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Journal Cover Indonesian Journal of Chemistry
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1411-9420 - ISSN (Online) 2460-1578
   Published by Universitas Gadjah Mada Homepage  [27 journals]
  • PAN-Immobilized PVC-NPOE Membrane for Environmentally Friendly Sensing of
           Cd(II) Ions

    • Authors: Moersilah Moersilah, Dwi Siswanta, Roto Roto, Mudasir Mudasir
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: A simple, cheap and environmentally friendly analytical method of Cd(II) in the aqueous system has been developed by immobilization of 1-(2-pyridilazo)-2-naphtol (PAN) in poly vinyl chloride (PVC) matrix and nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) as a plasticizer. Upon contact with Cd(II) in solution, the color of sensor membrane changes from dark yellow to dark red, which is due to the formation of Cd(II)–PAN complex. The best sensing results were obtained at pH 8.0 and λmax 558 nm. The dimension of the proposed sensor membrane was 0.8 cm x 2 cm with a thickness of 0.05 mm, the volume of sample was 2 mL with the Cd(II) concentration range of  0 – 1.2 ppm. The limit of detection of the method was found to be 0.432 + 0.104 ppm, which was reversible. The proposed methods have been applied in the determination of Cd(II) in water samples after addition of internal standard.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.23544
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2017)
  • Optical Sensor for the Determination of Lead(II) Based On Immobilization
           of Dithizone onto Chitosan-Silica Membrane

    • Authors: Yuspian Nur, Eti Rohaeti, Latifah Kosim Darusman
      Pages: 7 - 14
      Abstract: Optical sensor based on incorporation of dithizone and chitosan-silica for the determination of lead (II) ion has been conducted. The optical sensor was made by composite of chitosan and silica in the ratio 2:1. Sol gel technique was chosen to make the membrane because it has some advantages such as its low temperature and chemical reactivity. The sensor has a good selectivity at pH 5 with response times at ± 180 s. Linearity responses was obtained with concentration range from 0.2 to 1.1 ppm with r2 = 0.9921. Average of %RSD on precision and accuracy (%PK) test were 1.46 and 100.96%, respectively. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.11 ppm and 0.37 ppm, respectively
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.23560
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2017)
  • Application of Ion-Exchange Resin Column for Basic Development of
           Strontium-90/Yttrium-90 Generator for Preparation of Radiopharmaceutical

    • Authors: Muchtaridi Muchtaridi, Elvan Kamal, Anas Subarnas, Abdul Mutalib
      Pages: 15 - 21
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the possible use of ion-exchange resin on Dowex AG 50x8 in separating Y-90 from Sr-90 which then could be applied in the basic of manufacture of producing Sr-90/Y-90 generator for the production of radiopharmaceutical cancer therapy. The findings showed that a distributive coefficient of Sr-90 and Y-90 with HCl 6 N solvent showed that distributive coefficient of Sr-90 in cation-exchange resin on Dowex 50x8 was greater than Y-90. Y-90 in HCl 6 N solvent was more easily eluted, while Sr-90 was bound to resin.. In conclusion, resin on Dowex AG 50x8 with HCl 6 N elution solvent might be able to separate Y-90 from Sr-90 as the basis for Sr-90/Y-90 generator.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.23581
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2017)
  • The Role of Base Solvent Variant to Structure and Crystal Size Titanium
           Dioxide (TiO2) by Hydrothermal Method

    • Authors: Mohammad Rofik Usman, Atiek Rostika Noviyanti, Diana Rakhmawaty Eddy
      Pages: 22 - 29
      Abstract: Photoactivity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) can be improved by turning it into nanoparticles. Synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles can be done by using hydrothermal method. Hydrothermal method is influenced by types of precursor, hydrothermal conditions, including time, temperature, type and concentration of reactants. The purpose of this study is to obtain a hydrothermal condition which produces crystals of TiO2 nanoparticles with high quality. The material used was titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) as initial precursors and for the type of reactants was used aqudestilate, aquabidestilate, ethanol, t-butanol, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). The resulting diffractogram showed the crystal structure of TiO2 nanoparticles with anatase and rutile. Based on calculations using the scherrer equation, TiO2 crystal obtained had a crystal size below 50 nm in both anatase and rutile. The percentage of rutile and anatase composition was obtained by using rietveld method with the help of rietica software. Morphology of TiO2 anatase showed particles with shape of cubic, while rutile was flower-shaped.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.23548
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2017)
  • Impregnation Nickel on Mesoporous ZSM-5 Templated Carbons as a Candidate
           Material for Hydrogen Storage

    • Authors: Ratna Ediati, Amirul Mukminin, Nurul Widiastuti
      Pages: 30 - 36
      Abstract: A series of carbon with ZSM-5 mesoporous (ZMC) and Ni/ZMC ZSM-5 templates were synthesized and gravimetrically known its adsorption capacity to H2 gases. ZMC carbon was synthesized using a hard template method at a carbonation temperature of 900 oC with sucrose as a source of carbon. A mesoporous ZSM-5 template was synthesized by using a hydrothermal method at an aging and crystallization temperature of respectively 60oC and 150oC for as long as 24 hours. The characterized result of ZMC carbon using XRD powder has shown a diffracted pattern of amorphous carbon. Impregnating Ni with ZMC carbon each resulted in 5%, 15% and 25% of weight, which in turn also resulted in a diffractogram pattern of Ni/ZMC-5, Ni/ZMC-15, and Ni/ZMC-25, where each patterns were uniform and had no additional peaks. The results of SEM-EDAX showed that Ni had been successfully impregnated on the surface of ZMC carbon with a random morphology surface of ZMC carbon. The isothermal results of adsorption – desorption of N2 showed that the larger the Ni loading on the supporting ZMC carbon, the smaller the surface area of the ZMC specific carbon. The distribution of the pore size that was counted by using the BJH method, which was applied to all the samples, was as big as 3,8 nm. The adsorption capacity of H2 was measured by using the gravimetry method at ambient temperature for Ni/ZMC-5, Ni/ZMC-15, and Ni/ZMC-25, which each gave a weight percentage of 0,331%; 0,663% and 0,649% respectively, whilst the ZMC carbon has a weight of 2,18%.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.23563
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2017)
  • Synthesis and Characterization of TiO2/Carbon Nanoparticle (C-Dot)
           Composites and Their Application as Photocatalysts to Degrade of
           Persistent Organic Pollutant

    • Authors: Dedri Syafei, Sri Sugiarti, Noviyan Darmawan, Mohammad Khotib
      Pages: 37 - 42
      Abstract: TiO2/C-dot composites were synthesised by sol-gel method and  investigated as catalysts for photocatalytic degradation of persistent organic pollutants (perchloroethylene, PCE). The composites photoluminescence properties was shown by visual analysis and the synthesis product was characterized by XRD, FTIR, fluorescence spectrophotometer, and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Degradation of PCE 0.1% (v/v) in the aqueous phase was investigated under sunlight irradiation for 2 h. Photodegrade efficiency of PCE was determined by GC. Composites of TiO2/C-dot 2.5% (w/w) was succesfully to degrade PCE under sunlight irradiation and its photodegrade efficiency was up to 89.45%.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.23615
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2017)
  • The Roles of Hydrazine and Ethylene Diamine in Wet Synthesis of Cu Nano

    • Authors: Harsojo Harsojo, Lutfi Ayu Puspita, Dedi Mardiansyah, Roto Roto, Kuwat Triyana
      Pages: 43 - 48
      Abstract: It has been done wet synthesis Cu nano wire using CuNO3 as precursor and hydrazine as a reductor agent and ethylene diamine as polymer capping agent. The synthesis was done in excessive sodium hydroxide using different volume of hydrazine and  ethylenediamnie (EDA) to seek the optimum condition of the targeted nano wire. The study revealed that the  condition in obtaining various nano wire sizes, in terms of  length and diameter, to be possibly controlled by varying the volume of hydrazine and ethylenediamnie.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.23618
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2017)
  • Antioxidant Activity of Syzygium polyanthum Wight Extracts

    • Authors: Mutia Devi Hidayati, Taslim Ersam, Kuniyoshi Shimizu, Sri Fatmawati
      Pages: 49 - 53
      Abstract: Antioxidant activities of Syzygium polyanthum Wight leaves extracts (methanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, and hexane) were evaluated by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate) and ABTS (2,2’-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazole-6-sulfonic acid) methods.  The methanol extract showed the highest antioxidant activity of DPPH assay among extracts with IC50 value of 55.2 mg/ml.  In addition, methanol extract also showed the highest antioxidant activity of ABTS assay among extracts with IC50 value of 17.41 mg/ml. It indicated that methanol extract of S. polyanthum Wight leaves potential for antioxidant.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.23545
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2017)
  • A Rapid, Simple, and Validated RP-HPLC Method for Quantitative Analysis of
           Levofloxacin in Human Plasma

    • Authors: Dion Notario, Sudibyo Martono, Zullies Ikawati, Arief Rahman Hakim, Fathul Jannah, Endang Lukitaningsih
      Pages: 54 - 62
      Abstract: To conduct a bioequivalence study for a copy product of levofloxacin (LEV), a simple and validated analytical method was needed, but the previous developed methods were still too complicated. For this reason, a simple and rapid high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for LEV quantification in human plasma. Chromatographic separation was performed under isocratic elution on a Luna Phenomenex® C18 (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column. The mobile phase was comprised of acetonitrile, methanol, and phosphate buffer 25 mM that adjusted at pH 3.0 (13:7:80 v/v/v) and pumped at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. Detection was performed under UV detector at wavelength of 280 nm. Samples were prepared by adding acetonitrile and followed by centrifugation to precipitate plasma protein. Then followed successively by evaporation and reconstitution step. The optimized method meets the requirements of validation parameters which included linearity (r = 0.995), sensitivity (LLOQ and LOD was 1.77 and 0.57 µg/mL respectively), accuracy (%error above LLOQ ≤ 12% and LLOQ ≤ 20%), precision (RSD ≤ 9%), and robustness in the ranges of 1.77-28.83 µg/mL. Therefore, the method can be used as a routine analysis of LEV in human plasma as well as in bioequivalence study of LEV.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.23552
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2017)
  • Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of C-methylcalix[4]resorcinaryl
           octacinnamate as the Sunscreen

    • Authors: Budiana I Gusti M. Ngurah, Jumina Jumina, Chairil Anwar, Sunardi Sunardi, Mustofa Mustofa
      Pages: 63 - 70
      Abstract: Synthesis and in vitro test of C-methylcalix[4]resorcinaryl octacinnamate as the sunscreen has been conducted. The C-methylcalix[4]resorcinaryl octacinnamate was synthesized in 2 steps. They were synthesis of C-methylcalix[4]resorcinarene via acid catalyzed condensation of resorcinol and acetaldehyde, followed by estherification using cinnamoyl chloride and pyridine catalyst. The characterization of the target molecule was performed by infra red spectrophotometer, proton-NMR, carbon-NMR and mass spectromether. The sunscreen activity test was conducted by spectroscopic method and MTT-assay. Spectroscopic analysis (UV) showed that the target molecule absorbed the dangerous ultraviolet radiation between 280 and 320 nm (UV B) wave length with the maximum absorption at 290 nm (ε = 31.535 M-1 cm-1). The MTT-assay indicated that the IC50 of C-methylcalix[4]resorcinaryl octacinnamate is 12.006 ppm. The sunscreen activity of C-methylcalix[4]resorcinaryl octacinnamate is stronger than commercial sunscreen Intersun (IC50 = 18.235 ppm).
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.23575
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2017)
  • Design of Diclofenac Sodium Indicator Strips Using Polystyrene (PS) and
           Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) for Detection of Diclofenac Sodium in
           Traditional Pain Relief Herbal Medicines

    • Authors: Ibrahim Dalli, Danni Ramdhani, Aliya Nur Hasanah
      Pages: 71 - 78
      Abstract: Diclofenac sodium is one of analgesic which is often added to traditional pain relief herbal medicines to enhance the effects. One of qualititative method that is easy, efficient and simple testing is an indicator strip. Indicator strip based Polystyrene (PS) and Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was made for the examination of diclofenac sodium that were misused as a drug chemical compound in traditional pain relief herbal medicine. Strip indikator was made by reagent blending method with specific reagents used, namely, copper sulphate (CuSO4), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and vanillin sulphate. The working principle of the indicator strip in detecting the presence of diclofenac sodium in herbal medicine is with the occurrence of a color reaction. The concentration of PS and PMMA was made in a variation of 5%, 7.5% and 10%, and the mixture of PS: PMMA 1: 5 and 1: 6 concecutively with a ratio of solvent: reactant 6: 4; 7: 3 and 8:2. The test results showed that the best indicator strip is PMMA-CuSO4 5% (7: 3), PMMA-FeCl3 5% (7: 3) and PMMA-Vanillin sulphate 7.5% (7: 3). The detection limit and stability of the strip indicators PMMA-CuSO4 5% (7: 3) are at 50 ppm and is stable up to 29 weeks, PMMA-FeCl3 5% (7: 3) has a detection limit 12,500 ppm and is stable up to 29 weeks, and PMMA-vanillin sulphate 7,5% (7: 3) has a detection limit 500 ppm and is stable up to 29 weeks. The results showed that the indicator strip can be used as an alternative method to detect diclofenac sodium in herbal medicine and finally controlling addition of chemicals in to herbal medicine.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.23612
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2017)
  • Development of Quality Control Method for Glucofarmaka Antidiabetic Jamu
           by HPLC Fingerprint Analysis

    • Authors: Hanifullah Habibie, Rudi Heryanto, Mohamad Rafi, Latifah Kosim Darusman
      Pages: 79 - 85
      Abstract: Herbal medicines become increasingly popular all over the world for preventive and therapeutic purposes. Quality control of herbal medicines is important to make sure their safety and efficacy. Chromatographic fingerprinting has been accepted by the World Health Organization as one reliable strategy for quality control method in herbal medicines. In this study, high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint analysis was developed as a quality control method for glucofarmaka antidiabetic jamu. The optimum fingerprint chromatogram were obtained using C18 as the stationary phase and linear gradient elution using 10–95% acetonitrile:water as the mobile phase within 60 minutes of elution and detection at 210 nm. About 20 peaks were detected and could be used as fingerprint of glucofarmaka jamu. To evaluate the analytical performance of the method, we determined the precision, reproducibility, and stability. The result of the analytical performance showed reliable results. The proposed method could be used as a quality control method for glucofarmaka antidiabetic jamu and also for its raw materials.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.23616
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2017)
  • Investigation of Effect of Adding Hydrophobically Modified Water Soluble
           Polymers on the Structure and Viscosity of Anionic Vesicle Dispersion

    • Authors: Marco Sandjaja, Maria Lucia Ardhani Dwi Lestari
      Pages: 86 - 94
      Abstract: This present study was conducted to investigate the effect of adding hydrophobically modified end-capped (HM) polymers with various polyethylene oxide (PEO) chain lengths on the structure and viscosity of anionic vesicles dispersion. A pronounced increase in viscosity was observed upon adding small amount of such polymers. Based on the dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis, 10 to 30 polymer molecules per vesicles can reach maximum viscosity and where polymer molecules can interconnect the vesicles without disrupting their structure. In addition, the kinetic stability of the vesicle dispersion also enhanced. From the measurement of the electrical conductivity of the dispersion, it was observed that the presence of the PEO and polypropylene oxide (PPO) group could induce the permeability of the vesicle membrane by altering their internal structure. Controlling viscosity of vesicles dispersion without changing its structure is useful for the further application of vesicles system such as in drug delivery, cosmetics and biomedical.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.23619
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2017)
  • The Role of Carboxyl and Hydroxyl Groups of Humic Acid in Removing AuCl4 -
           from Aqueous Solution

    • Authors: Sri Sudiono, Mustika Yuniarti, Dwi Siswanta, Eko Sri Kunarti, Triyono Triyono, Sri Juari Santosa
      Pages: 95 - 104
      Abstract: Humic acid (HA) extracted from peat soil according to the recommended procedure of the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) has been tested to remove AuCl4- from aqueous solution. The removal was optimum at pH 2.0 and it was mainly dictated by attachment through hydrogen bonding to unionized carboxyl (–COOH) groups and reduction by the action of the hydroxyl (–OH) groups to gold (Au) metal. The removal of AuCl4- improved after HA was purified through repeated immersion and shaking in a mixed solution containing 0.1 M HCl and 0.3 M HF. When the purification led to the sharp decrease in ash content from 39.34 to 0.85% (w/w) and significant increase in both the –COOH and –OH contents from 3240 to 3487 mmol/kg and from 4260 to 4620 mmol/kg, respectively; the removal of AuCl4- improved from 0.105 to 0.133 mmol/g. This improvement of AuCl4- removal by the purified HA was accompanied by higher ability in reduction to Au metal. The attached AuCl4- on –COOH groups of both crude and purified HAs was qualitatively observed by the characterization result of FT-IR spectroscopy, while the presence of Au metal on the surface of those HAs was verified by the characterization result of XRD.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.23620
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2017)
  • Adsorption of β-Carotene In Isopropyl Alcohol with Decolorized Activated
           Charcoal as Model for β-Carotene Adsorption in Crude Palm Oil

    • Authors: Maria Ulfah, Sri Raharjo, Pudji Hastuti, Purnama Darmadji
      Pages: 105 - 112
      Abstract: This study aimed to determine porosity properties of decolorized activated charcoal and its ability to adsorb β-carotene. Ability of activated charcoal for β-carotene adsorption in isopropyl alcohol determined at equilibrium conditions, were determined by the duration of adsorption time and activated charcoal concentration. Equilibrium time was determined from 0.5 to 60 min, concentration of activated charcoal was determined from 0.5 to 2.5%. Isothermal adsorption determined at β-carotene concentrations of 100-500 ppm with adsorption temperature of 30, 40 and 50°C at the equilibrium.The results showed that the activated charcoal used in this study had a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 1068.391 m2/g, total pore volume of 0.9523 cc/g, mesopore volume of 0.528 cc/g, mesopore volume/total pore volume as much as 55.4 %, and mesopore radius of 15.26 Å. Based on content of β-carotene adsorbed into activated charcoal, adsorption equilibrium was reached after 5 min adsorption. Activated charcoal at a concentration of 1,5 % able to adsorb β-carotene optimally. Adsorption of β-carotene at 40°C for 60 min according to Freundlich adsorption model with coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.999), intensity of adsorption (1/n = 1.0024) and Freundlich adsorption capacity (KF=63.358 L/mg). Whereas adsorption of β-carotene at 50°C for 60 min according to Langmuir isotherm model with coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.969), adsorption capacity (b = 33.206 mg/g) and adsorption at equilibrium (Kb = 1.721 L/mg).
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.23637
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2017)
  • Theoretical Study of Palladium Membrane Reactor Performance During Propane
           Dehydrogenation Using CFD Method

    • Authors: Kamran Ghasemzadeh, Milad Mohammad Alinejad, Milad Ghahremani, Rahman Zeynali, Amin Pourgholi
      Pages: 113 - 118
      Abstract: This study presents a 2D-axisymmetric computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model to investigate the performance Pd membrane reactor (MR) during propane dehydrogenation process for hydrogen production. The proposed CFD model provided the local information of temperature and component concentration for the driving force analysis. After investigation of mesh independency of CFD model, the validation of CFD model results was carried out by other modeling data and a good agreement between CFD model results and theoretical data was achieved. Indeed, in the present model, a tubular reactor with length of 150 mm was considered, in which the Pt-Sn-K/Al2O3 as catalyst were filled in reaction zone. Hence, the effects of the important operating parameter (reaction temperature) on the performances of membrane reactor (MR) were studied in terms of propane conversion and hydrogen yield. The CFD results showed that the suggested MR system during propane dehydrogenation reaction presents higher performance with respect to once obtained in the conventional reactor (CR). In particular, by applying Pd membrane, was found that propane conversion can be increased from 41% to 49%. Moreover, the highest value of propane conversion (X = 91%) was reached in case of Pd-Ag MR. It was also established that the feed flow rate of the MR is to be the one of the most important factors defining efficiency of the propane dehydrogenation process.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.23625
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2017)
  • Microscopic Observation of Solid-Liquid Reaction: A Novel Laboratory
           Approach to Teaching Rate of Reaction

    • Authors: Agus Setiabudi, Asep Wahyudin, Galuh Yuliani, Mauro Mocerino
      Pages: 119 - 126
      Abstract: The importance of observation in science and science education has triggered this laboratory development study that investigated the value of an observation kit as a new approach to teaching rate of reaction in general chemistry class. The kit consists of a digital microscope, a “chemical reactor”, and a tailor-made computer application and was used to video-record a solid-liquid reaction and to produce a series of two dimensional solid images that indicate the extent of reaction. The two dimensional image areas were calculated by the computer application and using the assumption that the image area was directly proportional to the mass of the solid, a plot of solid mass versus time could be obtained. These steps have been tested in several solid-liquid reaction systems, with the reaction of solid magnesium oxide with nitric acid solution resulting in the best images which were transferable to rate of reaction data, i.e. a plot of solid MgO mass as a function of time. The plot can be used to explain rate of reaction concepts including average, instantaneous, and initial rate. Furthermore, the effect of concentration on reaction rate could also be explained. This study showed that the observation kit and the generated data set have the advantage of allowing students to clearly and repeatedly visualise a solid-liquid reaction and relate this with the concept of rates of reactions. The observation kit also allows teachers and students to extend its application into inquiry based experiments.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.23642
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2017)
  • Culturing Security System of Chemical Laboratory in Indonesia

    • Authors: Eka Dian Pusfitasari
      Pages: 127 - 138
      Abstract: Indonesia has experiences on the lack of chemical security such as: a number of bombing terrors and hazardous chemicals found in food. Bomb used in terror is a homemade bomb made from chemicals which are widely spread in the research laboratories such as a mixture of pottasium chlorate, sulphur, and alumunium. Therefore, security of chemicals should be implemented to avoid the misused of the chemicals. Although it has experienced many cases of the misuse of chemicals, and many regulations and seminars related to chemical security have been held, but the implementation of chemical security is still a new thing for Indonesian citizens. The evident is coming from the interviews conducted in this study. Questions asked in this interview/survey included: the implementation of chemical safety and chemical security in laboratory; chemical inventory system and its regulation; and training needed for chemical security implementation. Respondents were basically a researcher from Government Research Institutes, University laboratories, senior high school laboratories, and service laboratories were still ambiguous in distinguishing chemical safety and chemical security. Because of this condition, most Indonesia chemical laboratories did not totally apply chemical security system. Education is very important step to raise people awareness and address this problem. Law and regulations should be sustained by all laboratory personnel activities to avoid chemical diversion to be used for harming people and environment. The Indonesia Government could also develop practical guidelines and standards to be applied to all chemical laboratories in Indonesia. These acts can help Government’s efforts to promote chemical security best practices which usually conducted by doing seminars and workshop.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.23644
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2017)
  • A Novel Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Histamine Based On
           Its Complex Reaction with Ni(II) and Alizarin Red S

    • Authors: Miftakhul Jannatin, Ganden Supriyanto, Pratiwi Pudjiastuti
      Pages: 139 - 143
      Abstract: The development of analytical methods of histamine using Ni (II) and alizarin red S reagents by UV-Vis spectrophotometry has been done. The objective of this research is to determine the ability of Ni(II) and alizarin red S to form color complex compound with histamine and it will be used to detect the presence of histamine qualitatively and quantitatively as well. Absorbance was measured at a maximum wavelength of 604 nm. In this method, it has been carried out optimization of analytical parameters such as the concentration of Ni(II), the concentration of alizarin red S, pH, and respond time. Analytical parameter optimization showed concentration of Ni(II) is 20 ppm, alizarin red S 75 ppm, pH 8, and a respond time of 15 minutes. Method validation indicated that the coefficient of variation, detection limit, and the limit of quantitation are 0.245%; 9.49 ppm; and 31.62 ppm respectively with a sensitivity of 0.0063/ppm and linearity of 0.99. Accuracy to histamine with a concentration of 50, 75, and 125 ppm are 105.87%, 101.06%, 97.21%, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.23621
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2017)
  • Docking Sulochrin and Its Derivative as α-Glucosidase Inhibitors of
           Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    • Authors: Wening Lestari, Rizna Triana Dewi, Leonardus Broto Sugeng Kardono, Arry Yanuar
      Pages: 144 - 150
      Abstract: Sulochrin known has activity as inhibitors of α-glucosidase enzyme. Interaction of sulochrin to active site of α-glucosidase enzyme from S. cerevisiae has studied by docking method. The crystal structure of α-glucosidase from S.accharomyces cerevisiae obtained from the homology method using α-glucosidase from S. cerevisiae (Swiss-Prot code P53341) as a target and crystal structure of isomaltase from S. cerevisiae (PDB code 3A4A) as a template. Sulochrin and sulochrin-I could be bound in the active site of α-glucosidase from S. cerevisiae through the formation of hydrogen bonds with Arg213, Asp215, Glu277, Asp352. Sulochrin-I has stability and inhibition of the α-glucosidase enzyme better than sulochrin. The iodine atom in the structure of sulochrin can increase the activity as an inhibitor of α-glucosidase enzyme
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.23568
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2017)
  • Cinnamic Acid Derivatives as Antidiabetics Agents

    • Authors: Teni Ernawati, Maksum Radji, Muhammad Hanafi, Abdul Mun’im, Arry Yanuar
      Pages: 151 - 160
      Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism. Treatment of type II diabetes is usually done by prescribing diet and exercise for the patient however it can also be treated with antidiabetic drugs. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate some cinnamic acid derivative compounds which are either isolated from natural materials or the results of the chemical synthesis. In addition, their biological activities as an agent of α-glucosidase inhibitors have also been evaluated. Chemically, cinnamic acid has three main functional groups:  first is the substitution on the phenyl group, second is the additive reaction into the α-β unsaturated, and third is the chemical reaction with carboxylic acid functional groups. Chemical aspects of cinnamic acid derivative compounds have received much attention in the research and development of drugs, especially modifications within three functional groups are very influential. In the last 10 years, a lot of research and development of cinnamic acid derivatives as inhibitors of the α-glucosidase enzyme has been done. One example of the research done in this field is the modification of para position in the structure of cinnamic acid and addition of alkyl groups in the carboxylic group which would increase the activity of the α-glucosidase enzyme therefore the level of inhibition is 100 times higher than that of cinnamic acid compound itself. The novelty of this review article is to focus on the antidiabetic activity of cinnamic acid derivatives.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.22146/ijc.23572
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2017)
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