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Journal Cover Sports Medicine International Open
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2367-1890
   Published by Thieme Publishing Group Homepage  [185 journals]
  • Intra- and Inter-Day Reliability of Body Composition Assessed by a
           Commercial Multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedance Meter

    • Authors: Bosquet; Laurent, Niort, Thomas, Poirault, Maxime
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the intra- and inter-day reliability of body composition measurements provided by a commercial multifrequency bioelectrical impedance meter. Eighteen healthy, well-trained students in physical education from the same ethnic group were assessed on four consecutive days, both in the morning and in the evening. Indexes provided by the device were gathered in four categories: tissular, metabolic, hydric and ionic blocks. There was no systematic bias between repeated measures, regardless of time of day. Relative reliability was high to very high in the morning (0.72
      Citation: Sports Medicine International Open 2017; 1: E141-E146
      PubDate: 2017-07-14T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-113999
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 04 (2017)
  • Gender Differences of Achilles tendon Cross-sectional Area during Loading

    • Authors: Intziegianni; Konstantina, Cassel, Michael, Hain, Gerrit, Mayer, Frank
      Abstract: The Achilles tendon (AT) is larger and stiffer in males compared to females. AT stiffness is determined by length differences during loading. However, as some collagen fibres run transversely, changes in cross-sectional area (CSA) are also expected. The study investigates the gender differences of AT-CSA during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC).Fifteen males and fifteen females were positioned prone on the isokinetic dynamometer with knee extended and ankle flexed 90°. AT-CSA [mm2] from rest to MVIC during plantar flexion was sonographically assessed. AT-CSA maximal deformation [mm2] was subtracted by CSAMVIC–CSArest. AT-CSA compliance [mm2/Nm] and strain [%] were calculated by dividing the CSA deformation [mm2] by peak torque [Nm] and CSA at rest [mm2], respectively. Gender differences were assessed by an independent sample t-test with Bonferroni correction (α=0.01).AT-CSA dimensions at rest (p=0.001) and contraction (p=0.001) as well peak torque (p=0.001) were statistically significant higher in males (54.4±5.1 mm2, 53.7±5.1 mm2, 120.1±26.8 Nm) compared to females (46.2±7.0 mm2, 43.4±6.9 mm2, 86.9±21.6 Nm). AT-CSA deformation (p=0.000) strain (p=0.000) and compliance (p=0.000) were found to be statistically significant higher in females (–2.8±0.9 mm2, –6.2±2.0%, –0.033±0.018 mm2/Nm) compared to males (–0.8±1.8 mm2, –1.4±3.3%, –0.007±0.008 mm2/Nm).During loading, the AT also deforms at the transverse level by reducing its CSA. CSA reduction was higher in females, indicating also higher CSA compliance compared to males. Higher CSA compliance might indicate higher adaptability towards loading and might be discussed as a protective factor.
      Citation: Sports Medicine International Open 2017; 1: E135-E140
      PubDate: 2017-07-14T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-113814
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 04 (2017)
  • The Compact Wheelchair Roller Dynamometer

    • Authors: Oliveira; Saulo Fernandes Melo, Bione, Afonso Augusto Guimarães, Oliveira, Lúcia Inês Guedes Leite, da Costa, Adalberto Veronese, de Sá Pereira Guimarães, Fernando José, da Cunha Costa, Manoel
      Abstract: The equipment for evaluating the propulsion of a wheelchair is very complex and expensive. To validate a new dynamometer prototype for assessing the propulsion capacity of wheelchairs, 21 healthy subjects (age: 20.9±2.4 yr; weight: 68.9±7.9 kg; height: 174.0±7.1 cm; BMI: 22.7±2.5 kg·m−2) who do not normally require wheelchairs performed a sprint protocol for 20 s after a 1-min warm-up. The power and rotation data acquired by the prototype (both right and left sides) were compared with those of a reference system via high-speed videography (240 fps). The results showed high levels of accordance (95% CI), excellent values for the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC: .99; P
      Citation: Sports Medicine International Open 2017; 1: E119-E127
      PubDate: 2017-07-05T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-111404
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 04 (2017)
  • Development of the Rope-Climbing Ergometer for Physical Training and

    • Authors: Arakawa; Hiroshi, Kumagawa, Daisuke, Fujisaki, Iwao, Ozawa, Yoshiaki, Ishige, Yusuke
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize a rope-climbing ergometer. A custom-made loading device that has an eddy current brake with an electrical current control circuit was developed to impose resistive load on the rope. A calibration test was first performed using a three-phase induction motor to associate the scale of the load-level setting (100 levels) with the resultant traction force. The calibration test yielded criteria values of loads (123 N at Level 0 and 1064 N at Level 100). The human test was carried out by 14 male subjects. The participants performed eight sets of 10-second maximal-effort exercises at different levels. Presumable trajectories of force, velocity, and power were obtained. The mean force increased by 161% (from 147.5 N at Level 0 to 383.7 N at Level 18), whereas the mean velocity decreased by 64.7% (from 1.87 m/s at Level 0 to 0.66 m/s at Level 18). The mean power reached its peak at Level 9 (320 W). The new rope ergometer for physical training and testing was successfully developed and characterized in this study. However, it remains to be seen whether its concurrent validity and reliability are qualifiable.
      Citation: Sports Medicine International Open 2017; 1: E128-E134
      PubDate: 2017-07-05T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-112335
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 04 (2017)
  • Complementing Warm-up with Stretching Routines: Effects in Sprint

    • Authors: Marinho; Daniel Almeida, Gil, Maria Helena, Cardoso Marques, Mario, Barbosa, Tiago Miguel, Neiva, Henrique Pereira
      Abstract: The present study aimed to examine the effects of using static or dynamic stretching added to the common warm-up routine for short sprint distances and to repeated sprint performance. In 3 different sessions, 16 college-age men (n=10) and women (n=6) performed one of 3 warm-ups followed by a 2×60 m dash sprint time trial (5 min of rest) in a counterbalanced design. The control warm-up consisted of 10 min of light-intensity running, and the 2 experimental warm-ups included a static or dynamic stretching routine (5 exercises) in the control warm-up. Performance (time) and physiological variables (tympanic temperature, heart rate) were monitored. In the first 60 m time trial, there were no differences between the 3 warm-ups tested (F=0.21, p=0.73; ηp2=0.01), as opposed to that observed in the second (F=7.04, p
      Citation: Sports Medicine International Open 2017; 01: E101-E106
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-111788
      Issue No: Vol. 01, No. 03 (2017)
  • Semimembranosus Muscle Injuries In Sport. A Practical MRI use for

    • Authors: Balius; Ramon, Bossy, Mireia, Pedret, Carles, Capdevila, Lluís, Alomar, Xavier, Heiderscheit, Bryan, Rodas, Gil
      Abstract: The aim of this work was to study semimembranosus musculotendinous injuries (SMMTI) and return to play (RTP). The hypothesis is that some related anatomic variables of the SM could contribute to the prognosis of RTP. The retrospective study was done with 19 athletes who suffered SMMTI from 2010 to 2013 and in whose cases a 3.0T MRI was performed. We evaluated the A, B, C SM regions damaged and calculated the relative length and percentage of cross-sectional area (CSA) affected. We found the correlation of these variables with RTP. The data was regrouped in those cases where the part C of the injury was of interest and those in which the C region was unscathed (pooled parts). We used the Mann-Whitney U test and there was a higher RTP when the injury involved the C part of SM (49.1 days; 95% CI [27.6– 70.6]) compared to non-C-part involvement (27.8 days; 95% CI [19.5–36.0]). The SMMTI with longer RTP typically involves the C part with or without participation of the B part. In daily practice, the appearance on MRI of an altered proximal tendon of the SM indicates that the injury affects the C region and therefore has a longer RTP.
      Citation: Sports Medicine International Open 2017; 01: E94-E100
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-111587
      Issue No: Vol. 01, No. 03 (2017)
  • Ischemic Preconditioning and Acute Recovery of Performance in Rugby Union

    • Authors: Garcia; Cintia A., da Mota, Gustavo Ribeiro, Leicht, Anthony Scott, Marocolo, Moacir
      Abstract: Ischemic preconditioning has been used as a training and/or pre-competition strategy; however its use for post-exercise recovery is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of ischemic preconditioning on performance and recovery ratings following a simulated match in sub-elite rugby players. Following baseline measures, male players (n=8) performed a 40 min, rugby-specific exercise protocol followed by an intervention: 21 min of ischemic preconditioning (3×5 min occlusion at 220 mmHg with 2 min reperfusion at 0 mmHg) or passive rest (control) on 2 separate days. An agility T-test, a single vertical countermovement jump and 30 s of continuous vertical jumps were performed at baseline (–24 h), immediately after exercise, and immediately after the intervention. The rugby-specific exercise protocol induced similar mean heart rates (158.3±18.0 vs. 158.7±16.0 bpm) and perceived exertion levels (8.2±0.9 vs. 8.0±1.0) for both trials with all recovery performance measures and rating of recovery (13.9±1.4 vs. 13.6±1.6) similar between ischemic preconditioning and control trials (best p=0.385). We conclude that the use of ischemic preconditioning does not improve recovery acutely (~1 h) including specific variables related to rugby performance in amateur rugby union players.
      Citation: Sports Medicine International Open 2017; 01: E107-E112
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-111082
      Issue No: Vol. 01, No. 03 (2017)
  • Micronutrient Supplementation does not Change Complement System Response
           to Heavy Training

    • Authors: Santos; José Augusto Rodrigues, Zacca, Rodrigo, Fernandes, Ricardo J.
      Abstract: We aimed to examine the micronutrient supplementation effect on complement system activity after heavy training. 24 male firefighters were randomly divided into supplemented and placebo groups, and tested for immunology-related parameters using venous blood samples in the fasting state pre- and post-5 weeks of nutritional supplementation. C3 and C4 complement components were determined in a nephelometer from immune complexes formed through specific human antisera and total haemolytic complement activity (CH100) was determined by enzyme immunoassay. Differences between pre- and post-supplementation were observed only for CH100 on placebo group (p=0.004; mean diff −26.92; 95%CI −43.58 to −10.25) and no interaction, treatment or time effects were observed for C3 and C4. Although interaction accounted for 8.8% of the total variance in CH100 (with time effect pre- vs post-accounting for 19.5% of the total variance), the treatment effect (supplemented vs placebo) was not significant. The absence of effects on the complement system response to supplementation during heavy training could be justified by the fact that: (i) nutritional supplements do not improve humoral innate immunity in well-fed subjects; (ii) selected supplements unlikely improve the innate immune system in situations of adequate nutritional status; and/or (iii) selected doses of supplementation were not sufficient to elicit immune changes.
      Citation: Sports Medicine International Open 2017; 01: E113-E118
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-111403
      Issue No: Vol. 01, No. 03 (2017)
  • The Effect of Repetitive Rugby Scrummaging on Force Output and Muscle

    • Authors: Cochrane; Darryl J., Harnett, Keegan, Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas, Hapeta, Jeremy
      Abstract: During rugby scrummaging, front row forwards encounter high levels of force that has been suggested to cause transient fatigue and is likely to reduce subsequent performance. However, little is known about the effect of repetitive scrummaging on force output and onset of fatigue. Twelve male front row forwards (21.5±2.3 yr; height 185.7±4.4 cm; body mass 108.5±7.1 kg) each performed three sets of five maximal-effort isometric scrums for 10 s, with 40 s rest separating each repetition; 2 min recovery was provided between each set. Force output and electromyography (EMG) of the right medial gastrocnemius (MG), biceps femoris (BF), gluteus maximus (GM), erector spinae (ES), rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and rectus femoris (RF) were assessed. There was no significant force decrement from performing 15 scrums and no fatigue was detected from EMG median frequency and mean amplitude. For training and practice purposes, coaches and trainers can be confident that 15 individual repetitive static scrums against a machine are unlikely to cause a reduction in force production and promote fatigue. However, the effect of rugby-related activities in conjunction with scrummaging requires further research to determine if transient fatigue is causal to scrummaging for subsequent performance.
      Citation: Sports Medicine International Open 2017; 01: E89-E93
      PubDate: 2017-05-11T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-108192
      Issue No: Vol. 01, No. 03 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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