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Indonesian Journal of Chemistry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.209
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1411-9420 - ISSN (Online) 2460-1578
Published by Universitas Gadjah Mada Homepage  [38 journals]
  • The Modification of PVDF Membrane via Crosslinking with Chitosan and
           Glutaraldehyde as the Crosslinking Agent

    • Authors: Romaya Sitha Silitonga, Nurul Widiastuti, Juhana Jaafar, Ahmad Fauzi Ismail, Muhammad Nidzhom Zainol Abidin, Ihsan Wan Azelee, Mahesan Naidu
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) has outstanding properties such as high thermal stability, resistance to acid solvents and good mechanical strength. Due to its properties, PVDF is widely used as a membrane matrix. However, PVDF membrane is hydrophobic properties, so as for specific applications, the surface of membrane needs to be modified to become hydrophilic. This research aims to modify PVDF membrane surface with chitosan and glutaraldehyde as a crosslinker agent. The FTIR spectra showed that the modified membrane has a peak at 1655 cm-1, indicating the imine group (–N=C)- that was formed due to the crosslink between amine group from chitosan and aldehyde group from glutaraldehyde. Results showed that the contact angle of the modified membrane decreases to 77.22° indicated that the membrane hydrophilic properties (< 90°) were enhanced. Prior to the modification, the contact angle of the PVDF membrane was 90.24°, which shows hydrophobic properties (> 90°). The results of porosity, Ɛ (%) for unmodified PVDF membrane was 55.39%, while the modified PVDF membrane has a porosity of 81.99%. Similarly, by modifying the PVDF membrane, pure water flux increased from 0.9867 L/m2h to 1.1253 L/m2h. The enhancement of porosity and pure water flux for the modified PVDF membrane was due to the improved surface hydrophilicity of PVDF membrane.
      PubDate: 2018-02-28
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.25127
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • One-Pot Eco-Safe Saccharin-Catalyzed Procedure for Expedient and
           Convenient Synthesis of Dihydropyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole,
           Tetrahydrobenzo[b]pyran and Pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidinone Scaffolds as a Green
           and Versatile Catalyst

    • Authors: Farzaneh Mohamadpour, Mojtaba Lashkari, Nourallah Hazeri
      Pages: 7 - 17
      Abstract: A green and facile saccharin-catalyzed procedure is developed for the one-pot convenient synthesis of dihydropyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole, tetrahydrobenzo[b]pyran and pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidinone scaffolds via multi-component tandem Knoevenagel cyclocondensation reaction. This procedure has the chief advantages of green, inexpensive and readily available catalyst, high atom-economy, high to quantitative yields and the reaction procedure is mild and involves facile workup procedure to obtain the desired products in short reaction times.
      PubDate: 2018-02-28
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.28450
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • Physical Mixture Interaction of Acetaminophenol with Naringenin

    • Authors: Normyzatul Akmal Abd Malek, Hamizah Mohd Zaki, Mohammad Noor Jalil
      Pages: 18 - 25
      Abstract: The interaction of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) with other compounds will affect drugs stability, toxicity, modified dissolution profiles or may form a new compound with the different crystal structure. Acetaminophenol (APAP), the most common drug used widely (also known as Panadol) was mixed with Naringenin (NR) to glance for a new phase of interactions leading to new compound phase. The amide-acid supramolecular heterosynthon; N-H…O interaction between acid and the respective base were observed in the APAP-NR mixture blends. The interaction was prepared by the binary interaction from neat grinding and liquid-assisted grinding techniques at a different stoichiometry of binary mixture ratio of APAP-NR which were 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 molar ratio. The interaction was estimated using Group Contribution Method (GCM) and physicochemical properties were characterized by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The GCM calculation gave good interaction strength at 212.93 MPa1/2. The ATR-FTIR, DSC and PXRD results obtained revealed an interaction with new phase formed.
      PubDate: 2018-02-28
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.26732
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • An Ellagic Acid Derivative and Its Antioxidant Activity of Stem Bark
           Extracts of Syzygium polycephalum Miq. (Myrtaceae)

    • Authors: Tukiran Tukiran, Andika Pramudya Wardana, Nurul Hidayati, Kuniyoshi Shimizu
      Pages: 26 - 34
      Abstract: The investigation of the Syzygium polycephalum Miq. (Myrtaceae) aimed to assess the phytochemical contents and antioxidant activity of the chloroform fraction. In this study, the fraction was obtained from methanol extract of S. polycephalum stem bark partitionated by chloroform. An ellagic acid derivative was successively isolated from the chloroform fraction. The molecular structure of isolated compound was elucidated and established as 3,4,3’-tri-O-methylellagic acid through extensive spectroscopic studies including UV-Vis, FTIR, NMR and LC-MS analyses and by comparison with literature data. The finding of the isolated compound is the first time from the plant, although the isolated compound previously have been found in the other Syzygium species such as S. cumini together with ellagic acid and 3,3’-di-O-methylellagic acid. The chloroform fraction, isolated compound, and vitamin C showed antioxidant activity against 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) with IC50 value of 163.6, 72.1, and 11.5 μg/mL, respectively.
      PubDate: 2018-02-28
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.25467
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • Cytotoxic Triterpenoids from the Stembark of Aglaia argentea

    • Authors: Ace Tatang Hidayat, Kindi Farabi, Desi Harneti, Nurlelasari Nurlelasari, Rani Maharani, Ida Nurfarida, Unang Supratman, Yoshihito Shiono
      Pages: 35 - 42
      Abstract: Four dammarane-type triterpenoid compounds, dammar-24-en-3a-ol (1), 3-epi-cabraleahydroxy lactone (2), (E)-25-hydroperoxydammar-23-en-3b,20-diol (3), and dammar-24-en-3β,20-diol (4), were isolated from the methanolic extract of the stembark of Aglaia argentea. Compounds 1-4 were isolated for first time from this plant. The structure of isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including one and two-dimensional NMR as well as mass spectrometric analysis. Compounds, 1-4, along with a known synthetic analog, 20-hydroxy-dammar-24-en-3-on (5), were evaluated their cytotoxic activity against P-388 murine leukemia cells in vitro. The IC50 values of compounds, 1-5 were 9.09 ± 0.10, 68.53 ± 0.08, 5.89 ± 0.08, 22.40 ± 0.11, and 11.53 ± 0.08 µg/mL, respectively. Among the dammarane-type triterpenoids, compounds 1, 3, 4 and 5 having opened side chain showed the stronger activity, wheres compound 2 with cyclic side chain showed weak or no activity. In addition, compound 3 showed strongest activity, indicate that hydroperoxy group at side chain increase cytotoxic activity.
      PubDate: 2018-02-28
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.25052
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) Fingerprint Combined with
           Chemometrics for Identification of Metabolites Content and Biological
           Activities of Curcuma aeruginosa

    • Authors: Dewi Anggraini Septaningsih, Latifah Kosim Darusman, Farit Mochamad Afendi, Rudi Heryanto
      Pages: 43 - 52
      Abstract: Curcuma aeruginosa is known as one of the components of herbal medicine with various biological activities. This research aims to identify the metabolites content of C. aeruginosa related to their biological activities using LC-MS fingerprint combined with chemometrics. C. aeruginosa from 3 areas in Java were collected and macerated with ethanol and then analyzed with LC-MS. Along with this analysis, the antioxidant activity of all samples was determined using CUPRAC method, and the toxicity was determined using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT), and chemometric method was used Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least square (PLS). Metabolites profiles showed 175 predicted compounds, in which the dominant compounds are from the sesquiterpene of Curcuma genus. The PCA metabolites profiles can separate the samples by their location of origin. Interpretation of the correlation between metabolites profiles and their bioactivities was determined using PLS technique. The results showed that the toxicity of samples was exerted by compounds with ion mass of 312.28 and 248.15, which have the highest antioxidant and toxicity potentials. Compounds with ion mass of 248.15 were predicted to be 9-Oxo-neoprocurcumenol, 7α,11α,-Epoxy-5β-hydroxy-9-guaiaen-8-one, Curcumenolactone A, or Curcumenolactone B. While compound with ion mass of 312.28 was predicted to tetrahydro-bisdemethoxycurcumin.
      PubDate: 2018-02-28
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.25456
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • A Green Synthesis of a Novel Calix[4]Resorcinarene from
           7-Hydroxycitronellal Using Microwave Irradiation

    • Authors: Ratnaningsih Eko Sardjono, Iqbal Musthapa, Iis Rosliana, Fitri Khoerunnisa, Galuh Yuliani
      Pages: 53 - 59
      Abstract: A new versatile macromolecule cyclic C-3,7-dimethyl-7-hydroxycalix[4]resorcinarene (CDHHK4R) has been synthesized from a fragrance agent, 7-hydroxycitronellal, via microwave irradiation. The reaction utilized a domestic microwave oven at various irradiation time and power to yield an optimum condition. As a comparison, the conventional heating method was also employed for the synthesis of the same calix[4]resorcinarene. Compared to the conventional method, microwave-assisted reaction effectively reduced the reaction time, the amount of energy consumption and the waste production. It is found that the synthesis of CDHHK4R by microwave irradiation yielded 77.55% of product, higher than by conventional heating which was only 62.17%.
      PubDate: 2018-02-28
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.25466
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • Structure-Activity Relationship Study on the Ethyl p-Methoxycinnamate as
           an Anti-Inflammatory Agent

    • Authors: Ismiarni Komala, Supandi Supandi, Nurhasni Nurhasni, Ofa Suzanti Betha, Eka Putri, Syarifatul Mufidah, Muhammad Fikry Awaludin, Mida Fahmi, Muhammad Reza, Nurkhayati Putri Indriyani
      Pages: 60 - 65
      Abstract: Ethyl p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC) (1) has been isolated as a major compound from the rhizome of Kaempferia galanga together with the other compound ethyl cinnamate (2). As reported in the literature, EPMC (1) exhibited a significant in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. In this research, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of compounds 1 and 2 by using anti-denaturation of heat bovine serum albumin (BSA) method. In order to analyze active sites that are responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity, therefore, it is necessary to conduct structural modification of EPMC (1). The structural modification was performed through re-esterification reaction by using conventional and assistance of the unmodified microwave oven. Evaluation of the results of the bioassay indicated that the ester and methoxy functional groups of EPMC (1) play an important role for the anti-inflammatory activity.
      PubDate: 2018-02-28
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.26162
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • Antidiabetic Activities and Identification of Chemical Compound from
           Samama (Anthocephalus macrophyllus (Roxb) Havil)

    • Authors: Laela Nur Anisah, Wasrin Syafii, Gustan Pari, Rita Kartika Sari
      Pages: 66 - 74
      Abstract: Samama (Anthocephalus macrophyllus) is one of a pioneer indigenous fast growing species in Indonesia which have been used as traditional medicine for various diseases. The objectives were to determine the yield extract, to analyze their antidiabetic activity by inhibition assay for α-glucosidase enzyme activity and chemical analysis with GCMS. Extraction of leaves, bark and wood samples were done by using ethanol 95%. Fractionation the most active  ethanol extract was conducted by using n-hexane and ethyl acetate. The yield of ethanol extracts in leaves, bark and wood were 13.90%, 12.87%, and 2.18% respectively. Based on antidiabetic activity assay, the bark ethanol extract was the most active extract by the IC50 value of 5.86 μg mL-1. Phytochemical analysis on bark ethanol extracts showed that they contained flavonoid, quinon, triterpenoid, saponin and tannin which were assumed have high contribution in antidiabetic activities. The result of fractionation ethanol extract bark showed that the ethyl acetate fraction was the most active fraction (IC50 6.82 μg mL-1). GCMS analysis indicated the presence of dominant phenolic compounds such as pyrocatechol, antiarol, isopropyl myristate and phenol in which were suspected have antidiabetic activity. These results strongly suggested that ethyl acetate fraction of Samama bark was a potential natural source for antidiabetic agents.
      PubDate: 2018-02-28
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.25492
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • The Effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Addition on
           1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) Biodegradation by
           Brown-rot Fungus Fomitopsis pinicola

    • Authors: Atmira Sariwati, Adi Setyo Purnomo
      Pages: 75 - 81
      Abstract: Effect of addition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) biodegradation by Fomitopsis pinicola had been investigated. P. aeruginosa was added into F. pinicola culture at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 mL (1 mL ≈ 1.53 x 109 P. aeruginosa bacteria cells/mL culture). The addition of 10 mL of P. aeruginosa showed the highest DDT biodegradation approximately 68% during 7 days incubation in Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) medium, which was higher than biodegradation of DDT by F. pinicola only (42%) at the same incubation time. 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) and 1-chloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDMU) were detected as metabolites from DDT biodegradation by mixed cultures of F. pinicola and P. aeruginosa.
      PubDate: 2018-02-28
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.25158
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • The Physico-Mechanical Properties and Release Kinetics of Eugenol in
           Chitosan-Alginate Polyelectrolyte Complex Films as Active Food Packaging

    • Authors: Baiq Amelia Riyandari, Suherman Suherman, Dwi Siswanta
      Pages: 82 - 91
      Abstract: A study of eugenol release and its kinetics model from chitosan-alginate polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) films has been conducted. Some factors that affected the eugenol release were also studied, including the composition of chitosan-alginate PEC and the concentration of eugenol. The chitosan-alginate-eugenol PEC films were synthesized at pH ± 4.0, then the PEC films were characterized using a Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectrophotometer. An investigation of the films’ properties was also conducted, including morphology analysis using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential thermal analysis (DTA) / thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), mechanical strength, transparency testing, water absorption, and water vapor permeability. The release of eugenol was investigated through in vitro assay in ethanol 96% (v/v) for four days, and the concentration of eugenol was measured using an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer. The characterization of the films using FTIR showed that the formation of PEC occurred through ionic interaction between the amine groups (–NH3+)of the chitosan and the carboxylate groups (–COO–) of the alginate. The result showed that the composition of chitosan-alginate PEC and the concentration of eugenol can affect the release of eugenol from PEC films. A higher concentration of alginate and eugenol could increase the concentration of eugenol that was released from the films. The mechanism for the release of eugenol from chitosan-alginate PEC films followed the Korsmeyer-Peppas model with an n value of < 0.5, which means the release mechanism for eugenol was controlled by a Fickian diffusion process. The antioxidant activity assay of the films using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method resulted in a high radical scavenging activity (RSA) value of 55.99% in four days.
      PubDate: 2018-02-28
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.26525
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan Linked by Methylene Bridge and
           Schiff Base of 4,4-Diaminodiphenyl Ether-Vanillin

    • Authors: Ahmad Fatoni, Poedji Loekitowati Hariani, Hermansyah Hermansyah, Aldes Lesbani
      Pages: 92 - 101
      Abstract: The synthesis chitosan-methylene bridge-Schiff base of 4,4-diaminodiphenyl ether-vanillin using casting method has been done. The aims of this research were modification chitosan with Schiff base of 4,4-diaminodiphenyl ether-vanillin, formaldehyde and its characterization using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM analysis, 1H-NMR and X-Ray Diffraction analysis. The first step was a synthesis of modified chitosan between chitosan and Schiff base of 4,4-diaminodiphenyl ether-vanillin. The second step was chitosan modified Schiff base of 4,4-diaminodiphenyl ether-vanillin then reacted with formaldehyde through casting method. The result showed that chitosan can be modified with Schiff base of 4,4-diaminodiphenyl ether-vanillin and formaldehyde and this modified chitosan can be linked by methylene bridge (-NH-CH2-NH-) and had azomethine group (-C=N-). The functional group of –C=N in modified chitosan before and after adding formaldehyde appeared at a constant wavenumber of 1597 cm-1. The functional group C-N in methylene bridge detected at 1388 and 1496 cm-1. The chitosan-Schiff base of 4,4-diaminodiphenyl ether-vanillin and Chitosan-methylene bridge-Schiff base of 4,4-diaminodiphenyl ether-vanillin had index crystalline (%)16.04 and 25.76, respectively. The chemical sift of signal proton azomethine group (-C=N-) in modified chitosan detected at 8.44–8.48 and 9.77 ppm. Proton from methylene bridge in modified chitosan appeared at 4.97–4.99 and 3.75 ppm. Surface morphology chitosan-methylene bridge-Schiff base of 4,4-diaminodiphenylether-vanillin had dense surfaces, mostly uniform and regular in shape.
      PubDate: 2018-02-28
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.25866
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • Synthesis of Chalcone Derivatives and Their in vitro Anticancer Test
           Against Breast (T47D) and Colon (WiDr) Cancer Cell Line

    • Authors: Chairil Anwar, Yogo Dwi Prasetyo, Sabirin Matsjeh, Winarto Haryadi, Eti Nurwening Sholikhah, Nendrowati Nendrowati
      Pages: 102 - 107
      Abstract: The synthesis of chalcone derivatives as target compounds and anticancer test against breast (T47D) and colon (WiDr) cell line had been performed. The synthesis was performed by Claisen-Schmidt condensation by using acetophenone and benzaldehyde derivatives. The anticancer activity test of chalcone derivatives was carried out by MTT assay against T47D and WiDr cell lines. The synthesis was started by reacting 4-hydroxyacetophenone and benzaldehyde derivatives such as p-anisaldehyde (chalcone A [(E)-4'-hydroxy-4-methoxychalcone]), veratraldehyde (chalcone B [(E)-4'-hydroxy-3,4-dimethoxychalcone]), 4-chlorobenzaldehyde (chalcone C [(E)-4'-hydroxy-4-chlorochalcone]) and 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone with 4-chlorobenzaldehyde (chalcone D [(E)-2',4'-dihydroxy-4-chlorochalcone]) in methanol as solvent. The synthesis was carried out in alkaline condition (KOH) by stirring the mixture at room temperature for 48 h. The structures of products were identified by FTIR, GC-MS, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectrometers. The results showed that the chalcone derivatives (A-D) were yielded in 96; 97; 96; and 93%, respectively as yellow solid. The anticancer test indicated that the chalcone D was the most active towards T47D cell line with IC50 of 42.66 μg/mL and the chalcone C was the most active against WiDr cell line with IC50 of 20.42 μg/mL.
      PubDate: 2018-02-28
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.26864
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • Synthesis and Kinetic Study of the Urea Controlled Release Composite
           Material: Sodium Lignosulfonate from Isolation of Wood Sawdust-Sodium

    • Authors: Arif Cahyo Imawan, Yehezkiel Steven Kurniawan, Muhammad Fernadi Lukman, Jumina Jumina, Triyono Triyono, Dwi Siswanta
      Pages: 108 - 115
      Abstract: A synthesis and kinetic study of the urea controlled-release composite material based on isolated Na-lignosulfonate, Na-alginate and tapioca was carried out. This experiment’s aims were to isolate Na-lignosulfonate from wood sawdust and to applicate this isolated Na-lignosulfonate, along with tapioca and Na-alginate as urea control release composite material. A kinetic study of urea released from the composite materials was also conducted. Na-lignosulfonate was isolated by Kraft lignin method to give a brown solid yield of 16.92% and was characterized by FT-IR spectrophotometer and SEM-EDX. The composite materials were synthesized by blending urea as the active compound with composite material as the carrier compound. Three types of material were prepared: complete material (A), low-concentration Na-lignosulfonate material (B) and material without tapioca (C). The composite material had a spherical form with 0.79 mm radius and 2.16 mm swollen radius. Urea content inside material was 40.425 mg urea/g material. The urea diffusivity coefficient for material A, B, and C were 7.27 x 10–6; 15.50 x 10–6 and 0.94 x 10–6 m2 h–1, respectively. Modelling analysis showed the experiment obeyed around only 15% of the Korsmeyer–Peppas model, but there was good correlation (80%) with the unsteady-state diffusion model.
      PubDate: 2018-02-28
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.26597
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • A New Thiourea Compound as Potential Ionophore for Metal Ion Sensor

    • Authors: Fatimatul Akma Awang Ngah, Emma Izzati Zakariah, Imran Fakhar, Nurul Izzaty Hassan, Lee Yook Heng, Bohari Yamin, Siti Aishah Hasbullah
      Pages: 116 - 120
      Abstract: A new thiourea compound, 2,2-oxybis(ethyl)-4-(1-naphthyl)-3-thiourea 3 has been synthesized and characterized by using FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and MS spectroscopy. The binding properties of with various cations were also carried out using ‘naked eye’, UV-vis and 1H-NMR titration experiments. This compound exhibited effective binding for Hg2+ in the presence of other cations, such as Ag+, Ni2+, Sn2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Cu2+, and Pb2+. Continuous variation titration experiments were conducted in order to determine the binding behavior for Hg2+. Stoichiometry of the host and guest binding interactions were also determined using continuous variation titration experiments and plotting molar-ratio curves. Pearson Product moment method was employed to calculate the correlation coefficient, and non-linear regression equation was used to calculate dissociation constant Kd. Molar-ratio and binding constant data substantiated the presence of binding sites for the compound 3.
      PubDate: 2018-02-28
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.27078
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • Synthesis of A Novel Carrier Compound Thiazoethyl Methyl Eugenoxyacetate
           from Eugenol and Its Use in the Bulk Liquid Membrane Technique

    • Authors: Muhammad Cholid Djunaidi, Pratama Jujur Wibawa, Ratna Hari Murti
      Pages: 121 - 126
      Abstract: Research into the synthesis and use of a novel carrier compound, thiazoethyl methyl eugenoxyacetic acid (TMEAA) for selective transport of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III) metal ions in the bulk liquid membrane (BLM) technique was conducted. TMEAA was synthesized from eugenol. Eugenol was acidified into eugenoxyacetic acid and subsequently esterified using 4-methyl-5-thiazoethanol. Analysis of the result was performed using GC-MS and FTIR. The TMEAA obtained was liquid, viscous, blackish-brown and fragrant, with a yield of 88%. This compound was soluble in benzene and chloroform but insoluble in methanol. The GC-MS analysis result showed the presence of a single peak, with a retention time of 26.5 min and an area of 100%, while the disappearance of vibration mode at 1727 cm-1 was attributed to acid absorption and the FTIR spectrum indicated that formation of an ester group had occurred. TMEAA was used as a carrier compound in the BLM technique to transport Cu(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III), using chloroform as a solvent. The results showed that TMEAA was more selective for Cu(II) and Cd(II) than Cr(III). Moreover, the research proved that N and S groups of TMEAA were selective for Cu (II) and Cd (II).
      PubDate: 2018-02-28
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.25075
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • Improvement of Cycling Performance of Na2/3Co2/3Mn1/3O2 Cathode by
           PEDOT/PSS Surface Coating for Na Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Yatim Lailun Ni’mah, Ju Hsiang Cheng, Ming Yao Cheng, Wei Nien Su, Bing Joe Hwang
      Pages: 127 - 136
      Abstract: The surface-modified Na2/3Co2/3Mn1/3O2 is coated with a conductive Poly (3,4-Ethylene dioxy thiophene)-poly (styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) polymer, and their resulting electrochemical properties were investigated as Na-ion battery cathode. The surface-modified Na2/3Co2/3Mn1/3O2 cathode material exhibits a high discharge capacity and good rate capability due to enhanced electron transport by surface PEDOT/PSS. The presence of PEDOT/PSS surface layer suppresses the growth of a resistive layer, while the dissolution of transition metals of the active cathode materials is inhibited as well. The resulting surface-modified Na2/3Co2/3Mn1/3O2 shows superior cycling performance, which is much stable than the pristine one as being the Na-ion battery cathode.
      PubDate: 2018-02-28
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.24893
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • Spatial Distribution of Heavy Metals in the Surface Sediments of the
           Southern Coast of Pacitan, Indonesia

    • Authors: Defri Yona, Mochamad Arif Zainul Fuad, Nurin Hidayati
      Pages: 137 - 144
      Abstract: This study was conducted to analyze the spatial distribution of heavy metals from four different coastal areas in southern Pacitan, Indonesia: Pantai Watu Karung (WK), Pantai Teleng Ria (TL), Pantai Pancer (TP) dan Pantai Soge (SG). Data collected in this study included: temperature, salinity, DO, pH, sediment, organic matter and heavy metals in the sediments (Pb, Hg and Cd). The results showed different distribution patterns of heavy metals. Heavy metal concentrations, especially Pb and Hg, were found to be higher in Pantai Soge, while the concentration of Cd was higher in Pantai Pancer. An ANOVA test showed the distributions of Pb and Cd were significantly different (p < 0.01) between sampling sites. Variability of the physicochemical parameters influenced the variabilities of heavy metal concentrations among sampling sites. Overall, heavy metal concentrations in the study areas are rather low; however, attention is still needed due to heavy activities in the coastal areas of southern Pacitan that can contribute to heavy metal pollution.
      PubDate: 2018-02-28
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.22400
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • Activated Carbon from Spent Brewery Barley Husks for Cadmium Ion
           Adsorption from Aqueous Solution

    • Authors: Ilesanmi Osasona, Kayode Aiyedatiwa, Jonathan Johnson, Oluwabamise Lekan Faboya
      Pages: 145 - 152
      Abstract: This study investigated the feasibility of using acid activated carbon prepared from brewery spent barley husks for the adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solution. The effects of operation parameters such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, concentration and temperature were verified. The amount of cadmium adsorbed increased with increase in solution pH, initial solution concentration and with the amount of adsorbent dosed. A time of 5 minutes was required for attainment of equilibrium. The equilibrium data obtained were analysed using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and the data were better described by Langmuir model with correlation coefficient of 0.9183. The thermodynamic parameters revealed that the removal of cadmium by the activated carbon was exothermic and spontaneous. Thus, activated carbon obtained from brewery spent barley husk can be employed as an economically viable low-cost adsorbent for removing cadmium from aqueous solution. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-28
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.22422
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • Synthesis, Radiochemical Purity Control and Stability of
           Scandium-46-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (46Sc-NOTA)

    • Authors: Duyeh Setiawan, Iwan Hastiawan, Asri Nurul Bashiroh
      Pages: 153 - 158
      Abstract: Radiotherapy is one of healing method of cancer using radionuclide elements. The radionuclide scandium-46 (46Sc) has a half-life of 83.8 days, beta emission 0.35 MeV and gamma emission 899 and 1120 keV is suitable for studying the chemical aspects, synthesis and stability of scandium complex for radiotherapy. The purposes of this research are synthesis of scandium-46-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (46Sc-NOTA) labeled compound based on formation of a complex bonding in stoichiometry between radioisotope 46Sc and 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) ligand, and radiochemical purity and stability assay of 46Sc-NOTA. In this research, conducted that optimum moles several variables, namely moles comparison and pH effect was used. The result are optimum conclusion of mole comparison between radioisotope and ligand was 1:2 (46Sc : NOTA) and environment at pH 5. The radiochemical purity and stability assay of 46Sc-NOTA was carried out by paper chromatography and the result showed that 46Sc-NOTA has radiochemical purity of 99.09 ± 0.2% and remained stable for 9 days.
      PubDate: 2018-02-28
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.24467
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • Synthesis of Zeolite from Sugarcane Bagasse Ash Using
           Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide as Structure Directing Agent

    • Authors: Sriatun Sriatun, Taslimah Taslimah, Linda Suyati
      Pages: 159 - 165
      Abstract: The purpose of this research is to synthesize zeolite from sugarcane bagasse ash using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as structure directing agent. This research used cetyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant to invent the high porosity, surface area, acidity and thermal stability of synthesized zeolite. The Silica was extracted by alkaline fusion using sodium hydroxide solution. The synthesis was conducted by hydrothermal process at 100 °C for 7 days, ageing process for 24 h and calcination at 500 °C for 5 h. The ratio of Si/Al (v/v) was 1, 15 and 25, meanwhile the concentration of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide was 5x10-4 M, 1x10-3 M and 1x10-2 M. The result showed all of product have strong absorbance at 950–1050 cm-1 and 620–690 cm-1, 420–460 cm-1, double ring at 520–570 cm-1, pore opening at 300–370 cm-1. Vibration of –OH as silanol group or water was indicated by broad absorbance at 3400–3450 cm-1. The diffractograms XRD showed that the product had high crystallinity. The composition of product on ratio Si/Al 1 with concentration of cetyltrimethylammonium 10-2 M is sodalite, the ratio Si/Al 15 and 25 are NaP1 and SiO2 quartz and contain 12.23% and 12.19% of Si, 4.17% and 13.18% of Al, respectively. Observation on SEM revealed that the crystal produced using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide were homogenous and regular in shape.
      PubDate: 2018-02-28
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.22197
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • Hydrocracking of α-Cellulose Using Co, Ni, and Pd Supported on
           Mordenite Catalysts

    • Authors: Wega Trisunaryanti, Triyono Triyono, Ria Armunanto, Lathifah Puji Hastuti, Desinta Dwi Ristiana, Resi Vita Ginting
      Pages: 166 - 172
      Abstract: Hydrocracking of α-cellulose has been conducted in a semi-batch reactor at 400, 450, and 500 °C with hydrogen flow (30 mL/min.) for 4 h. Mordenite (MOR) and Co, Ni and Pd metal supported on the MOR were used as solid catalysts. The catalysts were characterized using X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the physical-chemical properties. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) were used to analyze the amount of metal impregnated on the catalysts. The liquid product was analyzed using Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). Thermal hydrocracking was also conducted at 450 °C with the amount of liquid product was 37.86 wt.%. The highest liquid conversion obtained by mordenite catalyst was 94.66 wt.% at 450 °C and the highest liquid conversion (98.08 wt.%) was reached by Pd/MOR catalyst at 400 °C.
      PubDate: 2018-02-28
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.26491
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) Analysis of
           Intermolecular Hydrogen Bond Interaction in "Phosphorylated Nata De Coco -

    • Authors: Sitti Rahmawati, Cynthia Linaya Radiman, Muhamad Abdulkadir Martoprawiro
      Pages: 173 - 178
      Abstract: This study aims to study the conformation, the hydrogen bond network, and the stabilities of all the possible intermolecular interactions in phosphorylated nata de coco membrane with water (NDCF-(H2O)n, n = 1-5). Analysis of natural bond orbital (NBO) was performed to measure the relative strength of the hydrogen bonding interactions, charge transfer, particularly the interactions of n-σ * O-H and to take into account the effect on the stabilities of the molecular structure. All calculation were performed using density functional theory (DFT) method, at B3LYP functional level of theory and 6-311 G** basis set. The charge transfer between the lone pair of a proton acceptor to the anti-bonding orbital of the proton donor provides the substantial to the stabilization of the hydrogen bonds. Interaction between NDCF and (H2O)5 was strongest with the stabilization energy of 37.73 kcal/mol, that indicate the ease of donating lone pair electrons. The contributions of each hydrogen bond to the stability of the complex have been analyzed.
      PubDate: 2018-02-28
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.25170
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • Molecular Docking Analysis of Ginger Active Compound on Transient Receptor
           Potential Cation Channel Subfamily V Member 1 (TRPV1)

    • Authors: Fifteen Aprila Fajrin, Agung Endro Nugroho, Rina Susilowati, Arief Nurrochmad
      Pages: 179 - 185
      Abstract: Ginger had been reported to ameliorate painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) in an animal model. Gingerol and shogaol were active compounds of ginger that potentially act on transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), a key receptor in PDN. This study aims to predict the binding of gingerol and shogaol to TRPV1 using an in silico model. The ligands of the docking study were 3 chemical compounds of each gingerol and shogaol, i.e. 6-shogaol, 8-shogaol, 10-shogaol, 6-gingerol, 8 gingerol and 10-gingerol. Capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, was used as a native ligand. The TRPV1 structure was taken from Protein Data Bank (ID 3J9J). The docking analysis was performed using Autodock Vina. The result showed that among the ginger active compounds, 6-shogaol had the strongest binding energy (-7.10 kcal/mol) to TRPV1. The 6-shogaol lacked the potential hydrogen bond to Ile265 of TRPV1 protein, which capsacin had. However, it's binding energy towards TRPV1 was not significantly different compared to capsaicin. Therefore, 6-shogaol had potential to be developed as a treatment for PDN.
      PubDate: 2018-02-28
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.28172
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • The Role of E27-K31 and E56-K10 Salt-Bridge Pairs in the Unfolding
           Mechanism of the B1 Domain of Protein G

    • Authors: Tony Ibnu Sumaryada, Kania Nur Sawitri, Setyanto Tri Wahyudi
      Pages: 186 - 193
      Abstract: Molecular dynamics simulations of the B1 fragment of protein G (56 residues) have been performed at 325, 350, 375, 400, 450 and 500 K for 10 ns. An analysis of its structural and energetic parameters has indicated that the unfolding process of the GB1 protein begins at 900 ps of a 500-K simulation. The unfolding process is initiated when hydrogen bonds in the hydrophobic core region are broken; it continues with the α-helix transformation into coils and turns and ends with the destruction of the β-hairpins. These unfolding events are consistent with the hybrid model of the protein folding/unfolding mechanism, which is a compromise between the hydrophobic core collapse model and the zipper model. Salt-bridge pairs were found to play an important role in the unfolding process by maintaining the integrity of the tertiary structure of the protein. The breaking (or disappearance) of the salt-bridge pairs E27–K31 (in the α-helix) and E56–K10 (connecting β4 and β1) has resulted in the destruction of secondary structures and indicates the beginning of the unfolding process. Our results also suggest that the unfolding process in this simulation was not a complete denaturation of the protein because some β-hairpins remained
      PubDate: 2018-02-28
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.23934
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
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