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Journal Cover Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0973-7200 - ISSN (Online) 2454-8405
   Published by Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bangalore Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Proceedings

    • Abstract: No Abstract.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Plagiarism

    • Authors: Suresh Nagpal
      Abstract: No Abstract.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Systematic Review on Interaction Studies of Synthetic Antidiabetic Drugs
           and Herbal Therapies

    • Authors: Priyanka Purohit, Brahmeshwar Mishra
      Abstract: Purpose: Complimentary and alternative therapies as well as traditional herbal home remedies are booming because they are perceived to be free of side effects and generally recognised as safe due to their natural origin. There are number of reports available on the interaction of anti diabetic drugs in vitro and in clinical trials. Diabetic patients are often treated with multiple synthetic drugs combination due to different co- morbidities and such patients should be informed regarding herb-drug interactions in clinical settings.Approach: Informations from the published research articles available from MEDLINE, Cochrane and Pub med as well as additional data sources were obtained from manual searches of recent journal articles and textbooks and were used in the preparation of this review article.Finding: Traditional home remedies and alternative therapies in treatment of Diabetes mellitus may pose concern or complications that would arise from these herbs on the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic effects of synthetic drugs as they are used in combination therapy.Conclusion: Herbal remedies are complex mixtures of bioactive entities which may interact with prescription drugs through pharmacodynamic or pharmacokinetic mechanism and sometimes result in serious clinical consequences. Patients and Physician should be familiar with the potential effects of commonly used herbal medications to prevent, recognise and treat potential adverse effect associated with their uses.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Molecular Properties and Bio-Activity Score of 2{[2-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-
           oxoquinazolin-3(4H)-yl]amino}-N-(substitutedphenyl) Acetamides

    • Authors: S. Rajasekaran, GopalKrishna Rao, Zonunsiami
      Abstract: Purpose of the paper: Quinazolinone derivatives have been found to possess a wide range of biological activity, a series of 2{[2-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-oxoquinazolin-3(4H)-yl]amino}-N-(substitutedphenyl) acetamides have been taken to study the molecular properties and bio-activity score that shall aid in designing newer compounds.Design/methodology/approach: Molinspiration software was used for the calculation of Mi Log P values and all other biological data of the compounds.Findings: It was found that the values were in the range of 5 that means these compounds have good permeability across cell membrane. TPSA in the range of 76.02 to 121.85 (well below 160) and molecular mass<500. Number of violations is 0 and rotb < 7. Number of hydrogen bond donors <5 (The sum of OHs and NHs) and hydrogenbond acceptor < 7 (The sum of Os and Ns). These observation showed that the compounds can easily bind to receptor and weretaken further for the calculation of bioactivity score.Research limitations/implications: The result of bioactivity score of GPCR ligand, ion channel modulator,nuclear receptor ligand, inhibitor activities towards enzymes, protease and kinase showed that the compounds exhibit moderate score towards all the receptors. Hence, these compounds shall be taken for further studies to evaluate their biological profile.Practical implications: A series of similar analogs shall be considered for evaluating the bioactivity score and compared for designing newer compounds.Social Implications: Designing of newer derivatives based on the bioactivity score of these reported compounds shall have profound biological activity.What is original/value of paper: The article deals with evaluation of bioactivity score of a series of quinazolinone derivatives.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Analytical Method Development and Validation of Metformin, Losartan and
           Glimepiride in Bulk and Combined Tablet Dosage form by Gradient RP-HPLC

    • Authors: Mastanamma Shaik, Maharshi Viswanadhapalli, Saidulu Pasupuleti, Reehana Shaik
      Abstract: Purpose: A simple, sensitive, linear, precise, and accurate method by gradient reversed-phase-high performance liquid chromatography for the simultaneous estimation of metformin (MET), losartan (LOS) and glimepiride (GLI) in bulk and in their combined tablet dosage form was developed and validated.Methodology: The separation of the three drugs was based on the use of Luna c18 (250 ~ 4.6 mm, i.e. 5 ƒÊm) column in a gradient mode. Mobile phase consisted of Methanol (solvent A) and 0.1% Orthophosphoric acid [OPA] (solvent B) was set with gradient programming for 18 min and was delivered at 1 ml/min flow rate and effluents are achieved with variable wavelength: Photodiode array detector at 284 nm. The retention times of MET, LOS and GLI were found to be 3.11, 7.12 and 13.52mins respectively. The percentage assay of MET, LOS and GLI was found to be 100.5%, 100.5 and 100.4%, respectively. Calibration curves were linear for MET, LOS and GLI at concentration ranges of 30- 450 ng/ml, and 15-225ng/ml and 1-18ng/ml with the regression coefficient of 0.999 for all the three drugs and precise with (% RSD <2). The drug was subjected to various stress conditions of acid and base hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis, thermal degradation and condition.Findings: Considerable degradation was found under all stress conditions and the degradation products were well resolved from Metformin (MET),Llosartan (LOS) and Glimepiride (GLI) in the proposed gradient RP-HPLC method.Conclusion: The method was validated by determining its linearity, accuracy, precision, system suitability and can be employed for routine quality control analysis.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Effect of Bile Salts on Transbuccal Permeability of Carbamazepine through
           Porcine Buccal Mucosa

    • Authors: G. Parthasarathy, K. Bhaskar Reddy, K. N. Jayaveera
      Abstract: The delivery of drug through buccal mucosa provides potential advantages like prevention of enzymatic degradation in gastro intestinal tract and bypassing hepatic first-pass metabolism. However the significant aspect in transbuccal drug delivery is the very restrictive passage of drug through the buccal mucosa. In our earlier work we confirmed the ability of Carbamazepine (CBZ) to permeate through the porcine buccal mucosa. Our earlier study proved that CBZ crosses the membrane by passive diffusion. But the measured Flux (Js) and permeation coefficient (Kp) of CBZ was s p insufficient to achieve plasma therapeutic concentration. In this study an approach was made to improve permeability of CBZ using some bile salts as chemical permeation enhancers like sodium taurocholate (STC) and sodium taurodeoxycholate (STDC) which are capable to lessening the barrier property of the mucosal tissue. These patches were subjected to ex vivo permeation studies. The six buccal patches of CBZ selected from our earlier reported formulations were subjected to this permeability improvement study. These patches were either based on HPMC K15M or Carbopol 934p or Chitosan in combination of PVA or PVP K30 or Sodium alginate. The significant change in Js and Kp of formulations in presence and absence of chemical permeation enhancers STC or STDC (in two different p concentrations 0.1% and 0.5 % w/w) was evaluated by ex vivo permeation studies through porcine buccal mucosa under modified Franz diffusion cell. The calculated value of Flux (Js) and Permeation coefficient (Kp) confirmed that s there was a significant increase in permeated amount of CBZ after the inclusion of permeation enhancers. The compatibility of bile salts with buccal mucosa was examined by histological studies and kinetic studies.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Profile of Microvascular Complications in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetics
           and its Association with Correlates of Metabolic Syndrome in a Tertiary
           Hospital: An Observational Study

    • Authors: Nikhitha Chandrashekar, Nivedita Maity, Pramila Kalra
      Abstract: Aim: The primary objective was to study the profile of microvascular complications in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics in a tertiary hospital and to determine its association with correlates of Metabolic Syndrome.Settings and Design: This was a prospective observational study conducted over a period of six months among patients attending the Endocrinology outpatient of a tertiary care centre in a South Indian city.Materials and Methods: We studied the correlation of microvascular complications (neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy and foot ulcers) in 44 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics with associated risk factors i.e., hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia.Results: The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy was 15.9%, 2.3% and 2.3% respectively. The study showed that out of 44 patients, 18 had hypertension (40.91%). Four out of the 18 hypertensive patients had microvascular complications (22.2 %). There was a significant association between obesity and peripheral neuropathy (P< 0.05).Conclusion: There was a maximum prevalence of peripheral neuropathy amongst the newly diagnosed diabetics thus they should be wary of the corresponding symptoms of numbness and tingling of feet. It was seen that out of the total 44 diabetic patients, 9.09% had both hypertension and microvascular complications. The low percentage is because 52% of the total hypertensives were on antihypertensive medication. There was also a significant association between obesity and neuropathy. Thus, those with obesity and hypertension are at a high risk of developing microvascular complications.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Antiulcer Study of Capparis zeylanica Extract on Gastric Secretions and
           Phenylbutazone Induced Chronic Ulceration in Experimental Animals

    • Authors: Bhupesh Kumar Vema, Alok Mukerjee, Amita Verma, Shanti Bhushan Mishra, Alka Verma
      Abstract: Purpose: The objective of the study was to investigate the possible effects of 50% ethanolic extract of Capparis zeylanica (CZE) on gastric secretion and Phenylbutazone ulcer in rats. Approach: Twenty four adult male rats were used in this study (four groups) and several parameters were determined to assess any degree of protection. The ulceration was induced by Phenylbutazone at a dose of 100 mg/kg b.w.Findings: Phenylbutazone toxicity induced + CZE treated rats showed a significant decrease (p > 0.001) in volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity, pepsin concentration and acid output with a significant increase (p > 0.001) in pH compared to Phenylbutazone toxicity induced rats. Phenylbutazone caused a significant decrease (p > 0.001) in TC:P with a concomitant increase (p > 0.001) in protein and DNA. After treatment of CZE in rats, a significant increase (p > 0.001) in the carbohydrate concentration in terms of TC:P ratio and significantly lowered (p > 0.001) protein concentration in gastric juice was observed. CZE tended to increase mucin activity in Phenylbutazone + CZE group.Conclusion: It can be concluded that CZE imparted a protective action against phenylbutazone induced chronic ulcer in rats.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Effects of Anemia on Cognitive Function

    • Authors: Anuja Ranjan, Y. Jyothi, Kuntal Das, Angel Mary
      Abstract: Purpose: To establish the relation between Anemia and cognitive function.Approach: Published articles from Pubmed and other Internet sources were used to establish the relation between anemia and cognition.Finding: There are various factors like RBC, hemoglobin and iron content which affects cognition indirectly. Whereas some factors such as defect in gene, directly affects the cognition.Conclusion: Anemia not only affects the physical health, but also affects the mental health like cognition. RBC, hemoglobin and iron contents affect the cognitive function while due to defect in gene, causes anemia, which also affects cognitive functions. Cognition of infant is also affected by maternal anemia.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Drug Master File Filing in US, Europe, Canada and Australia

    • Authors: Indu Gurram, M. V. S. Kavitha, Nagarjuna Reddy, M. V. Nagabhushanam
      Abstract: Purpose: A Drug Master File (DMF) is a submission to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that may be used to provide confidential detailed information about facilities, processes, or articles used in the manufacturing, processing, packaging, and storing of one or more human drugs. The submission of a DMF is not required by law or FDA regulation, it is submitted solely at the discretion of the DMF holder. The DMF contains factual and complete information on a drug product's chemistry, manufacture, stability, purity, impurity profile, packaging, and the cGMP status of any human drug product. The present work gives the Detailed idea on how to file Drug Master File in US, EUROPE, CANADA, AUSTRALIA.Approach: A Drug Master File is a submission of information to the FDA to permit the FDA to review this information in support of a third party's submission without revealing the information to the third party. In US, DMF filing was done through NDA for drugs, ANDA for generics and BLA for Biologics. In Europe, DMF filing was done through MAA via centralized procedure for eligible products and for other products via decentralized procedure was used. In CANADA, DMF filing was done through NDS for both drugs and biologic products, where as in AUSTRALIA different application processes and regulatory requirements apply depending on the type of therapeutic goods that is applied.Findings: This gives you clear vision on how to file Drug master file in US, EUROPE, CANADA and AUSTRALIA. This paper also gives you the comparison of DMF fling procedure in the above-mentioned countries so that reader can have clear idea on how to file DMF and different concerns on DMF among the above counties.Conclusion: The DMF contains factual and complete information on a drug product's chemistry, manufacture, stability, purity, impurity profile, Packaging and the cGMP status of any Drug product for humans. The content and the format for Drug Master File is used to obtain marketing Authorization. The main objective of the DMF is to support regulatory requirements of a medicinal product to prove its quality, safety and efficacy. This helps to obtain a marketing authorization grant. Now from 2016 onwards most of the regulated countries will use eCTD or their electronic format for their DMF submission.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Broad Spectrum UVA & UVB Photoprotectants: An Overview

    • Authors: P. Adithi, Arshad Bashir Khan, S. K. Roopesh
      Abstract: Purpose: Due to the high exposure of our skin to sunlight which mainly comprises of ultraviolet radiation, a harmful effect is manifested on the skin and the integumentary system. Sunscreens are formulated which safeguards the epidermis of the skin from harmful UV radiations by reflecting, absorbing or by dispersion phenomena. This review focuses on the beneficial aspects of sunscreen and also presents a detail exposition about its formulation aspects and evaluation.Approach: The review introduces sunscreens and its traditional, chronological usage of sunscreen. The formulation and development of sunscreen emphasis on various UVA and UVB photo protectants used and its evaluation parameters is studied.Findings: Sunscreens are found to show the photo-protecting properties by absorption or by reflecting mechanism, which has a shielding effect towards the skin against harmful radiations.Conclusion: Sunscreens protects the skin absorbing or reflecting ultraviolet radiations. The application of sunscreens is an efficient method of protecting skin against UV radiations. Hence a sunscreen plays a vital role in protecting the skin from external harmful radiations.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Solid Lipid Nanoparticles- An Innovative Approach for Improving the
           Solubility and Bioavailability

    • Authors: C. Akash, Preethi Sudheer, Bharani S. Sogali
      Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study is to give a general review on solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) as a novel drug carrier for improving the solubility and bioavailability of drugs.Approach: Among the various colloidal drug carriers, SLNs have been emerged as next generation drug delivery system for incorporating lipophilic drugs. They are relatively nontoxic and nonirritant. The review insight on the various methods of preparation, characterization and also the application of SLNs for improving the solubility and bioavailability is explained here.Findings: SLNs is used as a novel carrier for improving the solubility of poorly soluble drugs which may results in enhanced bioavailability and stability of drug can also be improved by incorporating drug in the form of solid lipid nanoparticles.Conclusion: This review presents an overview of SLNs which includes SLN and its properties, excipients, techniques used in preparation of SLNs, characterization, and their applications.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • A Review on Drug Interactions in Oral Hypoglycemic Drugs by Mechanism of
           Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Inhibition

    • Authors: Giri Mrudula, Preeta Caroline, Tarun Kingsley, Ruby Jaiswal
      Abstract: Purpose: Drug interaction is a phenomenon that has to be thoroughly investigated in order to avoid adverse effects. This review article highlights the drug interaction of oral hypoglycemics by mechanism of cytochrome P450 enzyme inhibition.Approach: Published articles from PubMed and other sources were used to review and compile these drug interaction studies.Findings: Drug interaction in oral hypoglycemics by mechanism of cytochrome P450 enzyme inhibition can increase the risk of hypoglycemia in diabetic patients and hence dose adjustments may be required.Conclusion: These drug interaction studies are essential for patients suffering from diabetes mellitus as it prevents the risk of occurrence of hypoglycemia. This information is also important for the prescribing physicians as dose alteration or alternate drugs need to administered in case of concomitant administration of drugs in case of polypharmacy.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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