3-[[2,5- dihydro-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-furanyl)oxy]-methylene]-5-phenyl-2(3H)-furanone) was tested in a carrot macerate, with citric acid and with salicylic acid. From the results it was confirmed that increasing the pH of the preparation leads to improving the stability of Fenyl 7. Evaluation has repeatedly confirmed the effect of the preparation, combining synthetic strigolactone and a macerate of carrot in a mixture of surfactants with added citric acid. In all the experiments this combination showed a statistically demonstrable influence on leaf weight (increased by 12-31%) and length (increased by 6-13%) in comparison with the controls. 
      PubDate: 2017-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2017)
  • ‘Superior Seedless’ grafted on three selected grapevine rootstocks
           grown on calcareous soil under diluted brackish water irrigation. I.
           Growth performances

    • Authors: I.M. Qrunfleh, T.G. Ammari, S. Abu-Romman
      Abstract: Mixing brackish water with conventional quality water for irrigation in ratios to maintain satisfactory vigor of grapevines might be a feasible man- agement practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of three grape rootstocks that are used worldwide and locally; R110, 41B and P1103, irrigated with three salinity levels: 1.5, 3.0 and 5.0 dS m-1 in addition to the 0.8 dS m-1 control. A randomized complete block design was used with three blocks of 12 pots each. ‘Superior Seedless’ grafted on P1103 showed bet- ter performance regarding chlorophyll content, stem length and number of young leaves and even growth after bud break. It does seem that grapevine rootstocks that have either V. rupestris or V. berlandieri in their parentage are good candidates for salinity tolerance. It can be concluded that irrigation with diluted brackish water can be practiced for a certain period of time (two months from April to June); according to our findings under conditions of the experiment, to be followed by irrigation with good quality water in order to flush excessive salts out of the root zone. 
      PubDate: 2017-06-22
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2017)
  • Genetic variability and correlation studies in grapes (Vitis vinifera L.)
           in Leh District of Jammu and Kashmir

    • Authors: T. Dolkar, M.K. Sharma, A. Kumar, M.S. Mir, S. Hussanin
      Abstract: The present investigations on genetic variability and correlation in wild grape accessions were carried out in the most favourable regions of Leh district of Jammu and Kashmir. Fifty wild grape accessions from five different villages of the district were marked and evaluated for important morphological traits i.e. yield and quality parameters. Data on various vegetative, fruit physical and fruit chemical characters were taken. Significant variations were observed for all the characters studied except number of seeds per berry. High genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variance (PCV) were recorded for yield (21.73 and 22.81), yield efficiency (41.19 and 52.73), bunch weight (21.07 and 21.23), number of berries per bunch (22.31 and 25.28), berry length (21.69 and 22.07), berry weight (21.13 and 21.28) and total sugars (22.69 and 22.70). Out of twenty studied characters, thirteen characters registered high heritability estimates, while five recorded moderate heritability estimates and number of seeds per berry and acidity showed low heritability estimates. However, cane length (59.40), leaf area (31.43), bunch weight (43.16), number of berries per bunch (27.18) and TSS/acid ratio (25.81) exhibited high genetic advance as percentage of mean indicating additive gene effect. Fruit or berry yield was positively and significantly correlated with bunch length (0.652), bunch breadth (0.584), bunch weight (0.946), number of berries per bunch (0.672), berry breadth (0.363) and number of seeds per berry (0.612). This study revealed that the characters such as yield, bunch length, bunch weight, number of bunch per vine, berry weight, number of berries per bunch, total soluble solids and total sugars are the most important traits for selecting best grape accessions.
      Issue No: Vol. 31
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