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Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0973-7200 - ISSN (Online) 2454-8405
Published by Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bangalore Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Drug Delivery Devices-The next Frontier of Innovation

    • Authors: Suresh Nagpal
      Abstract: No .
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Similar Biologics: Regulatory Prospective in India

    • Authors: A. Ramkishan, Rajappan, Fahim Khan
      Abstract: No .
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Ameliorative Effects of Roots of Asparagus adscendens Roxb. on Cognitive
           Impairments and Brain Aging Induced by Scopolamine and Diazepam in Animal
           Models Relevant to Alzheimer's Disease

    • Authors: Hanumanthachar Joshi, Majed Abdo Alkanad, C. S. Charan
      Abstract: Memory loss in dementia is often the most disabling feature of many disorders, impairing the normal daily activities of the patients and profoundly affecting their families. Treatment of cognitive disorders like dementia and Alzheimer's disease has been challenging since no potential drug is available at present with proved efficacy. In the present study, nootropic activity of methanolic extract of roots of Asparagus adscendens Roxb.(AR) was studied in mice. Elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm were employed to evaluate learning and memory. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) were used to induce amnesia in mice. AR (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly attenuated amnesic deficits induced by scopolamine, diazepam and natural aging. Furthermore, it also reversed aging induced amnesia due to natural aging of mice. AR profoundly increased whole brain acetyl cholinesterase inhibition activity. Hence, AR might prove to be a useful memory restorative agent in the treatment of dementia seen in the elderly. The underlying mechanism of its action may be attributed to its antioxidant and acetyl cholinesterase inhibition properties.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Validation and Peak Purity Assessment of RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous
           Estimation of Amitriptyline HCl, Chlordiazepoxide and Comparison with

    • Authors: Ankit Tyagi, Nitin Sharma, Karan Mittal, Tilak Raj Bhardwaj, Arti Thakkar
      Abstract: Purpose: The study was performed with the aim to design a Simple, precise and economical RP-HPLC method have been developed for simultaneous estimation of amitriptyline HCl and chlordiazepoxide in pharmaceutical formulation.Approach: RP-HPLC was developed using WATERS C18 250 mm × 4.6 mm (5 μm) column, utilizing a mobile phase of methanol: acetonitrile: 0.2 M orthophosphoric acid, pH 4.5 (adjusted with triethylamine) 56:24:20 ml (with a flow rate of 1ml/min) and U.V detection was carried out at 240nm. Optimization of this method was carried out as a function of mobile phase composition, pH and flow rate. Peak purity was assessed by spectral comparison method.Findings: RP-HPLC method shows linearity in the range of for 0.05-1.6 μg/ml and 0.01-0.32μg/ml amitriptyline HCl and chlordiazepoxide respectively. The LOD and LOQ values for amitriptyline HCl were 0.0250μg/ml and 0.0759 μg/ml and 0.0045 μg/ml and 0.0135 μg/ml for chlordiazepoxide. The results of % purity was found to be 99.97 ± 0.58 % w/w and 99.29 ± 0.59 % w/w for HPLC method and 98.87 ± 0.03 % w/w and 98.81 ± 1.04 % w/w for first derivative spectrophotometric method for amitriptyline HCl and chlordiazepoxide respectively.Conclusion: Results of descriptive statistics studies conclude that RP-HPLC method found to be more sensitive and convenient than first derivative spectrophotometric method.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Antiulcer Potential of Cucumis melo Var. Momordica (Roxb.), Duthie &
           Fuller Fruits in Experimental Animal

    • Authors: Arvind Kumar Srivastava, Alok Mukerjee, P. W. Ramteke, Himanshu Pandey, Shanti Bhushan Mishra
      Abstract: Purpose: This study was aimed to evaluate the antiulcer potential of Cucumis melo var. momordica (Roxb.) Duthie&Fuller, fruits.Methodology: Ethanol and pylorus ligation induced ulcer methods were used in rats for the study. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) were administered orally and effects on volume of gastric secretions, ulcer index, total and free acidity were evaluated.Findings: A significant dose dependent reduction (P < 0.05) in the acid parameters like ulcer index, gastric volume, free and total acidity and elevation in pH were observed after treatment with 200 and 400 mg/kg extracts in Pylorus ligation and ethanol-induced ulcer models.This reduction in acid-secretary parameters and ulcer score suggesting that acid inhibition accelerates ulcer healing.Conclusion: Based on our findings, we presume that the anti-secretary properties of both extracts were responsible for its anti-ulcer potency. These findings suggest the potential for use of Cucumis melo extract as an adjuvant in the treatment of gastric ulcer.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • The Effect of Enicostemma littorale Blume on
           Adrenaline-Induced Hypertensive Rats

    • Authors: Vinuth Chikkamath, M. P. Manjusha, I. Shanmukha
      Abstract: Aim: The primary objective of the study was to investigate the possible effects of 70% Ethanolic extract of Enicostemma littorale Blume on adrenaline induced hypertensive rats. The hypertension was induced by Adrenaline at dose of 0.5 mg/kg i.p for 5 consecutive days.Materials and Methods: The test doses of 250, 333.33 and 500mg of 70% Ethanolic extract of Enicostemma littorale (EEEL) and 10mg Propanolol were given orally and Intraperitonially respectively for 7 days. The various biochemical parameters like blood glucose, serum triglyceride, cholesterol, serum creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase were measured.Results: The extract administered groups had shown significantly lowered in LDH, CPK and pulse rate comparing to the normal groups. The biochemical parameters were lowered and significantly different (P*0.01), when compared with the disease control.Conclusion: It can be concluded that 70% EEEL imparted a protective action against adrenaline induced hypertension in rats.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Assessment of Parents’ Knowledge, Attitude and Practice about Child
           Vaccination in Rural areas

    • Authors: B. Patel Trushitkumar, Riju Pathak, Rajindar Singh, Varun Alves, N. M. Mahesh, T. S. Chaluvaraj, R. Chandramouli, Bincy Varghese
      Abstract: Background: Vaccines have thrived as one of the most successful health interventions that have diminished occurrence of infectious diseases and improved quality of life in the population. Although the vaccination coverage has been gradually increasing, the average total immunization coverage is far less than the desired outcome. Parental decisions regarding vaccination are very vital for increasing the vaccination rate and parent compliance to the immunization schedule.Objective: To analyze the extent of parents' Knowledge, Attitude and Practice(KAP) about child vaccination in rural areas such that it can be correlated with the immunization status of their child amongst native participants of Bangalore.Methodology: A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out on 110 Parents residing in rural areas of Bangalore who had children below 5 years of age. The sociodemographic details of the parents were collected and they were made to fill a KAP Questionnaire. Each question under Knowledge and Attitude was scored to assess their KAP level regarding child vaccination. The immunization status of the child was assessed by counting on the parents' word for it.Results: A total of 110 parents participated in the study from different rural clusters of Bangalore. Assessment of the extent of Knowledge, attitude and practice about child vaccination showed that a majority of them (72.7 %,) had good knowledge score followed by average (21.8%) and poor (5.4%) whereas 85.4% of the respondents were found to have good attitude towards child vaccination. The immunization status of the child was assessed by counting on the parents' word for it and.68.1% children were completely immunized whereas 7.2 % received incomplete immunization. The immunization status of the remaining 24.5% of the children was uncertain as assessment was not possible due to lack of surety in the parents part regarding the immunization status of their child. Although parental knowledge was not found to be significantly associated with the immunization status of their child, there was a significant association between the attitude of parents towards child vaccination and the immunization status of their child. A very significant correlation was also seen between the parental knowledge and attitude score with p≤0.0001.Conclusion: The parental Knowledge, Attitude and Practice about child vaccination are important determinants of the immunization status of their child. A combined effort from the members of the healthcare team and social health workers can definitely make the attainment of the targeted immunization coverage rate in the country possible.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Synthesis, Biological Screening and in Silico Studies of Chalcone Based
           Novel Phenyl Urea Derivatives as Potential Antihyperglycemics

    • Authors: Satarupa Acharjee Sengupta, Tapan K. Maity, Subir Samanta
      Abstract: Aim: Current work was aimed to explore the effect of synthesized novel chalcone based1-(4"-methoxyphenyl)-3-{4- [(2E)-3-phenylprop-2-enoyl] phenyl} ureaderivatives, on adult male Wister rats in an experimental model of type 2 diabetes.Methods: Type 2 Diabetes was induced in overnight fasted rats by a high fat diet followed by a single intraperitoneal injection of low dose streptozotocin (35mg/kg body weight) leading to hyperglycemia and considerable augmentation in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels. Treatment with compounds 2(a-d) and 3(a-c)(dose; 30mg/kg) continued for 28 days followed by oral glucose tolerance test. Docking studies of synthesized compounds with ligand binding domain of the human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma-2(2PRG) were performedto correlate the antihypergycemic activity for possible mode of action.Result: Oral administration of compounds 2(a-d) and 3(a-c)in 35mg/kg for 4 weeks reduced blood glucose level significantly by 68-71% and 71-75% respectively comparable to that of glipizide(80%) in a dose of 1mg/kg/day coupled with significant reduction (p≤0.05) in the increased blood urea nitrogen and serum triglyceride level. Compound 2c have been found most active on the PPAR gamma receptor displaying docking score (-21) comparable to reference ligands Rosiglitazone and pioglitazone.Conclusion: This observation indicates that chalcone based novel phenylureas have the potential to be an effective antihypergycemic agent with probable PPAR gamma agonistic action.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Formulation and Characterization of Gastroretentive Floating Tablets of
           Atorvastatin Calcium Using Central Composite Design

    • Authors: Beena Kumari, Parijat Pandey, Harish Dureja
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to develop a gastroretentive floating drug delivery system of atorvastatin calcium by effervescence technique.Design/methodology/approach: The objective behind the study was to investigate the effect of concentration of HPMC K4M (X), concentration of guar gum (X), concentration of sodium bicarbonate (X) on the release of 1 2 3 atorvastatin calcium using central composite design.The floating tablets were formulated using atorvastatin calcium (20% w/w), HPMC K4M (5-15% w/w), guar gum (5-15% w/w), sodium bicarbonate (4-12% w/w), lactose (q.s.), talc (2% w/w) and magnesium stearate (1% w/w). Atorvastatin calcium floating tablets were evaluated for physical characterization viz. hardness, swelling index, floating capacity, weight variation, friability, in vitro drug release and kinetic studies.Findings: All tablets were floated for more than 12 hrs in 0.1 N HCl at 37±0.5°C and the in vitro drug release was found to be vary from 79% to 93%. The percentage cumulative drug released was maximum at low value of HPMC, low value of guar gum and high value of sodium bicarbonate. A mathematical model was developed to formulate floating tablets of atorvastatin calcium. The data fitting to Korsemeyer-Peppas equation revealed that the release mechanism from the dosage form followed the non-fickian transport.Value: The gastroretentive floating tablets of atorvastatin calcium will enhance the patient compliance and play a vital role in improving patient's quality of life.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Sublingual Tablets and the Benefits of the Sublingual Route of

    • Authors: Arshad Bashir Khan, Tarun Kingsley, Preeta Caroline
      Abstract: Purpose: Sublingual drug delivery can be an alternative and better route when compared to oral drug delivery as sublingually administered dosage forms bypass hepatic metabolism. A rapid onset of pharmacological effect is often desired for some drugs, especially those used in the treatment of acute disorders. Sublingual tablets disintegrate rapidly and the small amount of saliva present is usually sufficient for achieving disintegration of the dosage form coupled with better dissolution and increased bioavailability.Approach: Published articles from PubMed and other standard sources were utilized to review and compile an overview of sublingual tablets and the benefits of the sublingual route of administration.Findings: Sublingual tablets were found to have better characteristics when compared to conventional dosage forms. Sublingually administered tablets achieved better bioavailability, rapid onset of action and better dissolution properties due to fast disintegration. The addition of super-disintegrants facilitated rapid disintegration and this approach can be used to treat acute disorders or emergency conditions.Conclusion: Sublingual tablets or any sublingual dosage form can be used to achieve a rapid onset of action, better patient compliance and increased bioavailability. The sublingual route of administration can be used for drugs which undergo extensive first pass metabolism or degradation in the GIT. Drugs administered sublingually tend to have better bioavailability which correlates to dose reduction when compared to conventional oral tablets.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Functional Overview of Process Validation of Tablets - A Critical Review

    • Authors: Manasa S. Reddy, R. Chandramouli
      Abstract: Purpose: Validation is a main tool in achieving and maintaining the quality and safety of the final product as per cGMP(current Good Manufacturing Practice). The purpose of this present work is to give introduction, general overview and how to plan, develop, execute process validation of pharmaceutical manufacturing process especially tablet manufacturing process.Approach: When we consider any product, quality is always an imperative pre requisite hence a highest quality levels must be included in the manufacturing of the drug.Findings: To assure the identity, purity, safety, efficacy and also maintaining the quality of final product process validation is the key element. Three consecutive batches were considered to execute the process validation activity.Conclusion: Process validation is a major requirement of cGMP's regulation. Process validation is a key element to maintain product quality, safety, identity and efficacy.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Biowaivers-An updated Review

    • Authors: N. Abilash, R. Chandramouli
      Abstract: PURPOSE: A Biowaiver has been regarded as an official approval of the waiver for conducting a bioequivalence study in the context of an application for drug approval process. Bioequivalence is an important parameter in the process of drug development that is needed to be performed when there is a change in the formulation of dosage form.Approach: The approach of biowaivers is necessary to waive a complete and systemic Bioequalence study, which as a fast track approach to boost the drug development process.Findings: This review mainly discusses about the criteria for Biowaivers, requirements for a BCS based biowaiver study, conditions to grant the BCS based biowaiver, Applications, limitations, supporting data for Biowaivers.Conclusion: BCS biowaiver studies in preparing a submission for worldwide filing to satisfy US, European, and emerging market regulators. It is hoped that the availability of BCS Class I and Class III biowaivers in multiple jurisdictions will encourage more sponsors to request waivers of in vivo bioavailability/bioequivalence testing using the BCS approach.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • A Brief Review on Sustained Release Matrix Type Drug Delivery System

    • Authors: Mayur Karvekar, Arshad Bashir Khan
      Abstract: Purpose: A review on sustained release drug delivery using polymer matrix with emphasis on its contemporary usage and future trends.Approach: An introduction to sustained release drug delivery system (SR DDS), followed by its rationale, advantages, disadvantages, criteria of a drug to be met to formulate sustained release formulations, classification of matrix tablets, classification of polymers, its mechanism and recent advancements.Finding: Recent studies indicate that sustained delivery for a very long period, in terms of months is possible using suitable polymer matrices. Also, challenging drug candidates such as proteins are now successfully delivered as sustained release dosage forms.Conclusion: Sustained release DDS, since 1940s has evolved in different types of dosage forms for sustained effect but future scope will be to treat chronic diseases providing sustained effect.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
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