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Journal Cover Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1658-6786 - ISSN (Online) 1658-6794
   Published by Naif University Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Study on Anthropometric Parameters of Dry Tibia of Human Origin to Aid
           Gender Identification in Forensic Investigation

    • Authors: Kishan R. Siddapur
      Abstract: Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the significance of anthropometric parameters of dry human tibia in determining gender in as ample representing the Tamil Nadu region of India.Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on dry tibia of human origin at Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, in October 2015, in relation to three important manually measurable anthropometric parameters: the proximal epiphysial breadth (PEB), the distal epiphyseal breadth (DEB), and the maximum length (L) of dry tibia. The observations were tabulated and statistically analyzed using unpaired t-test and Mann-Whitney U test.Significance level was assessed with p value < 0.05.Results: The present study found significant differences (p < 0.0001) in the 3 studied parameters. In male tibias, it was statistically inferred that PEB, DEB and L of tibia is more than 6.9 cm, 4.8 cm and35.2 cm, respectively. On the other hand, in female tibias, it was inferred that the respective parameters are less than 6.6 cm, 4.5 cm and 35.1 cm.Conclusion: On comparison with various other studies done in different parts of the world, it was inferred that the values of one race may not apply to another; and those of one zone may not apply to another. Therefore, it is suggested that one should consider separate values for different zones while attempting to establish parameters for gender identification of skeletal remains.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
      DOI: 10.12816/0037182
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 5 (2017)
  • Radio-morphometric Analysis of Sella Turcica in the South Indian
           Population: A Digital Cephalometric Study

    • Authors: Ch. Sai Kiran, P. Ramaswamy, Santosh N, B. Smitha, Satish A
      Abstract: Aim: The present study was undertaken to identify the role of radio-morphometric analysis of sella turcica in sex determination. Material and Methods: A total of 260 good quality lateral cephalograms (130 males and 130 females) were randomly selected from the orthodontic database between2014 and 2015. Radiographic measurements (antero-posterior diameter and depth of sella) were carried out by a senior oral radiologist. The values obtained were tabulated in a spreadsheet and subjected to statistical analysis (SPSS version Chicago 1989 – 2 “007).Results: A higher percentage of both males (70.0%) and females (67.7%) were presented with normal sella. The second best sella presentation was the shallow sella in males (16.2%). The mean antero-posterior diameter was significantly higher in females (12.25 mm) than males (11.74 mm). The mean depth of sella turcica was greater in females (8.08 mm) than males (7.68mm). Discriminant function analysis was done with gender as a grouping variable and antero-posterior dimensions and sella depth as independent variables. The formula obtained was D = 0.452 (x) +0.295(y)-7.753. (Where “D” is the discriminant score “x” is antero-posterior diameter of sella “y” is sella depth).The present study revealed an overall accuracy rate of58.1% in identifying correct gender using sella measurements. Conclusion: The present study was the first of its kind in the South Indian population and has presented results that justify the use of sella turcica for sex determination.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
      DOI: 10.12816/0036490
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 5 (2017)
  • Substance Use Disorder and Reoffending Among Inmates Awaiting Trial in a
           Maximum Security Prison in Nigeria

    • Authors: Aishatu Yusha'u Armiya'u, Yusufu T. Maigari, Francis J. Davou
      Abstract: Aim and Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of substance use disorder (SUD) and the relationship between inmates with SUD and those without SUD with reoffending.Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was carried out among 366 male inmates awaiting trial in Jos maximum security prison, Plateau state (Nigeria). Two sets of questionnaires were used, namely General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).Results: Prevalence of SUD was 32.8% (120) among inmates. Reoffending was statistically significant with SUD (p < 0.001).Conclusion: These results suggest a significant rate of SUD among awaiting trial inmates. It also shows a significant difference between SUD and reoffending.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
      DOI: 10.12816/0036491
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 5 (2017)
  • Prediction of Nasolabial Distance using Thumbprint Ridge Density among the
           Hausa Population of Nigeria

    • Authors: Lawan H. Adamu, Samuel A. Ojo, Barnabas Danborno, Sunday S. Adebisi, Magaji G. Taura
      Abstract: Objectives: This study aimed to determine the potentials of thumbprint ridge count in the prediction of nasolabial facial distances among the Hausa population of Nigeria.Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study in which a total of 457 subjects participated. Plain fingerprints were captured using a fingerprint scanner. Three areas, ulnar, radial and proximal were defined for determination of ridge counts. A photographic method was used to capture the facial images. Pearson’s correlation analysis was used to measure the linear dependence between thumbprint ridge density and Nasolabial distances. Stepwise linear multiple regression analysis was used to predict nasolabial distances from thumbprint ridge density. SPSS statistical software version 20 was used for the statistical analysis and a p-value of < 0.05 was set as a level of significance.Results: Results showed that in males left proximal ridge count correlates negatively with nasal length, philtrum length, and upper lip length and mouth width. The upper lip length and nasal width correlate negatively with left ulnar ridge count and right radial ridge counts, respectively. A positive correlation was observed between ulnar ridge count with nasal length and lower vermilion width. In females, appositive correlation was observed only between lower vermilion width and left proximal ridge counts. Left proximal ridge counts predict most of the nasolabial distances in males. In females, only the left proximal ridge counts showed potential in the prediction of facial distances.Conclusion: The study concluded that the thumbprint correlates with facial distances of the nasolabial region. The proximal part of the thumbprint may respond to the same instruction in utero with the lower part of the face, hence leading to the prediction of nasolabial facial distances from the proximal ridge counts among the Hausa population of Nigeria.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
      DOI: 10.12816/0036492
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 5 (2017)
  • The Legal Importance of Blood Alcohol Limits for Driving in German Law
           with a Comparative Study of Emirati and Egyptian Legislation

    • Authors: Abdulsallam A. Bakdash, Roman Bux, Khaled H. Moustafa
      Abstract: Driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs (DUI) is a crime or offence according to the laws of most countries. DUI increases the risk of traffic accidents as well as the severity and outcome of injuries that result from them. Some countries have a sophisticated control system to monitor DUI of alcohol in all traffic accidents. There is variation between different countries regarding the concept of driving under the influence of alcohol as well as the legal limits of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) and the requirements to test the victims of accidents. This paper reviews the limit values for BAC in German traffic law (Administrative Offences Act), which stipulates a BAC value of 0.50 mg/g and a breath alcohol value of 0.25 mg/L as a marginal value for the application of punitive measures. German criminal law defines the minimum BAC values of relative unfitness to drive and absolute unfitness to drive as 0.3 mg/g and 1.10 mg/g, respectively (1.60 mg/g for cyclists).The minimum BAC values representing significant impairment and absolute impairment in criminal cases are 2.00 mg/g and 3.00 mg/g, respectively. Different penalties and legal consequences result according to the BAC level of an offender. In contrast, only eight out of twenty-two Arab countries recognise BAC limit values only in traffic laws. In Jordan, the BAC limit is 0.75 mg/g (0.08 g/dL).in the UAE, the BAC limit is 0.094 mg/g (0.01 g/dL), while Egyptian law does not recognise BAC values in the application of sanctions: the mere presence of alcohol in blood, regardless of its concentration and effect, is a sufficient and adequate condition for punishment. Accordingly, this study encourages lawmakers in Arab countries to define the limit values for BAC when investigating any crime in general and traffic offences in particular, in close cooperation with forensic doctors and toxicologists. It urges them to consider different BAC and their effects in relation to traffic offences. It also encourages them to take into account the principle of hierarchy in criminal liability when a crime is committed under the influence of alcohol.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
      DOI: 10.12816/0037187
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 5 (2017)
  • Analysis of Petroleum Products in Fire Debris Residues by Gas
           Chromatography: A Literature Review

    • Authors: Gurvinder Singh Bumbrah, Rajinder Kumar Sarin, Rakesh Mohan Sharma
      Abstract: This review gives a brief overview of developments in the analysis of petroleum products (PP) in fire debris residues (FDR) by gas chromatography (GC). The review covers different aspects of analysis such as the substrates involved, isolation procedures, column and mobile phase used, and subsequent detection in tabular form. This paper covers detection of PP such as petrol, kerosene, and diesel in various types’ of samples of interest to fire debris analysts. Solid phase microextraction is most frequently used along with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the extraction and identification of PP from FDR. Chemometric tools should be used to improve the significance and reliability of results obtained from the analysis of FDR. However, the potential utility of portable GC-MS in fire debris analysis cannot be ignored, and its proper development and validation is required before using it for this purpose.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
      DOI: 10.12816/0037183
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 5 (2017)
  • Primary Identification Methods and their Effectiveness in Mass Disaster
           Situations: A Literature Review

    • Authors: Naiara M. Gaglietti, Ricardo H. A. Silva
      Abstract: Mass disasters generally result in an elevated number of casualties that need identification. The primary identification methods listed by INTERPOL (DNA, fingerprint and forensic dentistry) have a very important role in helping and speeding up the victim identification process. The present study sought to report mass destruction cases found in the literature published from 2005 to 2015 that have used the primary human identification methods. This study has been done as a literature review using the keywords: disasters, natural disasters, disaster victims, and human identification in a total of 16 selected papers and 13 listed disasters. It has been concluded that the primary identification methods are capable and efficient to perform a safe and satisfactory identification of mass disasters victims, used both separately or in combination.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
      DOI: 10.12816/0037184
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 5 (2017)
  • Author Guidelines: The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic
           Medicine (AJFSFM)

    • Authors: Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine
      Abstract: The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) is a peer-reviewed, open access (CC BY-NC), international journal for publishing original contributions in various fields of forensic science. These fields include, but are not limited to forensic pathology and histochemistry, toxicology(drugs, alcohol, etc.), forensic biology (serology, human DNA profiling, entomology, population genetics), forensic chemistry(inks, paints, dyes, explosives, fire accelerants), psychiatry and hypnotics, forensic anthropology and archeology, forensic odontology, fingerprints and impressions, firearms and tool marks, white collar crimes (counterfeit and forgery; questioned documents), digital forensics; cyber-crimes, criminal justice and crime scene investigation, as well as many other disciplines where science and medicine interact with the law.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
      DOI: 10.12816/0037185
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 5 (2017)
  • Reliability and Analysis of Changes in Bite Marks at Different Time
           Intervals and Temperature Ranges

    • Authors: Parul Khare Sinha, Rakesh Kumar Gorea
      Abstract: Objectives: The purpose of this study is to assess time-dependent changes in the morphology of bitemarks and to investigate the utility of matching bitemarks on both perishable and non-perishable objects with the passage of time at different temperatures. Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted at Maharana Pratap College of Dentistry and Research Centre, Gwalior, India. 20 volunteers were asked to bite 6 items each. These included perishable and nonperishable items. Perishable items were apple, banana and Burfi, (a milk-based popular sweet confectionary) while non-perishable items included wax, clay, and rubber. Photographs were taken with a digital camera at 0-hours and 24-hours after biting these objects at temperature ranges of 24 ºC to 28 ºC and 36 ºC to 40 ºC, respectively. Life-size photographs of these bitten objects were printed on transparent overlays and compared to hand drawn transparencies prepared from suspect dentition using an X-ray viewer. The comparison of all the 960 transparencies was done by two researchers, independently. Results: All objects gave a positive identification of the biter on matching just after biting. After24-hours, all items also showed positive matching except banana and apples. Conclusion: This proposed method is simple, reliable and less technique sensitive. It narrows down the subjectivity of interpretation. It highlights that due to decomposition changes occur in perishable food items and more so in apples and bananas, making bitemarks less reliable evidence.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20
      DOI: 10.12816/0034688
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 5 (2017)
  • Age, Sex and Stature Estimation from Footprint Dimensions

    • Authors: Paurbhi Singh, Baljeet Yadav
      Abstract: Objectives: The present study was carried out to evaluate the utility and reliability of footprint dimensions in age, sex and stature determination in the North Indian population.Materials and Methods: This study was carried out using a sample of 400 people (146 female and 254 male) aged 10-65 years in Uttar Pradesh, North Western state of India. Footprints of both feet were taken bilaterally, and thus a total of 800 prints were obtained. A cluster of 7 measurements were taken carefully with the help of a scientific scale ruler. Five measurements were length dimensions from the most anterior part of the toe (T1–T5) to the mid rear heel point and two were breadth dimensions from both left and right footprints: breadth at ball (BBAL), breadth at heel (BHEL) and 2 indexes: heel-ball Index (HBI) and footprint index (FPI). All data were analyzed statistically using Student’s t-test, regression coefficient and Pearson’s correlation for the estimation of sex on the basis of footprint dimensions.Results: The T1 in left footprints was greater than right footprints in males, while T1 and BBAL were both found to be greater in left footprints than right footprints in females. All the seven foot dimensions were higher in males than females.Conclusion: There were statistically significant differences observed in all footprint dimensions between the male and female footprints except LFPI, LHBI, and RHBI. 
      PubDate: 2017-04-20
      DOI: 10.12816/0034686
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 5 (2017)
  • Postmortem Biochemistry and Toxicology

    • Authors: Robert Flanagan
      Abstract: The aim of postmortem biochemistry and toxicology is either to help establish the cause of death, or to gain information on events immediately before death. If self-poisoning is suspected, the diagnosis may be straightforward and all that could be required is confirmation of the agents involved. However, if the cause of death is not immediately obvious then suspicion of possible poisoning or of conditions such as alcoholic ketoacidosis is of course crucial. On the other hand, it may be important to investigate adherence to prescribed therapy, for example with anticonvulsants or antipsychotics, hence sensitive methods are required. Blood sampling (needle aspiration, peripheral vein, for example femoral, ideally after proximal ligation) before opening the body minimizes the risk of sample contamination with, for example, gut contents or urine. Other specimens (stomach contents, urine, liver, vitreous humor) may also be valuable and may be needed to corroborate unexpected or unusual findings in the absence of other evidence. The site of sampling should always be recorded. The availability of antemortem specimens should not necessarily preclude postmortem sampling. Appropriate sample preservation, transport, and storage are mandatory. Interpretation of analytical toxicology results must take into account what is known of the pharmacokinetics and toxicology of the agent(s) in question, the circumstances under which death occurred including the mechanism of exposure, and other factors such as the stability of the analyte(s) and the analytical methods used. It is important to realise that changes may occur in the composition of body fluids, even peripheral blood, after death. Such changes are likely to be greater after attempted resuscitation, and with centrally-acting drugs with large volumes of distribution given chronically, and may perhaps be minimised by prompt refrigeration of the body and performing the autopsy quickly.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20
      DOI: 10.12816/0034685
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 5 (2017)
  • Challenges Posed by Novel Psychoactive Substances – Middle East

    • Authors: Maciej J. Bogusz
      Abstract: New psychoactive substances (NPS) are defined as substances of abuse, either in a pure form or a preparation, that are not controlled by the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs or the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, but which may pose a public health threat. In this context, the term “new” does not necessarily refer to new inventions but to substances that have recently become available or popular in a given society or country. This definition indicates that the problem of NPS is not new; however, the availability of any information via new communication technologies in the 21st century has enabled the spread of unwanted and socially harmful information, like information on the commercial availability of various NPS, offered in rising amounts and brands.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20
      DOI: 10.12816/0034687
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 5 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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