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Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1658-6786 - ISSN (Online) 1658-6794
Published by Naif University Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Software Assisted Profiling of Dentition in Human Identification

    • Authors: Hina Mehrotra, Puneet Ahuja, Amit Gupta, Moulshree Kohli
      Abstract: Forensic odontology is the integral part of forensic science that utilizes unique characteristics of human dentition. Dental remains withstand degradation bet­ter than other human remains. This study was aimed to determine the human identity by using the various predetermined parameters of dental morphology us­ing their digital smile photographs and confirming by means of Adobe Photoshop CC software. The study also aimed to compare and identify the most used pa­rameter of the dental morphology in the human iden­tification process.  This retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology, Mi­crobiology and Forensic Odontology, I.T.S Dental College Hospital & Research Centre, Greater Noida, UP, India. A sample of 50 subjects (25 males and 25 females) aged between 20 and 40 years were included in the study. Two sequential techniques were followed. Dental casts and pictures were analyzed by 3 blind observers by comparison of dental traits and then were confirmed by superimposition using Adobe Photoshop CC. Positive identification was achieved by application of the 2 techniques. ICC Multiple Raters and ICC Two Raters were applied to analyze the stratum of agreement between the observers. By analyzing the parameters specified by three blind observers, the combination of Central and Lateral Incisor morphology was the most used parameter in the identification process. When the records are unavailable, dental comparison of postmortem findings with antemortem photographs of people displaying uncommon dental features visible in smiles taken from photographs may increase the probability of identification.  Keywords: Forensic Science, Forensic Odontology, Smile, Photograph, Antemortem, Postmortem.  
      PubDate: 2018-01-06
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Sexual Dimorphism and Estimation of Height from Body Length Anthropometric
           Parameters among the Hausa Ethnic Group of Nigeria

    • Authors: Jaafar Aliyu, Barnabas Danborno, Wilson O. Hamman, Ibrahim A. Sambo, Lawan H. Adamu, Usman Affan
      Abstract: The study was carried out to investigate the sexual dimorphism in length and other anthropometric parameters. To also generate formulae for height estimation using anthropometric measurements of some length parameters among Hausa ethnic group of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A cross sectional study was conducted and a total of 500 subjects participated in this study which was mainly secondary school students between the age ranges of 16-27 years, anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard protocols. It was observed that there was significant sexual dimorphism in all the parameters except for body mass index. In all the parameters males tend to have significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean values except biaxillary distances. Height showed positive and strongest correlations with demispan length, followed by knee height, thigh length, sitting height, hand length, foot length, humeral length, forearm length and weight respectively. There were weak and positive correlations between height and neck length as well as biaxillary length. The demi span length showed the strongest correlation coefficient and low standard error of estimate indicating the strong estimation ability than other parameters. The combination of two parameters tends to give better estimations and low standard error of estimates, so also combining the three parameters gives better estimations with a lower standard error of estimates. The better correlation coefficient was also observed with the double and triple parameters respectively. Male Hausa tend to have larger body proportion compared to female. Height showed positive and strongest correlations with demispan length. Body length anthropometric proved to be useful in estimation of stature among Hausa ethnic group of Kaduna state Nigeria.  
      PubDate: 2018-01-06
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Arab Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology (ASWGFT): Guidelines
           for Method Validation in Forensic Toxicology

    • Authors: Abdulsallam A. Bakdash, Jihad Al-Qudsi, Huda M. Hassan
      Abstract: Reliable results and valid analytical data are an essential requirement for proper interpretation of forensic toxicology cases, especially when evaluating scientific studies and daily routine work, and when presenting any toxicological findings as a criminal evidence. In contrast, the results of unreliable analyses can be disputed in court and can also lead to unfair legal judgments against the defendant, or can result in wrong treatment in cases of rehabilitation for patients. In order to establish strong evidence and make a correct decision, the lab is asked to give high quality data that are based on reliable analytical methods. For that reason, all new analytical methods used in forensic toxicology, including the clinical diagnosis of causes of death, require careful care during the development of the analytical method and during its application. This is also an urgent need in the context of quality management and accreditation, especially as those issues have become increasingly important in the science of poisons and drug analysis in recent years. The Arab Society for forensic sciences and forensic medicine (ASFSFM) will publish the first version of Guidelines for Method Validation in Forensic Toxicology issued by the Arab Scientific Working Group of Forensic Toxicology (ASWGFT). This aims to be a distinguished scientific publication written in Arabic which introducing the scientific terms of analytical methods in the field of forensic toxicology to Arab readers. The Arab Scientific Working Group of Forensic Toxicology has chosen the first issue to be a manual of guidelines for method validation in forensic toxicology, similar to the international organizations who are actively publishing in this field. The guidelines contain a systematic scientific message that can be published and circulated among Arab laboratories. It will also encourage other Arab scientific working groups in the field of forensic sciences to produce similar publications. There is an urgent need for Arab academics and Arab institutions working in the fields of forensic sciences and forensic medicine to compete in publishing standards, guidelines and recommendations, especially as crime and terrorism have evolved to become an international problem.  
      PubDate: 2018-01-06
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • The Effect of Establishing Guilt using Modern Technology on Human Rights

    • Authors: Bakhouya Driss
      Abstract: The use of modern technology has led to a scientific revolution in the field of establishing guilt. Consequently, this has given rise to a great debate about its legitimacy among criminal law scholars, especially as its use may result in the violation of individual rights and human dignity. This raises the question about the impact of using modern technology in the process of establishing guilt on human rights. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the procedures of establishing guilt using modern technology methods adopted by the Algerian legislator, and to what extent individual’s rights and liberties are respected during those procedures. This study compares between rules of establishing guilt using modern technology in Algerian legislation and other legislation. This aims to offer some recommendations that help legislators keep pace with scientific and technical advancements. It also suggests ways to achieve a balance between using modern technology and respecting legal guarantees that prevent the infringement of individual rights and liberties. Results of the study show the significant negative impact of some modern evidences used to establish guilt. This is shown in the violation of the rights and liberties of individuals, in addition to inaccurate results obtained by using such evidences. This study recommends that the Algerian legislator clarify their position regarding modern means of establishing guilt, which must be unambiguously regulated and surrounded by adequate guarantees that protect the rights and liberties of individuals.Keywords: Establishing guilt, DNA, hypnosis, lie detection, electronic surveillance, human rights. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-18
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • DNA Methylation as a Biomarker for Body Fluid Identification

    • Authors: Rania Gomaa, Jawad Salehi, Shalini Behl
      Abstract: Currently, available identification techniques for forensic samples are either enzyme or protein based, which can be subjected to degradation, thus limiting its storage potentials. Epigenetic changes arising due to DNA methylation and histone acetylation can be used for body fluid identification. Markers DACT1, USP49, ZC3H12D, FGF7, cg23521140, cg17610929, chromosome 4 (25287119–25287254), chromosome 11 (72085678–72085798, 57171095–57171236, 1493401–1493538), and chromosome 19 (47395505–47395651) are currently being used for semen identification. Markers cg26107890, cg20691722, cg01774894 and cg14991487 are used to differentiate saliva and vaginal secretions from other body fluids. However, such markers show overlapping methylation pattern. This review article aimed to highlight the feasibility of using DNA methylation of certain genetic markers in body fluid identification and its implications for forensic investigations. The reviewed articles have employed molecular genetics techniques such as Bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP), methylation specific PCR (MSP), Pyrosequencing, Combined Bisulfite Restriction Analysis (COBRA), Methylation-sensitive Single Nucleotide Primer Extension (SNuPE), and Multiplex SNaPshot Microarray. Bioinformatics software such as MATLAB and BiQ Analyzer has been used. Biological fluids have different methylation patterns and thus, this difference can be used to identify the nature of the biological fluid found at the crime scene. Using DNA methylation to identify the body fluids gives accurate results without consumption of the trace evidence and requires a minute amount of DNA for analysis. Recent studies have incorporated next-generation sequencing aiming to find out more reliable markers that can differentiate between different body fluids. Nonetheless, new DNA methylation markers are yet to be discovered to accurately differentiate between saliva and vaginal secretions with high confidence. Epigenetic changes are dynamic and it is important to find stable DNA sequences that can be used as biomarkers.Keywords: Forensic Science; DNA analysis; Methylation; body fluid; identification;  Pyrosequencing; DACT1; USP49; ZC3H12D; FGF7.
      PubDate: 2017-12-18
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Awareness on Digital Drugs Abuse and its Applied Prevention Among
           Healthcare Practitioners in KSA

    • Authors: Marwa M Fawzi, Farah A Mansouri
      Abstract: Digital drugs abuse, also known as I-dosing, has recently emerged as a danger to Middle Eastern teen­agers through different media channels. This study aimed to investigate the level of knowledge of digital drug abuse among health practioners in KSA, explore their attitude towards it and describe the possible pre­ventive policies if any, and their experience of any medicolegal implemented awareness strategies to combat this phenomenon.  A cross-sectional survey was used to gather data. An open-ended questionnaire with two parts contain­ing open-ended questions was developed, validated, pretested, and randomly distributed to 200 voluntary participating health care practitioners of both sexes (n = 200) attending a continuous medical education seminar in May 2015 held in Madinah. Ethical approval and an informed written consent was obtained. Participants were males (65%) and females (35%) with different professional degrees. The knowledge of I-dosing of digital drugs was 30%. The source of this knowledge was through media (96%) and through receiving inquiries concerning this topic (71.9%). Only 14.7% of participants knew the mechanism of action of digital drugs. However, 65% of the participants thought digital drugs are real threats. From the participants, 16.9% were approached by an awareness program concerning this issue. This study concluded the urgent need for an awareness program directed at medical practitioners and communities in KSA.  Keywords: Forensic Science, Digital Drug, I-Dosing, Teenage, Abuse, Prevention, Healthcare Practitioners.
      PubDate: 2017-12-18
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Clinical Profile of Acute Accidental Poisoning Among Children- A
           Retrospective Study

    • Authors: Tabassum Khatoon, Alok Kumar, Anoop Verma, Motoki Osawa, Archana Verma, Beena Shrivastava
      Abstract: Acute toxicity is a frequent but avoidable cause of morbidity and mortality in children especially in developing countries, including India. Present study assesses their pattern with relation to different age groupings. This retrospective study was conducted among all hospitalised paediatric victims of acute accidental poisoning at the King George Medical University; Lucknow during 2010 -11. Their history, baseline characteristics, clinical course and outcome was studied. Most children were male of less than three years with 4% overall mortality. Kerosene oil was implicated in most cases. Childhood poisoning is commonest during 1-3 years with a male preponderance. Household poisons; especially kerosene oil was responsible for most cases which was consumed accidentally. Parents must be educated and warned to keep these toxic ingredients safely in suitable containers and out of reach of their beloved children. Keywords: Forensic Science, Paediatric, Acute Poisoning, Kerosene, Outcome. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-18
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Body Weight Determination from Foot Outline Length among the Iban
           Population in Malaysia

    • Authors: Hairunnisa Bt Mohd Anas K, T. Nataraja Moorthy, Nik Fakhuruddin Nik Hassan
      Abstract: Foot impressions form a valuable physical evidence to solve crime. Foot impression measurements provide valuable information in estimating stature, weight, gender and age in crime scene investigation. In Asian countries, many people living in rural places walk without footwear. The aim of this research is to generate regression equations to determine living body weight from foot outline length among the Iban population of Malaysia. The study involved 200 (100 males, 100 females) adult Ibans, mostly living in Sarawak, a state in   Malaysia. Following the standard procedure, the foot outlines were collected followed by body weight measurements and were recorded for analysis. The collected data were analysed with PASW 20 computer software. The correlation coefficient (R) between the foot outline lengths and body weight was determined for males, females and pooled sample. Based on the foot outline and body weight, 30 regression equations were generated, 10 for males, 10 for females and 10 for pooled samples/unknown gender. The correlation coefficient (R) values were positive and statistically significant. It is concluded that the present investigation provided regression equations to determine body weight from foot outline anthropometry. These equations can be used to determine body weight even when partial foot impressions are available at crime scenes.   Keywords: Forensic Science, Body Weight, Foot Outline, Iban Population, Malaysia
      PubDate: 2017-12-18
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Sexual Assault in Ballari, Karnataka, India: A Four Year Retrospective
           Review

    • Authors: Charan Kishor Shetty, Gururaj Biradar, Pavanchand Shetty
      Abstract: Sexual assault is both a common and a very serious crime which is investigated by the police with an intensity second only to that of murder. Despite India stiffening its laws on sexual crimes, nothing much has changed on the ground. This retrospective study was conducted on 86 cases of sexual assault received for examination at Vijayanagara Institute of medical sciences (VIMS), Ballari, Karnataka, during the year 2010 - 2013. This study revealed that most vulnerable age group were males aged 11-20 years, where most commonly sexual crimes were performed by the person familiar to the victim (33.72%).  The maximum numbers of victims were medico-legally examined on the second day (46.51%) of the assault. Examinations as recent tear of hymen was noticed in 16.66% female victims, and restrain marks on the victims were present in 25 (29.06%) cases. The study aims to enhance public awareness regarding sexual violence, as support the ground to the law enforcement authorities to implement strategies to prevent such cases in the future. Keywords: Forensic science; forensic pathology; sexual assault; hymen; anal intercourse.   
      PubDate: 2017-12-18
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Derivation of regression equations for stature reconstruction from digit
           lengths of Nigerian Medical Students in University of Lagos

    • Authors: Michael Ebe Nandi, Emeka Ambrose Okubike, Obun Cletus Obun, Onenson Nkanu Onen
      Abstract: Identification of an individual using stature is of great significance in forensic practice. With the increasing frequency of natural and man-influenced disasters, it has become imperative for forensic anthropologists to establish population-specific forensic reference standards. This study aimed to derive predictive equations for stature estimation using five digit lengths. A sample of 230 medical students (100 males and 130 females) of Nigerian parentage, aged 18 to 36 years was recruited for this research. Stature and digit lengths were measured following standard procedures, followed by statistical analysis using SPSS (Version 20 Chicago Inc). Results of descriptive showed average stature of 176.36 ± 8.13cm, 164.38 ± 6.62cm and 169.59 ± 8.79cm for males, females and pooled sample respectively. Sexual dimorphism was observed to be statistically significant (P<0.01) across all the measured parameters, with greater values consistently recorded in males. Pearson correlation (r) had a range of 0.40 to 0.63. The weakest r-value is seen in males and strongest in females. Simple and multilinear regression equations derived showed different values of Coefficient of determination (R2) and standard error of estimate (SEE) at accurate estimation rate of >99%. Digits correlation with stature from this study may be of great relevance in human identification. Keywords: Forensic Sciences; Human Identification; Stature; Digits; Nigerians.   
      PubDate: 2017-12-18
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Paternity Cases within a Medicolegal Context: a Case Study of
           Heteropaternal Superfecundation in Iraq

    • Authors: Hannan K. Mahmood, Ammirah J. Omar, Khalifa M. Salih
      Abstract: A case of paternity was referred to the Medical-Legal Directorate( MLD)/ Baghdad in August 2011 .The family who were concerned was the  Father (41 years old ) ,mother (23 years old) and 2 sons non identical twin (1.5year old) . Paternity test includes Conventional Blood Group Markers, DNA and Y chromosome STR Typing were investigated .The DNA and Y chromosome STR Typing were tested  for the referred trios father and twins first , the results revealed an absolute exclusion of fatherhood relationship to both . , surprisingly the Y Chromosomeprofiles  revealed obviously that the two non identical twins were from different fathers or paternal descent. Maternity test was ought to be examined  for the assumed mother to rule out the possibility of switch of both babies in the hospital during their delivery and to prove their brotherhood relationship from mother side. The mother was referred and maternity was confirmed later using DNA Typing .Combined Maternity Index (CPI) was calculated for twins ,The probability of Maternity were 99.98% and 99.95% for the1st and 2nd twin respectively.Key words :hetero paternal Superfecundation ,Non Identical twin,DNA Typing ,Y Chromosome STR Polymorphysim
      PubDate: 2017-12-18
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Forensic Characterization of Liquor Samples by Gas Chromatography-Mass
           Spectrometry (GC-MS) – A Review

    • Authors: Praveen K. Yadav, Rakesh M. Sharma
      Abstract: Alcohol is a subject of forensic research across the world. The forensic characterization of alcoholic beverages is required in cases of death and crimes due to alcohol consumption. In many cases, determining the geographic origin becomes a very important part of the investigation. Therefore, it is important to develop more sensitive methods for the analysis of alcoholic beverages. In this review, an attempt has been made to summarize the work accomplished so far in the field of analysis and detection of alcoholic beverages. In this review, various sample preparation techniques for GC-MS analysis of alcoholic beverages have been discussed along with its applications. GC-MS based analysis is less time consuming, more sensitive and more accurate.  Keywords: Forensic Sciences, Alcoholic beverages, Mortality, Analysis, GC-MS
      PubDate: 2017-12-18
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Apportioning Culpability in Multiple Perpetrator Acts of Terrorism

    • Authors: Kate Y. O’Malley, James D. Seward, Michael Welner
      Abstract: The Depravity Standard instrument was developed to operationalize depraved elements of crimes. It consists of 25items that were derived using multiple sources of data, including case reviews, input from professionals, and over 40,000 survey respondents. This paper presents preliminary data on the use of the Depravity Standard in cases with multiple perpetrators, examining its efficacy in differentiating the culpability of co-conspirators in a terrorist act. The US has been the site of three high-profile terrorist events with dual perpetrators: the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing by ex-U.S. Military acquaintances Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols; the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing by brothers Tamerlan and Dzhokhar Tsarnaev; and the 2015 San Bernardino mass shooting by husband and wife Syed Rizwan Farook and Tashfeen Malik. In this pilot project, two independent raters applied the 25 items of the Depravity Standard to each of the six perpetrators to determine which of each pair was the more culpable. Interclass correlation coefficients revealed a high degree of agreement between the raters, attesting to the reliability of the Depravity Standard items. Examination of the total number of Depravity Standard items present reveals McVeigh was more culpable than Nichols. The other four perpetrators were similarly culpable to their partners. These current findings indicate that the Depravity Standard is a promising instrument to determine comparative culpability in terrorist actions with multiple perpetrators. Ongoing analyses of public participation data indicate some items to be more indicative of depravity than others, and future analyses will compare weighted scores.    Keywords: forensic science, crime severity, the Depravity Standard, terrorism, criminal culpability    
      PubDate: 2017-12-18
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • 3rd International Arab Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Conference,
           ASFSFM 2017: Conference Report

    • Authors: Abdulsallam A. Bakdash, Karam A. Abdulaal, Jihad Al-Qudsi
      Abstract: The Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (ASFSFM) at Naif Arab University for Security Sciences seeks to present the latest developments in all fields of forensic sciences through holding specialized scientific events and academic activities. This is also achieved through its periodic scientific peer-reviewed journal, the Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine. It also seeks to promote scientific research in all fields of forensic science and forensic medicine, and seeks actively to contribute in holding scientific meetings in accordance with advanced scientific standards, including the 3rd International Arab Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Conference. This important event was attended by scientists and experts from various fields of criminal and forensic sciences from both Arab and non-Arab countries. This conference was a significant scientific accomplishment that contributed to the advancement of forensic sciences and forensic medicine in the Arab world. The conference aimed, in accordance with the vision of Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, to enhance peace, security and justice in Arab societies.  Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, represented by the Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine, held the 3rd International Arab Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Conference on the University's campus during the period from 21st to 23rd November 2017. The event included the participation of more than 720 experts in forensic sciences and forensic medicine from 33 countries all over the world. Experts discussed and presented the latest developments in their fields. The conference provided a creative environment for students from both local and international universities to benefit from experts and specialists, and to access the most recent research.  On behalf of His Excellency the president of Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, and the Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine, we would like to pay tribute to all scientists and experts who contributed by sharing their scientific researches through lectures, workshops, and posters within this event. We appreciate their contributions that added great value to the subject of the conference.  
      PubDate: 2017-12-18
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • المؤتمر العربي الدولي الثالث لعلوم
           الأدلة الجنائية والطب الشرعي ASFSFM2017 :
           تقرير المؤتمر

    • Authors: Abdulsallam Ahmad Bakdash, Karam A. Abdulaal, Jihad Al-Qudsi
      Abstract: The Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (ASFSFM) at Naif Arab University for Security Sciences seeks to present the latest developments in all fields of forensic sciences through holding specialized scientific events and academic activities. This is also achieved through its periodic scientific peer-reviewed journal, the Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine. It also seeks to promote scientific research in all fields of forensic science and forensic medicine, and seeks actively to contribute in holding scientific meetings in accordance with advanced scientific standards, including the 3rd International Arab Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Conference. This important event was attended by scientists and experts from various fields of criminal and forensic sciences from both Arab and non-Arab countries. This conference was a significant scientific accomplishment that contributed to the advancement of forensic sciences and forensic medicine in the Arab world. The conference aimed, in accordance with the vision of Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, to enhance peace, security and justice in Arab societies.  Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, represented by the Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine, held the 3rd International Arab Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Conference on the University's campus during the period from 21st to 23rd November 2017. The event included the participation of more than 720 experts in forensic sciences and forensic medicine from 33 countries all over the world. Experts discussed and presented the latest developments in their fields. The conference provided a creative environment for students from both local and international universities to benefit from experts and specialists, and to access the most recent research.  On behalf of His Excellency the president of Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, and the Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine, we would like to pay tribute to all scientists and experts who contributed by sharing their scientific researches through lectures, workshops, and posters within this event. We appreciate their contributions that added great value to the subject of the conference.  
      PubDate: 2017-12-18
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 6 (2017)
       
 
 
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