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Journal Cover Indonesian Journal of Chemistry
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1411-9420 - ISSN (Online) 2460-1578
   Published by Universitas Gadjah Mada Homepage  [27 journals]
  • Formation of Ketoprofen-Malonic Acid Cocrystal by Solvent Evaporation

    • Authors: Yudi Wicaksono, Dwi Setyawan, Siswandono Siswandono
      Pages: 161 - 166
      Abstract: The purpose of this work was to explore the formation of ketoprofen-malonic acid cocrystal by solvent evaporation method. Early detection of cocrystal formation was conducted by hot stage microscopy and solid-liquid phase diagram. Cocrystal were prepared by solvent evaporation method by using isopropyl alcohol as solvent. Characterization of cocrystal was done by Powder X-Ray Diffractometry (PXRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results of hot stage microscopic and solid-liquid phase diagram indicated formation of ketoprofen-malonic acid cocrystal. PXRD and DSC measurements showed stoichiometric ratio of cocrystal ketoprofen-malonic acid (2:1). The ketoprofen-malonic acid cocrystal had melting point at 86.2 °C and unique peaks of PXRD pattern at 2θ of 6.1°, 17.8°, 23.2° and 28.6°. FTIR spectra indicated the formation of cocrystal due to interaction of C=O ketone group of ketoprofen with MA molecule. SEM images show that ketoprofen-malonic acid cocrystal have multi-shaped particles with rough surfaces.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.24884
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Validation of a Non-Specific Dye Real-Time PCR Assay for Porcine
           Adulteration in Meatball Using ND5 Primer

    • Authors: Tri Joko Raharjo, Ery Nourika Alfiraza, Esti Enjelina, Deni Pranowo
      Pages: 167 - 174
      Abstract: Porcine adulteration in meatball samples were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), based on the ND5 primer obtained by previous study. This work consisted of three stages which were annealing temperature optimization, method validation, and application. DNA template was extracted using phenol-CIAA (chloroform-iso amyl alcohol) method. The optimum annealing temperature for ND5 primers (forward primer 5'-CATTCGCCTCACTCACATTAACC-3' and reverse primer 5'-AAGAGAGAGTTCTACGGTCTGTAG-3') was 58.0 °C, obtained after testing annealing at 50.5 to 59.5 °C gradient temperature with 5 °C interval. Melting curve analysis was done at 65.0 to 95.0 °C, with increasing temperature for 0.5 °C per 2 sec. Method was validated for its specificity, precision and limit of detection. RT-PCR method with ND5 primers produced 227 bp DNA fragment with 78.50 °C Tm value. From eight commercial meatball samples, one was detected containing porcine. The methods showed high specificity and precision, with experimentally determined limits for porcine were no less than 1%.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.22646
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Performance Test of K0-NAA and Relative Method for Analysis of Al, Mg, K
           Nuclides in SRM Lake Sediment Sample

    • Authors: Sunardi Sunardi, Darsono Darsono
      Pages: 175 - 181
      Abstract: A performance test has been conducted of k0-NAA and relative methods for analysis of Al, Mg, K nuclides in SRM lake sediment sample (SRM SL-3). The performance test included validation, accuracy and precision tests, as well as t and F test. This test is done in order to know the performance of the both methods. Test results on validation test of both the k0-NAA and relative methods obtained were still in good performance with z-score values within the range of -2 ≤ x ≤ 2, in the accuracy and precision test showed that the two methods used were still reliable or passed the test for elemental analysis. The results of the evaluation t-test were at 95% confidence level showed that both methods were no significant differences in the test results, and the evaluating the F test showed that there are no differences in the accuracy between the two methods. The performance test data are expected to be used by practitioners and users of neutron activation analysis services as the reference option of analysis method to optimize the objectives to be achieved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.24187
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Characteristics of Fresh Fruit Bunch Yield and the Physicochemical
           Qualities of Palm Oil during Storage in North Sumatra, Indonesia

    • Authors: Mohammad Basyuni, Nofrizal Amri, Lollie Agustina Pancawaraswati Putri, Indra Syahputra, Deni Arifiyanto
      Pages: 182 - 190
      Abstract: This study examines the fresh fruit bunch (FFB) yield and the effect of fruit storage on the quality of palm oil in Bangun Bandar Estate, Dolok Masihul, North Sumatra, with special reference to the physicochemical parameters. The quality of palm oil is mostly determined by the color, free fatty acids (FFAs), moisture, impurities, carotene content, and deterioration of bleachability index (DOBI). The palm fruits were stored in a refrigerator for 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after harvesting before analyzing their carotenoid content, DOBI, FFAs, moisture, and impurities. The results showed that the potency of the crude palm oil (CPO) types, dura, pisifera, and tenera, were 23.5, 26.2, and 23.6%, respectively. The carotenoid content and DOBI of the palm oil types, dura, pisifera, and tenera, were decreased significantly by lengthy storage of the fruit. By contrast, lengthy storage of the fruit significantly increased the FFA, moisture, and impurity contents of these palm oil types, indicating that this reduced the quality of the palm oil. Oil processed from FFB has excellent quality with a high carotene content and DOBI, and a low concentration of FFA, moisture, and impurities. The present study contributes to palm oil stability and nutritional value.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.24910
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Supramolecular Phosphorescent Trinuclear Copper(I) Pyrazolate Complexes
           for Vapochromic Chemosensors of Ethanol

    • Authors: Hendrik Oktendy Lintang, Nur Fatiha Ghazalli, Leny Yuliati
      Pages: 191 - 202
      Abstract: We highlight that by using supramolecular single crystals of phosphorescent trinuclear copper(I) pyrazolate complexes with different molecular structures (2A-E), vapochromic chemosensors were successfully designed for sensing ethanol with high sensing capability. These complexes 2A-E were synthesized from non-side chain, 3,5-dimethyl, 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl), 3,5-diphenyl and 4-(3,5-dimethoxybenzyl)-3,5-dimethyl pyrazole ligands (1A-E) in 83, 97, 99, 88 and 85% yields, respectively. All complexes showed emission bands centered at 553, 584, 570 and 616 nm upon an excitation at 280 nm for complexes 2A-C,E, respectively and 642 nm upon an excitation at 321 nm for complex 2D with lifetime in microseconds, indicating a large Stoke shift for phosphorescent compounds. These emission spectra were in good agreement with their colors from green to red upon exposure to a UV lamp with an excitation at 254 nm in dark room. Upon exposure to ethanol in 5 min, quenching, photoinduced energy transfer and shifting of emission intensities were observed for chemosensors 2A-C, 2D and 2E, respectively. Interestingly, chemosensor 2E only showed completely and autonomously recovery of its original emission intensity. Such novel finding in sensing capability might be caused by a weak intermolecular hydrogen bonding interaction of ethanol to oxygen atoms at dimethoxybenzyl side-chains of the pyrazole ring.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.22553
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Removal of Sulphate and Manganese on Synthetic Wastewater in Sulphate
           Reducing Bioreactor Using Indonesian Natural Zeolite

    • Authors: Endah Retnaningrum, Wahyu Wilopo
      Pages: 203 - 210
      Abstract: The present research was conducted to investigate sulphate and manganese removal from synthetic wastewater. The continuous laboratory scale of down-flow fluidized-bed reactor (DFBR) using sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) consortium and Indonesian natural zeolite as a bacterial support material was designed. At 9 days operation, maximum sulphate and manganese removal was observed to be 23% and 15.4%, respectively. The pH values were also changed to neutral. The population of SRB increased which effect on the raising of their activity for removing sulphate and manganese. Using the scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), it was observed that natural zeolite possesses excellent physical characteristics as a bacterial support material in DFBR. The imaging SEM result of SRB consortium on zeolite surface clearly showed the developed SRB biofilm on that particle. Analysis result of EDX confirmed that manganese was precipitated as manganese–sulfides.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.22710
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Technique of Batch Adsorption for the Elimination of (Malachite Green) Dye
           from Industrial Waste Water by Exploitation Walnut Shells as Sorbent

    • Authors: Luma Ahmed Mohammed Ali, Ahmed Saleh Farhood, Firas Fadhel Ali
      Pages: 211 - 218
      Abstract: This study proposes an easy and cheap technique to get rid of dangerous Malachite Green (MG) dye from waste material by victimization carbon from walnut shells. The simple treatment was carried out by heating at temperature in which was set to the best carbonization degree to arrange carbon from these shells; thus, the temperature was set to 200 °C. Optimum conditions for sorption like the quantity of adsorbent, contact time, particle size of adsorbent, pH scale and initial MG concentration were conjointly examined. The results showed that the simplest removal was obtained once victimization 1 g of carbon with particle size 150 μM and time contact 150 min. However, the sorption of the dye was not affected by the pH except the sorption was very low at pH = 2. The removal potency was high approximating 99.53%. The results conjointly showed that the sorption equilibrium of MG onto carbon that was ready from the walnut shell has been evaluated via Langmuir and Freundlich models.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.23063
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Effect of Anodizing Time and Annealing Temperature on Photoelectrochemical

    • Authors: Misriyani Misriyani, Abdul Wahid Wahab, Paulina Taba, Jarnuzi Gunlazuardi
      Pages: 219 - 227
      Abstract: A study on the influence of anodizing time, annealing temperature and photoelectrochemical properties of TiO2 nanotube (TiO2 NT) has been investigated. The crystallinity was investigated using X-Ray Diffraction and the anti-corrosion performance of stainless steel 304 (SS 304) coupled with TiO2 NT was evaluated using electrochemical techniques under ultraviolet exposure. The optimum anodizing condition occurs at a voltage of 20 V for 3 h. After anodizing, the TiO2 NT amorf was calcined at 500 °C to obtain anatase crystalline phase. For the photoelectrochemical property, the effects of pH and NaCl concentration on corrosion prevention have been examined. The result showed that the corrosion rate of stainless steel 304 coupled with TiO2 NT can be reduced up to 1.7 times compared to the uncoupled stainless steel 304 (3.05×10-6 to 1.78×10-6 mpy) under ultraviolet exposure by shifted the photopotential to the more negative value (-0.302 V to -0.354 V) at a pH of 8 and 3% NaCl concentration (-0.264 V to -0.291 V). In conclusion, the TiO2 NT films, which was prepared by anodization and followed by annealing can prevent the corrosion of stainless steel 304.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.24183
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Comparison of NAA XRF and ICP-OES Methods on Analysis of Heavy Metals in
           Coals and Combustion Residues

    • Authors: Agus Taftazani, Roto Roto, Novitasari Restu Ananda, Sri Murniasih
      Pages: 228 - 237
      Abstract: Heavy metals in the samples of coals and combustion residues (bottom ash and fly ash) from Pacitan coal-fired power plant (CPP) have been identified by using NAA, XRF, and ICP-OES methods. This research was aimed to understand the analysis results correlation coefficient (R) and determine the enrichment ratio (ER) value of the samples by using three analysis methods. The results showed 10 elements have been simultaneously detected in all samples. The correlation coefficient of analysis results of metals content in coals by using NAA-XRF, XRF-ICP OES and with ICPOES-NAA methods gives R2£1 respectively. The correlation coefficient of analysis results of metals content in bottom ash and fly ash by using the methods of NAA-XRF, XRF-ICPOES, and ICPOES-NAA gained R2»1 respectively. ICP-OES method was most satisfactory in this study. The value of ER for identified metals by using the three methods in the samples of bottom ash and fly ash yielded the value over one, and ER value of fly ash was greater in comparison to the bottom ash.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.17686
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Styrene and Azo-Styrene Based Colorimetric Sensors for Highly Selective
           Detection of Cyanide

    • Authors: Agustina Eka Prestiani, Bambang Purwono
      Pages: 238 - 247
      Abstract: A novel styrene (1) and azo-styrene (2) based chemosensor from vanillin has been successfully synthesized. Sensor 1 was obtained by one step Knoevenagel condensation of Ultrasound method and sensor 2 by coupling diazo and Knoevenagel condensation reaction. Both of sensors showed high sensitivity and selectivity to detect CN- in aqueous media, even the presence of other anions, such as F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, CO32-, SO42-, H2PO4-, and AcO-. Colorimetric sensing of sensor 1 is inclined to be deprotonating of sensor binding site in the presence of cyanide and consequently improve the selectivity and sensitivity in sensing cyanide which displayed color change of sensor from yellowness to red-purple and then purple in 1 min. Sensor 2 exhibited chemodosimeter phenomenon which is caused by the nucleophilic addition of cyanide with a colour change from green to greenish-blue. The results enable to do an anion detection by a naked eye.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.24887
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Home-Made Micro Valve for Determining Malachite Green Dye by Flow
           Injection Analysis

    • Authors: Amal Saadoon Majeed, Ahmed Saleh Farhood, Luma Ahmed Mohammed Ali, Dakhil Nassir Taha
      Pages: 248 - 255
      Abstract: The research is included studying and designing micro flow injection system which is characterized with rapidity, simplicity, and low cost for the determination of green malachite dye. The study of flow rate of carrier stream, repeatability, dispersion coefficient, and calibration graph are conducted. It is found that the optimum conditions for the determination of mentioned dye are flow rate 4.200 mL/min, sampling rate 102 sample/h, limit of detection 0.05 ppm, linear range (0.05-18.00) ppm with linearity (R2=0.9700), RSD is 0.355, the repeatability for seven successive injections is studied for the two concentrations 5 ppm and 12 ppm, and the dispersion coefficient values are 1.73 and 1.28 at the two concentrations 2 ppm and 9 ppm respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.24707
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Coating of L-Arginine Modified Silica on Magnetite through Two Different
           Sol-Gel Routes

    • Authors: Amaria Amaria, Suyanta Suyanta, Nuryono Nuryono
      Pages: 256 - 263
      Abstract: In this research, magnetite coated with L-arginine modified silica (Fe3O4/SiO2-GPTMS-Arg) has been synthesized through a sol-gel process at a room temperature in two Routes. In Route 1, a precursor of sodium silicate solution (source of SiO2), 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) as a coupling agent and L-arginine (Arg) as the source of functional groups were added sequentially to magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4). Gelling was carried out by adding HCl solution dropwise to the mixture to reach pH of 7.0. The product was washed with water and ethanol and then dried at 65 °C for 1 day. In Route 2, sodium silicate solution was added to a mixture of GPTMS and L-arginine, and then the sol obtained was added into magnetite nanoparticles. The results were characterized with FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption spectroscopy and volumetric method to identify functional groups, crystal size, iron ions released and amino groups content, respectively. The results showed that Fe3O4/SiO2-GPTMS-Arg has been successfully synthesized through both two routes. Route 1, however, gave product of Fe3O4/SiO2-GPTMS-Arg more stable and more content of amino groups than Route 2. The presence of amino groups leads to the application of the product for metal ion removal from aqueous solution.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.22521
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Modification of Silica Coated on Iron Sand Magnetic Material with Chitosan
           for Adsorption of Au(III)

    • Authors: Muflikhah Muflikhah, Bambang Rusdiarso, Edy Giri Rachman Putra, Nuryono Nuryono
      Pages: 264 - 273
      Abstract: Modification of silica coated on magnetic material iron sand with chitosan for adsorption of Au(III) has been carried out. Magnetic material (MM) from iron sand was separated using an external magnet, washed with water and HF solution 10%. MM–silica–chitosan material (MMSC) was synthesized via sol gel process and the product was characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometer, X–ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X–ray, thermogravimetric analysis, and vibration sample magnetometer. Additionally, the effect of pH on the stability of MMSC has also been tested. The adsorption of Au(III) on MMSC was proceeded in a batch system with variation of pH, contact time, and concentration of absorbate. Adsorbent was separated using external magnet and concentration of Au(III) not adsorbed was analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Characterization result indicated that MMSC was successfully synthesized. Adsorption of Au(III) on MMSC followed pseudo second-order kinetic model with the value of adsorption rate constant (k) of 4.10 x 10-3 g mg-1 min-1 and adsorption isotherm fixed with Langmuir model with the adsorption capacity (qmax) of 149.25 mg g-1.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.22549
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Humic Acid Coated Fe3O4 Nanoparticle for Phenol

    • Authors: Soerja Koesnarpadi, Sri Juari Santosa, Dwi Siswanta, Bambang Rusdiarso
      Pages: 274 - 283
      Abstract: The coating Fe3O4 using humic acid (HA) to form HA-coated Fe3O4 (Fe3O4/HA) was conducted and applied for phenol sorption. Fe3O4/HA was prepared using co-precipitation method in an alkaline condition using ammonium hydroxide and the addition of HA with mass ratios of Fe3O4 and HA=20:1, 10:1, 10:2, 10:3. The HA from peat soil in Sambutan village, East Kalimantan, Indonesia and was extracted in NaOH 0.1 M solution. The FT-IR characterization indicated that the coating of HA on the surface of Fe3O4 was successfully synthesized by forming a bond between the carboxylate group of HA and iron of Fe3O4. The coating of HA on the surface of Fe3O4 did not change the crystal structure of Fe3O4, but had lower peak intensities than Fe3O4 if added with HA with mass ratios 20:1, 10:1, 10:2, 10:3. The saturation magnetization of Fe3O4 decreased with the increased content of HA. SEM image indicated the magnetic particle size was almost homogenous by 10-18 nm. Iron and HA in Fe3O4/HA materials synthesized using different mass ratios were stable in pH range of 3.0-11.0 and 1.0–11.0, respectively. The phenol sorption on Fe3O4 was optimum at pH 5.0 and on Fe3O4/HA with mass ratios of 20:1, 10:1, 10:2, 10:3 were optimum at pH 5.0-6.0. The kinetics model for phenol adsorption on Fe3O4 and Fe3O4/HA with mass ratios of 20:1, 10:1, 10:2, 10:3 could be described using pseudo second-order equation and was in accordance with the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum adsorption capacity of 0.45 mmol/g for Fe3O4 and 0.55, 0.56, 0.58, 0.56 mmol/g respectively for Fe3O4/HA with mass ratios of 20:1, 10:1, 10:2, 10:3. The adsorption capacity increased with the increased content of HA, but the adsorption energy decreased except Fe3O4/HA with a mass ratio of 10:3. Generally, the performance of Fe3O4/HA materials was much higher than of bare Fe3O4.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.22545
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Cobalt Oxide-Modified Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Photocatalyst for
           Degradation of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid

    • Authors: Leny Yuliati, Nur Azmina Roslan, Wai Ruu Siah, Hendrik Oktendy Lintang
      Pages: 284 - 290
      Abstract: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) has been recognized as a possibly carcinogenic compound to human, therefore, 2,4-D should be treated before it is discharged to the environment. Photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-D has been proposed as one of the best methods that offer environmentally safe process. In the present research, titanium dioxide (TiO2) was modified with cobalt oxide (CoO) and tested for photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-D under UV light irradiation. Different amounts of CoO (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 5 mol%) were added onto TiO2 by an impregnation method. The photocatalytic reaction was monitored and analyzed by measurement of 2,4-D absorbance using UV spectrophotometer. After 1 h photocatalytic reaction, it was confirmed that the sample with low loading of 0.1 mol% gave the highest photocatalytic activity among the bare and modified TiO2 photocatalysts. The photocatalytic activity was decreased with the increase of CoO loading, suggesting that the optimum amount of CoO was an important factor to improve the performance of TiO2. Based on fluorescence spectroscopy, such addition of CoO resulted in the reduced emission intensity, which showed the successful decrease in the electron-hole recombination.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.22624
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • The Optimum Conditions of Carboxymethyl Chitosan Synthesis on Drug
           Delivery Application and Its Release of Kinetics Study

    • Authors: Parsaoran Siahaan, Nadira Cahyaning Mentari, Ustera Octovindra Wiedyanto, Dwi Hudiyanti, Suci Zulaikha Hildayani, Marlyn Dian Laksitorini
      Pages: 291 - 300
      Abstract: In this paper, carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) was synthesized and studied as a carrier to encapsulate vitamin (as drug model) and controlled release. Chitosan (CS) is a polycationic derivated from chitin, which suitable for active substance carrier system on biomedical function. CS has good properties such as non-toxic, biodegradable, and biocompatible. However, CS insoluble in an aqueous solvent so CS was modified chemically into CMC. CMC was formed by reacting CS and monochloroacetic acid with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as a catalyst. Optimation was performed by varying the NaOH concentration during alkalizing the CS and the temperature reaction. The functional group and crystallinity of CS and CMC were estimated by FTIR and XRD. The degree substitution of carboxymethylation has an average value of 0.60. The results show optimum temperature reaction and NaOH concentration were 60 °C and 40% (w/v). The nicotinamide (NA), a hydrophilic vitamin, was loaded within CMC matrix system through in vitro precipitation method. To confirm the encapsulation of NA in CMC and the release kinetics of NA from CMC in distilled water was studied through UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The release profile of NA from CMC matrix system carried out for 3 h and 12 h. The rate of NA release from CMC increases with increasing time and the follows a zero order, Higuchi, and Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetics rules.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.24252
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Synthesis of 1,4-Dioxaspiro[4.4] and 1,4-Dioxaspiro[4.5] Novel Compounds
           from Oleic Acid as Potential Biolubricant

    • Authors: Yehezkiel Steven Kurniawan, Yudha Ramanda, Kevin Thomas, Hendra Hendra, Tutik Dwi Wahyuningsih
      Pages: 301 - 308
      Abstract: Two 1,4-dioxaspiro novel compounds which derivated from methyl 9,10-dihydroxyoctadecanoate (MDHO) with cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone had been synthesized by a sonochemical method in the presence of montmorillonite KSF catalyst. The MDHO compound had been prepared from 9,10-dihydroxyoctadecanoic acid (DHOA) and methanol. Meanwhile, DHOA was synthesized by hydroxylation of oleic acid with the solution of 1% KMnO4 under basic condition. The structures of the products were confirmed by FTIR, GC-MS, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR spectrometers. Hydroxylation reaction of oleic acid gave DHOA as a white solid powder in 46.52% yield (m.p. 131-132 °C). On the other side, esterification reaction via sonochemical method between DHOA and methanol gave MDHO as a white powder in 93.80% yield (m.p. 80-81 °C). The use of cyclopentanone in 45 min sonochemical method gave methyl 8-(3-octyl-1,4-dioxaspiro[4.4]nonan-2-yl)octanoate as a yellow viscous liquid in 50.51% yield. The other compound, methyl 8-(3-octyl-1,4-dioxaspiro[4.5]decan-2-yl)octanoate as yellow viscous liquid had been synthesized by similar method with cyclohexanone via the sonochemical method in 45.12% yield. From physicochemical properties, i.e. density, total acid number, total base number, and iodine value, gave the conclusion that these novel compounds are potential biolubricant candidates to be developed.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.24891
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Esterification of Crude Palm Oil Using H2SO4 and Transesterification Using
           CaO Catalyst Derived from Anadara granosa

    • Authors: Nurhayati Nurhayati, Sofia Anita, Tengku Ariful Amri, Amilia Linggawati
      Pages: 309 - 315
      Abstract: In this study biodiesel was produced from crude palm oil through two-step processes, namely esterification reactions using homogeneous H2SO4 catalyst and transesterification using the heterogeneous base CaO catalyst derived from Anadara granosa shell. Several parameters affecting to the yields of biodiesel were investigated including the amount of the catalysts, the molar ratios of oil to methanol, reaction times and reaction temperatures. The CaO catalyst was prepared by calcining the A. granosa shells at the temperatures of 800 and 900 °C for 10 h. The as-synthesized biodiesel was analyzed using GC and its characteristics were determined and the results were compared to Standard National for Biodiesel (SNI 04-7183-2006). The optimum condition for the esterification process (step 1) was as follows: reaction temperature of 65 °C, reaction time of 3 h and mol ratio of oil to methanol 1:24. For the transesterification (step 2) the optimum conditions were attained using the catalyst weight 3%, reaction temperature of 60 °C, reaction time of 3 h, mole ratio of oil/methanol 1:6 and the catalyst calcination time of 10 h with the conversion of 87.17%. This biodiesel yield by the two-step processes was higher (2.7%) than that using only one-step process (transesterification).
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.24909
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Production of Biodiesel from Seed Oil of Nyamplung (Calophyllum
           inophyllum) by Al-MCM-41 and Its Performance in Diesel Engine

    • Authors: Hendro Juwono, Triyono Triyono, Sutarno Sutarno, Endang Tri Wahyuni, Ita Ulfin, Fredy Kurniawan
      Pages: 316 - 321
      Abstract: Production of biodiesel from crude nyamplung oil (Calophyllum inophyllum) have been done by transesterification using Al-MCM-41 catalyst. Al-MCM-41 catalyst was obtained from impregnation of MCM-41 by Al. Sodium aluminate was added to MCM-41 until pH 11.5. The mixture was heated until 110 °C for 5 days. The calcination was performed at 500 °C, and then cooled at room temperature. The Al-MCM-41 obtained was characterized using SAXRD. Morphology of the surface was analyzed using SEM. The metals content were measured using XPS. Performance of Al-MCM-41 to adsorp and desorp nitrogen was also monitored by GSA using BET model. Acidity of the Al-MCM-41 was analyzed by FTIR using absorption of pyridine. The catalytic activity was measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The chromatogram shows that conversion Nyamplung seed oil to biodiesel is 98.15%. The performance of biodiesel obtained was analyzed by use it to diesel engine. The biodiesel obtained was mixed with commercial diesel fuel in various volume ratios (i.e. 0, 10, 20, 30 and 100%) before used. Viscosity, flash point, boiling point, cloud point, and pour point of the mixtures were characterized. These measuring properties increase with the increase of biodiesel concentration. Optimum engine power was achieved by 10% biodiesel. The mixture of 10% biodiesel has similar characteristic to commercial diesel fuel at load until 1800 watt.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.24180
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Binary Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Analysis to Increase
           the Predictive Ability of Structure-Based Virtual Screening Campaigns
           Targeting Cyclooxygenase-2

    • Authors: Enade Perdana Istyastono
      Pages: 322 - 329
      Abstract: Structure-Based Virtual Screening (SBVS) campaigns employing Protein-Ligand Interaction Fingerprints (PLIF) identification have served as a powerful strategy in fragments and ligands identification, both retro- and prospectively. Most of the SBVS campaigns employed PLIF by comparing them to a reference PLIF to calculate the Tanimoto-coefficient. Since the approach was reference dependent, it could lead to a very different discovery path if a different reference was used. In this article, references independent approach, i.e. decision trees construction using docking score and PLIF as the descriptors to increase the predictive ability of the SBVS campaigns in the identification of ligands for cyclooxygenase-2 is presented. The results showed that the binary Quantitative-Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) analysis could significantly increase the predictive ability of the SBVS campaign. Moreover, the selected decision tree could also pinpoint the molecular determinants of the ligands binding to cyclooxygenase-2.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.24172
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Synthesis, Characterization and DFT Study of 4,4′-Oxydianiline Imines as
           Precursors of Tetrahalo-1,3-oxazepine-1,5-dione

    • Authors: Abdullah Hussein Kshash, Mohammed Ghannam Mokhlef
      Pages: 330 - 335
      Abstract: This work presents four Schiff bases derived from 4,4′-Oxydianiline, distinguished by the para substituted halogen of benzaldehyde. These bases were used to synthesize eight compounds of di-1,3-oxazepine by direct condensation with tetrachloro phthalic anhydride and tetrabromo phthalic anhydride. The reactions were monitored with TLC and all structures were characterized using spectroscopic techniques such as FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and C, H, N techniques. On the other hand, a theoretical study by Density Functional Theory (DFT) for the electronic structures was intended to study the effects of para-substituted halogen of benzaldehyde on the electronic structure of synthesized Schiff bases by using the Gaussian program. Theoretical results indicate that there is no effect of halogen atoms except for bromine on HOMO and LUMO energies of the synthesized compounds.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.22437
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Microwave-Assisted Organic Reactions: Eco-friendly Synthesis of
           Dibenzylidenecyclohexanone Derivatives via Crossed Aldol Condensation

    • Authors: Sri Handayani, Cornelia Budimarwanti, Winarto Haryadi
      Pages: 336 - 341
      Abstract: The synthesis of dibenzylidenecyclohexanone derivatives via environmentally friendly Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS) crossed aldol condensation had been carried out. The condensation reaction to synthesize the dibenzylidenecyclohexanone 8b was performed by reacting benzaldehyde 4 and cyclohexanone 2 (mole ratio of 2:1) with NaOH as catalyst for 2 min under microwave irradiation. The benzaldehyde derivatives used in this study were 4-methoxybenzaldehyde and 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde and gave of (2E,6E)-bis(4-methoxy benzylidene)cyclohexanone 8a and (2E,6E)-bis(3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone 8c, respectively. The study was commenced by searching the optimum concentration of NaOH. The reaction yield was determined by TLC scanner and the structure was elucidated by FTIR and NMR spectrometers. For the comparison, the reaction was also carried out by using stirring method. The results showed that optimum concentration of NaOH was 5 mmole. By using the optimum condition via MAOS method, the compounds 8a, 8b and 8c were obtained in 100, 98 and 93%, respectively. The research also proved that the method of dibenzylidenecyclohexanones (8) synthesis using MAOS was more efficient than stirring method.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.25460
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
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