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Journal Cover Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0973-7200 - ISSN (Online) 2454-8405
   Published by Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bangalore Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Antibiotics Use and Abuse

    • Authors: Suresh Nagpal
      Abstract: No .
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Development of Innovative Therapeutics and Diagnostics through
           Genome-Based Biomarkers:An Unexplored Potential

    • Authors: Ramesh K. Goyal
      Abstract: No .
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Treatment of Myocardial Infarction by Stem Cell Based Therapy

    • Authors: Giri Mrudula, Ruby Jaiswal, Preeta Caroline
      Abstract: Purpose: Recently myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Myocardial infarction leads to the serious consequences which cause increase in mortality and morbidity. In myocardial infarction there is permanent loss of cardiomyocytes which results an irreversible loss of cardiac function. Cardiac repair requires the replacement, restoration and regeneration of heart function. Conventional therapies such as revascularization, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) prevent the additional damage to heart muscle and also reduce the risk of future heart attack. However, there is need to develop a new therapy to improve the infracted area after the myocardial infarction and also to lower the mortality rate.Approaches: The data were collected from various sources like journal articles, internet, textbooks, related materials in library and databases such as Pubmed, Science Direct, Springer, Google Scholar and so on.Findings: Stem cell-based therapy is found to be a much more promising therapy when compared to other available therapies. Stem cells therapy shows significantly improved heart function after myocardial infarction, therefore decline into heart failure.Conclusion: Recently the interest is stem cell based therapies which provide the potential benefit and have ability to improve the cardiac function. In this review, we highlight the benefits of stem cells in cardiac repair.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Pharmacoeconomic Evaluation in End Stage Renal Diseased Patients

    • Authors: Nandagopal Anitha, Talat Tahseen Fatima, Giri Mrudula
      Abstract: Aim : The purpose of this project is to evaluate the economic evaluation of End Stage Renal Diseased patients within the context of continued economic uncertainty and pressure on healthcare resource use. Objective : These findings are important to find out the impact of cost of haemodialysis on patients suffering from ESRD. Further studies related to costs and outcome, otherwise known as pharmacoeconomic studies, are needed to analyse the cost evaluation in End Stage Renal Dialysis patients. Methodology : A prospective observational study was conducted for a period of Eight months (December 2015 to July 2016) at a tertiary care hospital in the Inpatient Nephrology Department. Patients coming on outpatient basis were selected for the study. Patients were allotted in different shifts either in morning, afternoon or evening, based on their preferences. The patients were followed up for a period of 8 months. The patient sociodemographics, cost details of dialysis, hospital costs, comorbities diseases and their cost, adverse reactions occurred during dialysis, cost to manage such adverse reactions, regularity, affordability, outcome and patient satisfaction to dialysis, etc. were collected prospectively. Result : The total cost per session was found to be around INR 4500. Fifty six percent contributes direct medical cost whereas 20% contributes direct non medical cost. Twenty four percent cost was due to indirect costs. Since the patients are paying from their own pocket, only the upper or upper middle class patient can undergo haemodialysis regularly.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Evaluation of Anti-Asthmatic Activity of Centratherum anthelminticum Linn.
           in Experimental Animals

    • Authors: Samir Shah, Kintu Patel, Kerai Suraj
      Abstract: Purpose: The aim of study was to evaluate the scientific basis for the traditional use of Centratherum anthelminticum Linn. seeds in asthma.Design/Methodology: In the present study, methanolic extract of Centratherum anthelminticum seeds was evaluated for preliminary phytochemical study and antiasthmatic activity by Histamine induced preconvulsion dyspnoea (PCD), Mast cell degranulation (MCD) by compound 48/80 and Egg albumin induced asthma at different dose levels. In PCD animals were divided into three groups and % increase in time of PCD was recorded. In MCD, animals were divided into seven groups and % protection of mast cells was measured. In egg albumin induced asthma, animals were divided into five groups. Broncho alveolar fluid was collected and evaluated. Dunnett's t-test and post hoc test were used for statistical analysis.Findings: Phytochemical study revealed the presence of flavonoids, proteins, Saponins, tannins, steroids, glycosides and phenols. The results of pharmacological studies showed that the methanolic extract of C.anthelminticum significantly decreased bronchospasm induced by histamine and protected the mass cell degranulation as compared to the control groups. It also significantly decreased the total leukocyte and different WBC count in egg albumin induced asthma.Conclusions: Methanolic extract of C.anthelminticum seeds possess antiasthmatic activity. Antiasthmatic action of C.anthelminticum could be due to its antihistaminic, mast cell stabilizing property and preventive effect on infiltration of inflammatory cells.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • A Review:Solid Dispersion, a Technique of Solubility Enhancement

    • Authors: Sangam Shrestha, Preethi Sudheer, Bharani S. Sogali, Deborose Soans
      Abstract: Purpose: The aim of the study was to explore the necessity, advantages and different techniques of solid dispersion for enhancing solubility of poorly soluble drugs.Approach: Different types of solid dispersion have been explained briefly along with the various techniques of solid dispersion in detail.Findings: Solid dispersions of poorly soluble drugs have been found to give positive results in enhancing its solubility and dissolution characters.Conclusion: Solid dispersion techniques improve solubility and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. Solid dispersions can be incorporated into various dosage forms with wide range of applicability.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • An Overview on Anxiety:Etiology and Therapy

    • Authors: Angel Mary, Y. Jyothi, Saifulla Khan, Anuja Ranjan
      Abstract: Purpose: Anxiety disorders have turned out to be the most common mental health conditions prevailing all over the world. The symptoms of anxiety are very common in the community, not only affecting the younger generations but also the elderly. There have been a number of advances in the pharmacotherapy of anxiety disorders in recent decades. Normal anxiety is a kind of emotion that mainly helps to face the threats and problems awaiting an individual. But when this emotion exceeds a certain limit, it causes harm to the same individual. Thus, this paper gives an overall review on what exactly anxiety is, how is it caused and the different treatment methods used so far for anxiety. Apart from this the future aspects has also been covered in this paper.Approaches: The data were collected from various sources like journal articles, textbooks, internet, related materials in library and databases such as pubmed, google scholar and so on.Findings: New developments are forthcoming in the field of alternative strategies for managing anxiety and for treatment-resistant cases.Conclusion: As a word, anxiety may seem very small to read but when it comes to a person's life it can be life threatening. There are varieties of conventional treatment methods available for anxiety and many promising therapies are yet to come.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Anti Leech Activity of Chitosan and Chitosan Chlorhydrate against
           Placobdella Emydae

    • Authors: Yogeshkumar Nanasaheb Gavhane, Adhikrao Vyankatrao Yadav
      Abstract: Background: In different National Pharmacopeias drug for treating complications with leech are not registered.Methods: Antileech activity of Chitosan and Chitosan chlorhydrate (CCH) on Placobdella emydae was examined and compared with Albendazole and Mebendazole as control and distilled water as placebo in terms of mean paralyzing time and mean death time.Results: DSC displayed absence of endothermic peak and glass transition temperature; depicting amorphous nature of Chitosan and CCH. Both Chitosans showed dose dependent activity. Albendazole most effectively killed leeches after 32.5±3.62 min at 2% concentration while 2% Mebendazole took 46.5±3.64 min. Chitosan (2, 3 and 4%) and CCH (1%, 1.5% and 2%) showed 3+ antileech impacts. While Chitosan (5%) and CCH (2.5% + and 3%) showed 4 impact indicating antileech activity. 1% of Albendazole, Mebendazole and 3% CCH showed statistically similar results (p<0.001).Conclusion: High affinity to in-vivo macromolecules might be cause of antileech property possessed by Chitosan products. Both Chitosan forms were amorphous leading to easily enter in parasite body. Possible reason for better performance of CCH could be better transcuticular absorption into parasite.Future Research Implications: Chitosan and CCH can be checked for veterinary application as a de wormer in cattle, pigs and sheep.Socia Implications: Being biodegradable, biocompatible, non toxic, physiologically inert and in amorphous form, CCH can be used as de worming product or as an effective supplement for medicinal products.Originality/Value of Paper: Being not having any effective drug, without side effect and cost benefits; CCH proves to be a solution.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • A Mini Review on Biological Activities of 6-(4-Chlorophenyoxy)-Tetrazolo
           [5,1-A] Phthalazine (Quan-0808) Compound

    • Authors: Mohammad Asif
      Abstract: Purpose: QUAN-0808 (6-(4-chlorophenoxy)-tetrazolo[5,1-a]phthalazine) was tested for the anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticoagulant, antithrombotic and antidepressant effects.Approaches: Anticonvulsant activity was testedby electroshock seizure model and neurotoxicity was tested by the rotarod neurotoxicity test in mice. In chemically induced models of seizure like pentylenetetrazole, isoniazid, thiosemicarbazide and 3-mercaptopropionic acid were further tested for the anticonvulsant activity.Findings: QUAN-0808 caused significant anticonvulsant activity against all types of seizures. It appreciably reduced xylene-induced ear edema, reduced the prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide levels on the edema and reduced acetic acid-induced capillary permeability hyperactivity and reduced acetic acid-induced writhing response. It exhibited anti-inflammatory and antinociceptiveeffect in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusions: The peripheral effect mechanisms of QUAN-0808 may be related to a reduced in the formation of PGE2, NO, bradykinin and additional inflammatory mediators. The anticoagulant and antithrombotic effects of Q808 delayed bleeding and clotting time in mice. QUAN-0808 exerts anticoagulant, antithrombotic and antidepressant effect, exhibited a significant reduction in immobility as antidepressant.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Screening the Influence of Comorbidities Treatment on Diabetes Management

    • Authors: Kayamkani Abedulla Khan, Asthm A. Jabeen
      Abstract: Purpose of the Study :Diabetics is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with high blood glucose level, it causes various co-morbidities. Family physicians are responsible for diagnosing and treating the majority of people with diabetes mellitus and its associated co-morbidities. This study aims to screen the influence of comorbidities treatment on diabetic management in tertiary care hospital.Methodology : Demographic details of patient, present disease condition, drugs prescribed was collected from case report and their care takers were interviewed for their past medication history, family history and their priorities on diabetic care.Results :Out of 152 cases 61.8% were males and 38.1 % were females. The majority of patients belong to 51-60 years age group. When we combined all co morbidities into single score, we found the expected relationship the greater the number of co-morbities the lower the scores for diabetes prioritization and diabetes management. Different co-morbid conditions are responsible for the progression of the disease. Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Chronic kidney disease has more effect on diabetic management.Conclusion :This study confirms the need for comprehensive guidelines to effectively care for patients with multiple diseases. Hence effective standard guidelines are needed for the management of diabetes and its comorbidities.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Augmentation of Permeability of Drugs having P-Glycoprotein Inhibition for
           Efficiency in Nocturnal Acid Breakthrough

    • Authors: Harsha Reddy, Bhavani Boddeda, Prasanthi Boddu, Vijaya Ratna Jayanti
      Abstract: Purpose : Ranitidine is a BCS class III drug having low oral, lipophilicity and is susceptible to the Pglycoprotein (P-gp) efflux mechanism. Permeation enhancers enhance the bioavailability of ranitidine by increasing the partition coefficient (Koct/buffer there by increasing the lipophilicity and permeability. The main) aim of the present work is to overcome the problems of ranitidine bioavailability by expending permeation enhancers and P-gp inhibitors.Methodology : The existence of synergistic activity in permeation enhancement effect was studied using EDTA, citric acid, oleic acid, caprylic acid, sodium glycocholate and sodium deoxycholate. The P-gp inhibitor used here was felodipine, a first generation inhibitor showed P-gp inhibition activity at a concentration where it shows it pharmacological action. Three formulations were formulated and subjected to various physiochemical evaluations like weight variation, friability, hardness, drug content, in vitro drug release and kinetic studies.A continuous dissolution-absorption system was designed using everted intestine segment.Results : Synergistic effect in enhancing the permeability of ranitidine was found to exist between chelating agents in combination with fatty acids and its derivatives. From the precompression parameters data of the lubricated blend, it was found that the flow ability was good and can be compressed into tablets by direct compression method. The formulated ranitidine immediate release tablets exhibited first order release kinetics, resulting in rapid and complete release for two h.Conclusion : The effective drug permeability (Peff) after three h or formulations TAB, TAB37, TAB37-PGP and TAB-MARK is 2.60, 3.17, 3.66 and 2.68, respectively. This shows that the permeability through chick intestine is more from TAB37-PGP by increased P-gp inhibition.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Effect of Methanolic Root Extracts of Ethnomedicinal Plants on Paracetamol
           Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    • Authors: Sujani Kamble, B. Ganga Rao
      Abstract: Purpose : To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of methanolic root extracts of Memecylon malabaricum (MM), Andrographis serpyllifolia (AS) and Leucas aspera (LA) against the paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity.Approach : The methanolic root extracts of MM (family: Melastomaceae), AS (family: Acanthaceae) and LA (family: Lamiaceae) was studied at different doses and compared with standard Silymarin (25 mg/kg b.w). All the doses were administered orally. Thereafter, paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in elevation of the serum levels of biochemical parameters like SGOT, SGPT, ALKP, TBL and CHL were studied.Findings : The rats treated with the methanolic root extracts of MM, AS, LA and silymarin showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in all the elevated SGOT, SGPT, ALKP, TBL, CHL and significant increase (p<0.05) in TPTN and ALB levels at dose dependent manner. Pretreatment with Silymarin and methanolic root extracts MM, AS and LA produced significant antihepatotoxic activity.Conclusion : The reduction of elevated serum levels were explored by evaluated hepatoprotective activity of methanolic root extracts of MM, AS and LA against the paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Protective Effect of Tamarindus Indica Fruit Pulp Extract on Expression of
           Type 1 Collagen in Teeth of Fluoride Exposed Rats

    • Authors: Amit Raj Gupta, Sahadeb Dey, Mohini Saini, Devendra Swarup
      Abstract: Purpose: The present study investigated the beneficial effect of Tamarindus indica fruit pulp extract on the expression of type 1 collagen gene in dentin of incisor teeth of fluoride exposed rats.Design/Methodology/Approach: Eighteen rats were randomly divided into three groups of six each. Group I served as control and received only tap water; group II received 200 ppm sodium fluoride in their drinking water and group III received fluorinated drinking water along with hydro-methanolic extract of T. indica fruit pulp (200 mg/kg body weight) daily by gavage for a period of 90 days. Dentin from incisor teeth was harvested at the end of the experiment for total RNA extraction.Findings: Fluoride exposed rats showed the down-regulation of expression of type 1 collagen (Col1a1) gene as compared to control. Co-administration of T. indica fruit pulp extract during exposure to fluoride through drinking water increases the expression of Col1a1 gene in dentin as compared to untreated fluoride exposed rats.Conclusion: It is concluded that daily oral administration T. indica fruit pulp extract had the protective effect on fluoride induced down regulation of type 1 collagen mRNA in dentin of incisor teeth of rats.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Development of Nevirapine Tablets by Direct Compression Method Using Solid
           Dispersion Technique

    • Authors: T. Mamatha, Naseha, N. Anitha, Husna K. Qureshi
      Abstract: Purpose: The aim of the research is to develop Nevirapine tablets by direct compression method by improving solubility using solid dispersion technique.Methodology: Nevirapine is anti-viral drug, which is used in the prevention and treatment of HIV infections. It belongs to class II drug in Bio-Pharmaceutical Classification System i.e. low solubility and high permeability. It has a biological half-life of 45 hours. One of the major problems with this drug is its low solubility in biological fluids, which results into poor bioavailability after oral administration. Here, solid dispersions of Nevirapine are prepared with different carriers such as Plasdone S-630 and Soluplus in order to increase its solubility and dissolution rate. By increasing the solubility of Nevirapine, its bioavailability can be increased. Pre-formulation studies regarding the drug-carrier interaction was carried out by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Nevirapine solid dispersions were evaluated for solubility, drug content estimation and in vitro dissolution studies. Powder blend was evaluated for bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio and angle of repose.Findings: The dissolution pattern of the Nevirapine from all the standard dispersions followed predominantly first order kinetics. The study reflects the vital role of polymers as a novel approach to improve the solubility of nevirapine, which could minimize the variable dissolution rate with increase in bioavailability. With the studies conducted, the percentage drug release of Nevirapine was increased by melting method with Nevirapine: Plasdone S630 in the ratio of 1:2.Practical implications: Nevirapine is a suitable drug to formulate into tablet by using the above mentioned carriers and may provide a better therapeutic profile than that of conventional dosage form.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Standardization and Phytochemical Investigation of Calendula Officinalis,
           Cassia Tora and Momordica Charantia Seed Extract

    • Authors: T. S. Roopashree, Raman Dang
      Abstract: Purpose: "Standardization" the process of developing and implementing technical standards and to maximize compatibility, safety, repeatability and quality of the drugs is one of the important measures in view of the various practical problems encountered from time to time especially in the field of herbal drugs and Ayurveda.Scientific data pertaining to the standardization of the herbal drugs could be of immense value to substantiate efficacy, safety or toxicity of an herb. Hence present study was intended to standardize Calendula officinalis flowers, Cassia tora and Momordicacharantia seed extracts, since these are widely used in large number of herbal, ayurvedic and homeopathic formulations.Methodology: Systematic investigations were carried out to assess various quality parameters as per WHO guidelines such as morphological, microscopical and proximate analysis including ash values, moisture contents and extractive values and TLC for Calendula officinalis flowers, Cassia tora and Momordicacharantia seed extracts.Results: Results indicated the authenticity of the herbal drugs used in the study. Organoleptic and proximate analyseswere well within the acceptable limits. TLC system was developed for identification of the extracts. Quantitative estimation of total saponins, phenols and flavonoid contents were determined. Herbs tested indicated absence of heavy metals and arsenic. Qualitative phyto chemical analysis of extracts obtained using different solvents revealed presence of glycosides, saponins, triterpenes, phenols, tannins and carbohydrates in different extracts.Conclusion: Study was successful in establishing quality standards for the flowers of Calendula officinalis, seed of Momordicacharantia and Cassia tora. These preliminary studies may offer great help in initial procurement and assessment of quality of the crude drugs when these are being used as raw materials for preparations of herbal formulations.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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