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Journal Cover Global Medical & Health Communication
  [1 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2301-9123 - ISSN (Online) 2460-5441
   Published by Universitas Islam Bandung Homepage  [4 journals]
  • Mendukung Bangkitnya Kesehatan dan Sains Bangsa Indonesia Menuju Era
           Global

    • Authors: Titik Respati
      Pages: 77 - 78
      PubDate: 2017-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Efektivitas Penurunan Malondialdehyde dengan Kombinasi Suplemen
           Antioksidan Superoxide Dismutase Melon dengan Gliadin Akibat Paparan Asap
           Rokok

    • Authors: Rivan Virlando Suryadinata, Bambang Wirjatmadi, Merryana Adriani
      Pages: 79 - 83
      Abstract: Abstrak
      Jumlah perokok di Indonesia makin meningkat setiap tahunnya hingga mencapai hampir 40% dari total penduduk. Terapi antioksidan dapat menurunkan radikal bebas akibat asap rokok yang dapat menyebabkan kerusakan dan kematian sel dalam tubuh. Antioksidan superoxide dismutase ekstrak melon dengan kombinasi gliadin berpotensi menurunkan radikal bebas dengan menurunkan malondialdehyde (MDA) dalam darah. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui efektivitas suplemen superoxide dismutase-gliadin (SOD-gliadin) dalam menurunkan kadar MDA akibat paparan asap rokok terhadap tikus Wistar. Penelitian menggunakan metode ekperimental dengan post-test control group design di Laboratorium Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Airlangga. Pemberian suplemen SOD-gliadin dengan paparan asap rokok dua batang per hari dilakukan selama 28 hari (5 April 2016 sampai 12 Mei 2016) dengan menggunakan kelompok kontrol negatif, kelompok kontrol positif, dan tiga kelompok perlakuan dengan dosis ekstrak melon yang berbeda. Selanjutnya, pengukuran kadar MDA dilakukan dengan mengambil serum darah pada semua kelompok. Hasil penelitian, suplemen SOD-gliadin berpengaruh terhadap penurunan kadar MDA serum (ANOVA, p=0,000). Uji least significant difference (LSD) menunjukkan kelima kelompok memberikan hasil yang signifikan terhadap penurunan kadar MDA pada tikus Wistar yang terpapar asap rokok (p<0,05). Penurunan kadar MDA terendah terjadi pada dosis ketiga dibanding dengan dosis SOD-gliadin lainnya. Simpulan, pemberian suplemen SOD-gliadin dapat mengurangi radikal bebas akibat paparan asap rokok.
      The number of smokers in Indonesia was increasing every year to reach nearly 40% of the total population. Antioxidants superoxide dismutase of melon extract able to reduce free radicals in the body. The decrease of free radicals in the body can be measured from malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the blood. This research aims to determine the effectiveness of melon extract for lowering malondyaldehyde level of cigarette smoke exposure on Wistar rats. Research using experimental methods with posttest control group design in Laboratory Medical Faculty, Airlangga University. Melon extract intake with exposure two cigarettes per day for 28 days (5 April 2016 until 12 May 2016) was done by using a negative control group, positive control group and 3 groups experiment with different doses of melon extract. The measurement of MDA level done by taking a blood serum in all groups after 28 days. The results showed SOD-gliadin effect of decreased levels of serum MDA (ANOVA, p=0.000). Least significant difference (LSD) test  showed all groups significant results to decreased levels of MDA in Wistar rats were exposed to smoke (p<0.05). The third dose was decreased levels of MDA lowest compared to other doses of SOD-gliadin. The conclusion of the research, SOD-gliadin supplementation can reduce free radical role in the body as a result of exposure to cigarette smoke. 
      PubDate: 2017-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Peningkatan Kompetensi Dokter Pasca-Program Internship Dokter Indonesia
           (PIDI) Tahun 2013

    • Authors: Siti Nur Hasanah, Mieska Despitasari, Harimat Hendarwan
      Pages: 84 - 90
      Abstract: Abstrak
      PIDI merupakan tahap pelatihan keprofesian praregistrasi berbasis kompetensi pelayanan primer guna memahirkan kompetensi yang telah dicapai setelah memperoleh kualifikasi sebagai dokter melalui pendidikan kedokteran dasar. PIDI dilaksanakan di fasilitas pelayanan kesehatan yang menjadi wahana internship. Telah dilakukan penelitian dengan desain potong lintang untuk memperoleh gambaran pelaksanaan program dan penilaian kompetensi peserta internship tahun 2013. Populasi penelitian adalah peserta internship periode Maret­–Mei 2012. Sampel penelitian adalah peserta internship dari 9 FK di 9 kabupaten/kota di 9 provinsi, dipilih melalui multistage sampling dengan mempertimbangkan status akreditasi asal FK peserta internship, kepemilikan FK, wilayah penempatan, dan frekuensi keterlibatan wahana internship. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui kelompok diskusi terfokus, wawancara, observasi, dan telaah dokumen. Terjadi peningkatan pemahiran, pemandirian, dan profesionalisme pada 7 area kompetensi inti dokter melalui proses internship 75–98,3%. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa PIDI diperlukan dalam proses pemahiran, pemandirian, dan peningkatan profesionalisme. Proporsi penanggulangan kasus UKP peserta sudah memenuhi target yang ditetapkan. Sebanyak 78% jenis kasus memiliki proporsi penanganan kasus UKP di atas target. Cakupan kegiatan terbesar berada pada penanganan kasus bedah (94,1%). PIDI perlu dilanjutkan karena berdampak meningkatkan luaran profesionalisme dokter dan peningkatan sistem pelayanan kesehatan. Diperlukan peningkatan kualitas luaran Fakultas Kedokteran agar peningkatan pemahiran dan pemandirian serta profesionalisme dapat berjalan secara optimal.
      PIDI is a training in pre-registration phase of competency-based primary care to improve competency gained after doctor qualification from basic medical education. PIDI implemented in health care facilities that called “wahana”. A cross sectional research has been conducted in March–May 2013 to obtain PIDI implementation and assessment of interns’ competency. The population was interns which start their internship in May 2012. Interns from 9 medical faculties from 9 districts/cities in 9 provinces were selected as samples by multistage sampling considering the accreditation of medical faculties where interns finished their study, medical faculties’ ownership (public or private), placement and frequency of site’s involvement on PIDI. Data collected through focus group discussions, interviews, observation, and documents review. Results showed that competency in seven core competencies, autonomy and professionalism have been improved 75–98.3% through PIDI. This shows that PIDI was needed as a competencies, autonomy and professionalism enhancement before a doctor do his/her private practice. The proportion of 2013 interns’ handling on personal health care (UKP) has already meet the target. 78% of UKP’s type of cases have been done by interns. The highest proportion in surgical cases (94.1%). PIDI should be continued because it affects on the improvement of doctors’ professionalism and improved health care system. It is necessary to improve the quality of Medical faculty’s output in order to optimize the improvement on doctors’ competencies, autonomy and professionalism.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Akurasi Kriteria Voltase Elektrokardiografi Hipertrofi Ventrikel Kiri
           untuk Membedakan Jenis Geometri Hipertrofi Ventrikel Kiri

    • Authors: Octo Tumbur, Zainal Safri, Refli Hassan
      Pages: 91 - 96
      Abstract: Abstrak
      Perbedaan jenis geometri hipertrofi ventrikel kiri dikaitkan dengan risiko penyakit kardiovaskular yang berbeda. Ekokardiografi dengan bantuan kriteria voltase elektrokardiografi (EKG) hipertrofi ventrikel kiri dapat membedakan jenis geometri hipertrofi ventrikel kiri. Tujuan penelitian mengetahui peranan berbagai kriteria voltase EKG hipertrofi ventrikel kiri untuk membedakan jenis geometri hipertrofi ventrikel kiri. Dilakukan penelitian potong lintang periode Juni–November 2015 terhadap 100 pasien di poliklinik dan rawat inap kardiologi RSUP H. Adam Malik Medan. Dilakukan anamnesis, pengukuran indeks massa tubuh, serta pemeriksaan EKG dan ekokardiografi. Jika hasil kriteria EKG hipertrofi ventrikel kiri Sokolow-Lyon tidak dipenuhi maka didapatkan geometri ventrikel kiri normal dengan sensitivitas 60%, spesifisitas 72,22%, dan akurasi 71%. Untuk jenis geometri eksentrik hipertrofi ventrikel kiri didapatkan bila Cornel voltase tidak dipenuhi, sensitivitasnya 25%, spesifisitas 71,88% dan akurasi 55%. Untuk jenis hipertrofi geometri konsentrik bila rasio RV6/V5 >1 dipenuhi, sensitivitasnya 55,56%, spesifisitas 56,36% dan akurasi 56%. Jika rasio RV6/V5 >1 tidak dipenuhi, jenis geometri konsentrik remodeling hipertrofi ditentukan dengan sensitivitas 55,56%, spesifisitas 49,45% dan akurasi 50%. Pada penelitian ini juga didapatkan sensitivitas dan spesifisitas kriteria Sokolow-Lyon untuk hipertrofi ventrikel kiri secara ekokardiografi dengan sensitivitas 72,22% dan spesifisitas 60,00%, kriteria Cornel voltase untuk hipertrofi ventrikel kiri secara ekokardiografi dengan sensitivitas 77,78% dan spesifisitas 70,00%, dan kriteria rasio RV6/V5 untuk hipertrofi ventrikel kiri secara ekokardiografi dengan sensitivitas 51,11% dan spesifisitas 70,00%. Secara keseluruhan, sensitivitas dan spesifisitas termasuk lemah. Simpulan, berbagai kriteria EKG ventrikel kiri dapat membedakan jenis geometri hipertrofi ventrikel kiri. Kriteria EKG hipertrofi kiri voltase, yaitu Sokolow-Lyon dan Cornel voltase sensitivitas dan spesifisitas lebih baik dibanding dengan rasio RV6/V5.
      The different types of left ventricular hypertrophy geometry is associated with different risk of cardiovascular disease. Echocardiography is the gold standard for diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy. Electrocardiographic (ECG)left ventricular hypertrophy voltage criteria can distinguish the type of geometry of left ventricular hypertrophy. The purpose of this study to find out the role of various voltage ECG criteria to distinguish the type of geometry of left ventricle hypertrophy. A cross-sectional study doing from June to November 2015 on 100 patients in cardiology clinic and inpatient at Adam Malik Hospital, Medan, through anamnesis, body mass index  measurement, ECG and echocardiography examinations. If the Sokolow-Lyon ECG criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy did not met, normal left ventricular geometry was diagnosed with 60% sensitivity, 72.22% specificity and 71% accuracy. The eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy geometry was diagnosed if Cornel voltage was not fulfilled, with 25% sensitivity, 71.88% specificity and 55% accuracy. The concentric hypertrophy geometry was diagnosed if the RV6/V5 ratio >1, with 55.56% sensitivity, 56.36% specificity and 56% accuracy. If the RV6/V5 ratio >1 are not met, concentric hypertrophic remodeling geometry was diagnosed with a sensitivity of 55.56%, a specificity of 49.45% and an accuracy of 50%. This study also found the sensitivity and specificity for left ventricular hypertrophy in echocardiography of Sokolow-Lyon criteria were 72.22% and 60.00%, the Cornel voltage criteria with a sensitivity of 77.78% and a specificity of 70.00%, and RV6/V5 ratio criteria with a sensitivity of 51.11% and a specificity of 70.00%. The overall sensitivity and specificity was low. In conclusion, various criteria of  ECG left ventricular geometry voltage can differentiate left ventricular hypertrophy geometry types. Sokolow-Lyon and Cornell voltage criteria are more sensitive and specific than the RV6/V5 ratio.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Deteksi Aktivitas Fibrinolitik Isolat Bakteri WU 021055* Asal Perairan
           Pantai Papuma Jember Menggunakan Zimografi

    • Authors: Evi Umayah Ulfa, Esti Utarti, Izzay Afkarina, Sattya Arimurti, Kartika Senjarini
      Pages: 97 - 102
      Abstract: Abstrak
      Bakteri merupakan sumber penting berbagai enzim termasuk enzim fibrinolitik. Enzim ini diperlukan untuk mendegradasi bekuan darah pada orang yang mengalami penyakit trombosis. Isolat bakteri WU 021055* asal Pantai Papuma Jember terbukti menghasilkan enzim fibrinolitik ekstraseluler. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui ukuran protein yang memiliki aktivitas fibrinolitik dan mengidentifikasi karakteristik morfologi isolat WU bakteri WU 021055*. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Laboratorium Mikrobiologi, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas Jember pada April–Agustus 2014. Aktivitas fibrinolitik presipitat protein (PP) ditentukan menggunakan metode fibrin plate agar dan zimografi fibrin. Ekstrak protein kasar (EPK) dipanen pada jam ke-12 dan dipresipitasi menggunakan amonium sulfat 80%. Hasil uji aktivitas fibrinolitik menggunakan fibrin plate agar menunjukkan presipitat memiliki aktivitas fibrinolitik lebih besar dibanding dengan EPK. Dari hasil karakterisasi PP menggunakan sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) diperoleh 11 pita protein dengan ukuran 12–41 kDa. Berdasar atas hasil zimografi fibrin, pita protein dengan berat molekul 24 kDa yang memberikan aktivitas fibrinolitik. Protein dengan ukuran 24 kDa ini mampu mendegradasi substrat fibrin. Simpulan, isolat bakteri WU 021055* mengandung berbagai protein ekstraseluler, memiliki bentuk koloni bulat berwarna putih dan termasuk bakteri gram prositif berbentuk batang.
      Bacteria were important resources for various enzymes including fibrinolytic enzymes. This enzyme is  capable of degrading fibrin clot in patient with thrombotic diseases. Bacterial isolate of WU 021055* from Papuma Beach Coastal Jember could secrete extracellular fibrinolytic enzymes. The objective of this reasearch was to determine the molecular weight of protein responsible for fibrinolytic activity and to identify morphologycal characterization of bacterial isolate of WU 021055*. This study was conducted at Laboratory of Microbiology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Jember in April–August 2014. Fibrinolytic activity of precipitate protein (PP) was determined by using fibrin plate agar and fibrin zymography. Crude protein extract (CPE) was harvested at 12 hours and precipitated by 80% ammonium sulphates. The result of fibrinolityc activity determination showed that fibrinolytic activity of PP was higher than CPE. Protein characterization of PP by using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) obtained 11 different protein bands corresponds to value 12–42 kDa. Based on fibrin zymography, the 24 kDa protein might contribute to fibrinolytic activity due to degraded fibrin substrates. In conclusion, bacterial isolate of WU 021055* contained extracellular fibrin protein was white colony and gram positives bacilli able to degraded.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Efek Larvasida Ekstrak Etanol Daun Pandan Wangi (Pandanus amaryllifolius
           Roxb.) terhadap Larva Nyamuk Culex sp

    • Authors: Regina Putri, Teresa Liliana Wargasetia, Susy Tjahjani
      Pages: 103 - 107
      Abstract: Abstrak
      Salah satu cara pemberantasan nyamuk Culex yang merupakan vektor beberapa penyakit antara lain filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, dan West Nile virus ialah dengan larvasida. Larvasida berbahan kimia (temephos) memiliki efek samping berbahaya bagi kesehatan dan lingkungan. Oleh sebab itu, dilakukan penelitian penggunaan daun pandan wangi (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) sebagai larvasida alami. Tujuan penelitian mengetahui apakah ekstrak etanol daun pandan wangi memiliki efek larvasida alami terhadap larva Culex sp. Penelitian dilakukan di Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Kristen Maranatha pada Februari–Juli 2016. Desain penelitian bersifat eksperimental laboratorik dengan metode rancangan acak lengkap. Efek larvasida ekstrak daun pandan wangi (EDPW) diuji terhadap 6 kelompok perlakuan (n=30, r=4) larva Culex sp. Kelompok I (EDPW 4%), II (EDPW 2%), III (EDPW 1%), IV (EDPW 0,5%), V (temephos sebagai kontrol positif), dan VI (akuades sebagai kontrol negatif). Data yang diambil ialah jumlah larva mati setelah pemberian bahan uji selama 24 jam. Analisis data dengan ANAVA dan uji Tukey HSD dengan nilai α=0,01. Hasil penelitian berupa persentase larva mati pada kelompok I (96,67%), II (79,17%), III (50%), dan IV (17,5%) menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan (p≤0,01) terhadap kelompok VI (1,67%). Tidak terdapat perbedaan signifikan (p>0,01) antara kelompok I dan V (100%). Simpulan, EDPW berefek sebagai larvasida terhadap larva nyamuk Culex sp dan EDPW 4% memiliki potensi setara dengan temephos.
      One way to eradicate Culex mosquitoes that are vector for several diseases such as filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, and West Nile virus is with larvicide. Larvicide made from chemical (temephos) have harmful side effects to health and environment. Therefore research of fragnant pandan leaves (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) as natural larvicide was conducted. This study aims to find out whether fragnant pandan leaves ethanol extract has natural larvicide effect against Culex sp larvae. The study was conducted at Faculty of Medicine, Maranatha Christian University in February to July 2016. This study design was laboratoric experimental with complete randomized design. Larvicidal effect of fragnant pandan leaves extract (FPLE) was tested against 6 groups (n=30, r=4) Culex larvae. Group I (FPLE 4%), II (FPLE 2%), III (FPLE 1%), IV (0,5%), V (temephos as a positive control), and VI (aquadest as a negative control). The taken data was the number of larvae that died after administration of the substance for 24 hours. Data was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey HSD test using α=0,01. The results of the study were the percentage of dead larvae in group I (96,67%), II (79,17%), III (50%), and IV (17,5%) showed a significant difference (p≤0,01) to group VI (1,67%). There were no significant difference (p>0,01) between group I and group V (100%). The conclusion of this study is there was an effect of FPLE as larvicide against Culex mosquito larvae and FPLE 4% had equivalent potential to temephos.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Pengembangan Instrumen Pengukur Kualitas Pelayanan Kesehatan berdasar atas
           Harapan Peserta Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional di Rumah Sakit

    • Authors: Ida Hadiyati, Nanan Sekarwana, Deni Kurniadi Sunjaya, Elsa Pudji Setiawati
      Pages: 108 - 116
      Abstract: Abstrak
      Perbaikan kualitas pelayanan kesehatan di rumah sakit perlu dilakukan secara berkesinambungan. Pengukuran kualitas pelayanan kesehatan dapat dilakukan melalui beberapa pendekatan, di antaranya berdasar atas harapan pasien. Dengan menggali harapan pasien, aspek pelayanan kesehatan yang dianggap penting bagi pasien dapat dipahami oleh penyedia layanan. Pada era Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional (JKN), di Indonesia belum terdapat instrumen pengukur kualitas pelayanan berdasar atas harapan pasien sehingga peneliti bermaksud menyusun instrumen untuk mengukur kualitas pelayanan kesehatan berdasar atas harapan pasien. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kuantitatif dengan desain cross-sectional yang dilakukan terhadap 39 peserta JKN di Instalasi Rawat Jalan, RSUD Al-Ihsan, Kabupaten Bandung pada November 2016–Januari 2017. Pasien peserta JKN yang berobat rawat jalan lebih dari satu kali, dapat berkomunikasi dengan bahasa Indonesia, dan berpendidikan minimal SMA atau sederajat dilibatkan menjadi responden dalam penelitian ini. Data diperoleh melalui wawancara menggunakan instrumen yang disusun dari penelitian kualitatif mengenai kualitas pelayanan berdasar atas harapan pasien. Data yang diperoleh merupakan data ordinal yang merupakan tingkatan harapan pasien. Metode analisis yang digunakan untuk uji validitas dan reliabilitas adalah analisis pemodelan Rasch. Diperoleh instrumen pengukur kualitas pelayanan kesehatan berdasar atas harapan pasien yang terdiri atas 11 aspek, yakni sarana prasarana, karyawan, pelayanan medik, pelayanan administrasi, keamanan, kepercayaan, akses, transparansi informasi, kesetaraan, iur biaya, dan kualitas antarbagian. Nilai reliabilitas instrumen 0,92 dan alfa Cronbach 0,94. Terdapat 43 butir pertanyaan yang memiliki nilai outfit mean square di antara +2,0 dan +0,5; nilai outfit z-standard di antara +2,0 dan −2,0; serta nilai point measure correlation yang positif. Simpulan, diperoleh instrumen pengukur kualitas pelayanan kesehatan berdasar atas harapan pasien JKN yang valid dan reliabel, terdiri atas 11 aspek dan 43 butir pertanyaan.
      Improving healthcare quality at the hospital should be done continually. Quality of healthcare can be evaluated using some methods, one of them is measuring patient’s expectation. Exploring patient’s expectation describes important aspects of healthcare that should be understood by healthcare provider. In this era of the National Health Insurance, in Indonesia there’s still no health care quality instrument available yet, especially based on patients’ expectation. The author aimed to develop an instrument measuring quality of health care based on patient’s expectation at hospital. A qualitative study designed by cross-sectional was conducted to 39 participants of National Health Insurance at Outpatient Installation of Al-Ihsan Bandung District Hospital in November 2016–Januari 2017. National Health Insurance participants who had treatment more than once, could speak Indonesian fluently, and graduated from senior high school was involved in this study. The data was obtained by an interview using an instrument which was developed from a qualitative study. The data was an ordial scale measurement describing level of patient expectation. The method to analyze validity and reliability of the instrument was the Rasch model. Instrument measuring health care quality based on patient expectation consists of 11 aspects, those are facility and infrastructure, hospital staff, medical service, administrative service, safety, trustworthiness, access, transparacy of information, equality, cost sharing, and interdepartment quality. The reliability index of the instrument is 0.92 and Cronbach’s alpha index is 0.94. There are 45 items which have outfit mean square index between +2.0 and +0.5, outfit z-standard index between +2.0 and -2.0, and positive point measure correlation index. In conclusion, the instrument measuring quality of health care based on patient’s expectation is valid and reliable, contains 11 dimensions and 43 items.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Peningkatan Ekspresi Gen NKG2D Sel-sel NK oleh Brokoli
           untuk Mencegah Kanker

    • Authors: Diana Krisanti Jasaputra, Khie Khiong Tjhia, Ervi Afifah, Hanna Sari W. Kusuma
      Pages: 117 - 122
      Abstract: AbstrakKanker termasuk kelompok penyakit tidak menular (non-communicable diseases atau NCD) dan penyebab kematian terbesar di dunia. Salah satu faktor yang memengaruhi perkembangan kanker adalah reseptor NKG2D (natural-killer group 2, member D) merupakan kompleks reseptor yang mengaktivasi sel NK dan penting dalam immunosurveilance kanker. Brokoli, sayuran golongan Cruciferae, mengandung glukosinolat dan isotiosianat. Glukosinolat akan dihidrolisis oleh mirosinase (thioglucodase β) dan membentuk senyawa isotiosianat. Senyawa isotiosianat penting untuk mencegah kanker adalah senyawa sulforafan. Tujuan penelitian adalah menilai efek brokoli dalam meningkatkan ekspresi reseptor NKG2D dalam rangka memperbaiki aktivitas sel NK untuk mencegah kanker. Penelitian ini bersifat prospektif eksperimental laboratorium bersifat komparatif yang dilakukan di Laboratorium Aretha Medika Utama pada Februari–Juli 2016. Brokoli di-freeze dryer dan dibuat tepung dua konsentrasi, yaitu 50 μg/mL dan 25 μg/mL. Penelitian diawali dengan perbanyakan sel NK (cell line), kemudian dilanjutkan dengan perlakuan selama 24 jam dan penilaian ekspresi gen NKG2D menggunakan qPCR. Data penelitian ekspresi gen NKG2D dihitung dengan rumus Livak dan dianalisis menggunakan uji ANOVA satu arah dan uji lanjutan Tukey (SPSS 16). Pemberian brokoli konsentrasi 50 μg/mL dan 25 μg/mL meningkatkan level ekspresi gen NKG2D yang mengindikasikan peningkatan aktivitas sel-sel NK. Simpulan penelitian ini adalah pemberian brokoli meningkatkan aktivitas sel-sel NK dalam mencegah dan melawan sel-sel kanker. Cancer is the non-communicable diseases (NCD) and the biggest cause of death in the world. One of the factors that affect cancer development is NKG2D receptors (natural-killer group 2, member D) is a receptor complex that activates NK cells and is important in cancer immunosurveilance. Broccoli, Cruciferae vegetable, contains glucosinolate and isothiocyanate. Glucosinolate will be hydrolysed by the mirosinase (thioglucodase β) and form the isothiocyanate compound. Isothiocyanate compounds essential to prevent cancer are sulforafan compounds. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of broccoli in enhancing NKG2D receptor expression in order to improve NK cell activity to prevent cancer. This experimental study is a comparative true experimental laboratory, conducted in the Aretha Medika Utama in February to July 2016. Broccoli is freeze dryer and made two concentrations of flour, 50 μg/mL and 25 μg/mL. The study begins with multiplication of NK cells (cell line), then continued with treatment for 24 hours and assessment of NKG2D gene expression using qPCR. NKG2D gene expression research data was calculated by Livak formula and analyzed using one-way ANOVA test and Tukey's advanced test (SPSS 16). The administration of broccoli concentrations of 50 μg/mL and 25 μg/mL increased the level of NKG2D gene expression, indicating an increase in NK cell activity. The conclusion of this study is the provision of broccoli increases the activity of NK cells in preventing and fighting cancer cells.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Kesiapan Masyarakat dalam Melaksanakan dan Memanfaatkan Posyandu Penyakit
           Tidak Menular di Desa Cilayung dan Cipacing, Kecamatan Jatinangor

    • Authors: Yulia Sofiatin, Rully M.A. Roesli
      Pages: 123 - 131
      Abstract: Abstrak
      Pengendalian hipertensi dan penyakit tidak menular (PTM) memerlukan kerja sama pasien karena pilar utama pengendalian PTM adalah pengetahuan penderita dan kepatuhan dalam menjalankan upaya pengendaliannya. Sampai saat ini pemberian edukasi di sarana kesehatan tidak efektif sehingga diperlukan upaya lain seperti kelompok dukungan pasien dan peningkatan kemampuan masyarakat. Pos pelayanan terpadu (posyandu) PTM merupakan salah satu alternatif. Penelitian ini bertujuan menggali kesiapan kader posyandu dan pasien hipertensi mengenai kemungkinan pelaksanaan posyandu khusus PTM. Telah dilakukan diskusi kelompok terarah (DKT) terhadap dua kelompok (kader dan penderita) di Desa Cilayung dan Cipacing serta 1 (satu) sesi wawancara mendalam terhadap Kepala Puskesmas Kecamatan Jatinangor, Sumedang pada Maret–April 2017 dengan tingkat partisipasi peserta cukup baik. Keempat kelompok menyatakan kebutuhan terhadap posyandu PTM dengan aktivitas selain pemantauan tekanan darah dan berat badan yang dibutuhkan adalah penyuluhan mengenai perbaikan gaya hidup dan kepatuhan berobat. Kader Desa Cipacing siap melaksanakan penyuluhan jika telah mendapat pelatihan, tetapi kader Desa Cilayung menginginkan penyuluh dari luar lingkungan mereka. Terdapat kebutuhan kemudahan mendapatkan obat karena pengambilan obat di puskesmas dirasakan membutuhkan biaya transportasi yang cukup tinggi. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa masyarakat dan kader merasakan kebutuhan terhadap posyandu PTM, tetapi kesiapan mereka berbeda-beda.
      The main pilars of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) management are patient’s awareness, knowledge and compliance. At present, education by health provider in health facilities has been proven to be not effective that other measures such as patient support group and community empowerement are needed. The options is through integrated health post (posyandu) for NCD. The aim of this research was to explore the readiness of the community to run and utilize such post. Four sessions of focus group discussions with two groups of health cadres and two groups of people with high blood pressure in Cilayung and Cipacing villages and 1 (one) session of indepth interview towards the Head of Public Health Center (Puskesmas) at Jatinangor, Sumedang, Indonesia were held on March–April 2017 with high participations. Each group expresses the needs of patient support group and community empowerement through regular integrated health post for NCDs. Schedulled screening and mass education especially for life style modification and drug used are urgent. Health cadres of urban community are ready to lead the activities, while those from rural area ask for formal educators. Drug dispensing at public health center is favourable due to expensive transportation to primary health care. In conclusion, communities in Jatinangor need integrated health post for NCD to assist them to manage their blood pressure and other NCDs although their readinesses were vary.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Pengaruh Penerapan Aplikasi Sayang ke Buah Hati (SEHATI) terhadap
           Pengetahuan Ibu dan Aktivitas Fisik pada Anak Sekolah Dasar

    • Authors: Nurul Auliya Kamila, Hadi Susiarno, Dida Akhmad Gurnida, Irvan Afriandi, Herry Garna, Tono Djuwantono
      Pages: 132 - 139
      Abstract: Abstrak
      Aktivitas fisik yang tidak cukup adalah 1 dari 10 faktor risiko utama kematian di seluruh dunia karena merupakan faktor risiko utama penyakit tidak menular seperti penyakit kardiovaskular, kanker, dan diabetes melitus. Aplikasi Sayang ke Buah Hati (SEHATI) adalah media informatif yang merupakan panduan bagi ibu dalam meningkatkan pengetahuan dan panduan tentang aktivitas fisik yang benar pada anak usia sekolah dasar yang dikemas dalam bentuk animasi bergerak, warna menarik, dan sistem pengingat waktu/reminder. Dilakukan penelitian quasi experiment dengan pretest-postest with control group design untuk menganalisis pengaruh aplikasi SEHATI terhadap pengetahuan ibu dan aktivitas fisik pada anak usia sekolah dasar selama Januari 2017. Subjek penelitian ibu yang memiliki anak usia sekolah dasar berusia 8−12 tahun di SDIT Uchuwwatul Islam Kota Bandung sebanyak 60 orang yang terbagi dalam 2 kelompok, yaitu kelompok intervensi menggunakan aplikasi SEHATI dan kelompok kontrol tidak diterapkan. Pengambilan sampel berdasar atas teknik proportionate stratified random sampling. Pengujian statistik menggunakan uji chi-square dengan kemaknaan p<0,05. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tidak terdapat perbedaan karakteristik responden pada kedua kelompok meliputi usia, pendidikan, pekerjaan, dan paritas. Karakteristik ibu pada kelompok intervensi dan kontrol didominasi oleh usia 30−39 tahun, berpendidikan menengah (SMA, SMP), tidak bekerja, dan paritas multipara. Persentase peningkatan skor pengetahuan pada kelompok intervensi lebih baik daripada kelompok kontrol (25% vs 19%; p=0,001). Skor aktivitas fisik anak peningkatannya lebih baik pada kelompok intervensi (78% vs 61%; p=0,602. Simpulan, aplikasi SEHATI berpengaruh dalam meningkatkan pengetahuan ibu dan aktivitas fisik anak usia sekolah dasar.
      The lack of physical activity is one of the 10 major risk factors of death in the world, it is major risk factors for non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes mellitus. Affectionate to Baby (SEHATI) application is informative media which is a guide for mothers in improving the knowledge and guidance on the correct physical activity in children of primary school age are packaged in the form of moving animations, exciting colors, and the system time reminder. A quasi experiment with pretest-posttest control group design was conducted to analyze the effect of the SEHATI application toward knowledge mother and physical activity in school age children during January 2017. The subjects of this research were 60 mothers who have primary school age children as well as those aged 8−12 years in SDIT Uchuwwatul Islam Bandung. The respondent were divided into two groups the intervention group and the control group. The sampling based on proportionate stratified random sampling. The statistical test using chi square test with the significance of test results is determined by the value of p<0.05. The results showed there were no differences in the characteristics of respondents in both groups, including age, education, occupation, and parity. Characteristics of mothers in the intervention and the control group was dominated by the age of 30−39, secondary education (high school, junior high school), not working, and parity multiparous. The percentage increase of knowledge score in the intervention group was better than the control group 25% vs 19%, p=0.001. Percentage increase of the children's physical activity score in the intervention group was better than the control group 78% vs 61%, p=0.602. Conclusion, SEHATI application is influential in increasing the knowledge of the mother and the physical activity of children of primary school age.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Merokok dan Penuaan Dini berupa Wrinkles Seputar Wajah Sekuriti
           Universitas Islam Bandung

    • Authors: Deis Hikmawati, Diany Maedasari, Panji Ramdhani Prasetya
      Pages: 140 - 143
      Abstract: Abstrak
      Penuaan dini (PD) adalah proses degeneratif yang melibatkan kulit dan sistem penyokong kulit meliputi tulang, kartilago dan jaringan subkutaneus, berupa perubahan stuktural dan elastilitas kulit yang ditandai dengan wrinkles/kerutan kulit (fine wrinkles, coarse wrinkles), kulit yang kasar, kulit kering, teleangiaektasi, lesi kanker, serta perubahan pigmentasi. Wrinkles adalah permukaan kulit yang mengalami lekukan, dipengaruhi oleh faktor intrinsik dan ekstrinsik. Faktor ekstrinsik berasal dari lingkungan paparan sinar matahari, polusi udara, rokok, pergerakan otot yang berulang terkait ekspresi wajah, serta kebiasaan gaya hidup yang berhubungan dengan pola makan dan posisi tidur. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah apakah merokok sebagai faktor ekstrinsik berefek pada kejadian penuaan dini berupa wrinkles di seputar wajah, yaitu sekitar mata, nasolabial fold, dan bibir pada sekuriti Universitas Islam Bandung (Unisba) usia 20–40 tahun. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif analitik menggunakan metode potong lintang. Subjek penelitian adalah pegawai Unisba, yaitu sekuriti berusia 20–40 tahun yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dengan jumlah 68 orang selama periode Maret–Juni 2016. Penelitian ini menggunakan formulir penelitian yang terdiri atas 16 pertanyaan. Uji analisis menggunakan uji chi-square. Hasil penelitian berupa wrinkles di dahi (p=0,272), seputar mata (p=0,203), nasolabial fold (p=0,493), dan bibir (0,493) menunjukkan bahwa tidak terdapat hubungan merokok dengan penuaan dini berupa wrinkles di dahi, seputar mata, nasolabial fold, dan bibir (p>0,05). Simpulan, merokok tidak berefek pada penuaan dini berupa wrinkles di dahi, seputar mata, nasolabial fold, dan bibir pada sekuriti Unisba usia 20–40 tahun.
      Premature aging is a degenerative process that involves the skin and the skin support systems including the bone, cartilage, and subcutaneous compartments which is skin structural and elastic change characterized such as wrinkles (fine wrinkles, coarse wrinkles), rough skin, dry skin, teleangiaectasia, cancerous lesions, and changes in pigmentation. Wrinkles are curvature of skin surface. There are two factors influence, namely intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Extrinsic factors associated with exposure to sunlight, air pollution, smoking, repetitive muscle movements, diet and sleep position. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of smoking as external factor in the incidence of premature aging such as wrinkles based on area around the face as forehead, around eyes, nasolabial fold, and lips of 68 Universitas Islam Bandung (Unisba) security staff around 20–40 years old. This study was descriptive analytic using cross sectional method during period March to June 2015. This study used the form in the form consisted of 16 questions. Analyzed test using chi-square method. The result related to wrinkles in forehead was (p=0.272), around eyes (p=0.203), nasolabial fold (p=0.493) and lips (0.493). The result showed that there was no significant relation between smoking and premature aging such as wrinkles on forehead and wrinkles around crows feet, nasolabial fold and lip (p>0.05). In conclusion, smoking has no relation with premature aging such as wrinkles on forehead and wrinkles around the lips, crows feet, nasolabial fold of Unisba security staff aged 20–40 years old.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Photokeratoconjunctivitis Symptoms among Informal Welding Operators in
           North Samarinda, Indonesia

    • Authors: Iwan Muhamad Ramdan, Siti Badriatul Mursyidah, Siti Jubaedah
      Pages: 144 - 151
      Abstract:
      Informal sector has been contributing to the national economy but occupational health and safety practices in the sector has not been satisfactory. One of the informal sector which are found in North Samarinda is informal welding workshop, with dominant hazards is exposure to ultraviolet rays that can cause photokeratoconjunctivitis. The Objective of this study was to investigate the symptoms of photokeratoconjunctivitis and related factors among informal welding operator in North Samarinda. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 40 respondents. Research was conducted in March until November 2016. Data collection using ultraviolet detector meter, clamps meter, and questionnaire. Data analysis using chi-square, Pearson’s correlation product moment and multiple linear regression. 50% of respondents have photokeratoconjunctivitis symptoms. Personal protective equipment (PPE) (p=0.004), UV exposure duration  (0.056), knowledge of health and safety (p=0.055) and number of working days (p=0.001) were associated with photokeratoconjunctivitis symptoms. Work location (p=0.244), level of education (p=0.680), age (0.167), intensity of UV radiation (p=0.206) and strength of welding current (p=0.085) were not related to photokeratoconjunctivitis symptoms. In conclusions, photokeratoconjunctivitis symptoms is influenced by the use of PPE, UV exposure duration, knowledge of health and safety, and number of working days. The most influential factor to the appearance of photokeratoconjunctivitis (β=0.32) is duration of UV exposure.Abstrak
      Sektor informal telah berkontribusi terhadap perekonomian nasional, namun praktik kesehatan dan keselamatan kerja pada sektor ini masih belum memuaskan. Salah satu usaha sektor informal yang banyak dijumpai di Samarinda Utara adalah usaha pengelasan dengan potensi bahaya utama paparan sinar ultraviolet yang dapat menyebabkan photokeratoconjunctivitis. Penelitian ini bertujuan menginvestigasi kejadian photokeratoconjunctivitis dan faktor yang memengaruhinya pada operator las informal di Kelurahan Samarinda Utara. Penelitian cross-sectional telah dilakukan terhadap 40 responden pada bulan Maret sampai November 2016. Pengumpulan data menggunakan UV detector meter, clamp meter, dan kuesioner. Analisis data menggunakan chi-square, Pearson’s correlation product moment, dan multiple linear regression. Lima puluh persen responden mengalami gejala photokeratoconjunctivitis. Alat pelindung diri (APD) (p=0,004), durasi paparan UV (0,056), pengetahuan tentang kesehatan, dan keselamatan kerja (K3) (p=0,055) dan jumlah hari kerja (p=0,001) berhubungan signifikan dengan kejadian photokeratoconjunctivitis. Lokasi kerja (p=0,244), tingkat pendidikan (p=0,680), usia (0,167), intensitas radiasi UV (p=0,206), dan kuat arus las (p=0,085) tidak berhubungan dengan gejala photokeratoconjunctivitis. Simpulan, gejala photokeratoconjunctivitis dipengaruhi oleh penggunaan APD, durasi paparan UV, pengetahuan K3, dan jumlah hari kerja. Faktor yang paling dominan memengaruhi gejala photokeratoconjunctivitis adalah durasi paparan UV.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Toksisitas Akut Ekstrak Air Buah Pepaya (Carica papaya L.) Muda terhadap
           Morfologi Eritrosit

    • Authors: Yuktiana Kharisma, Eka Hendryanny, Astari P. Riani
      Pages: 152 - 158
      Abstract: Abstrak
      Pepaya (Carica papaya L.) adalah salah satu obat tradisional yang digunakan untuk mengatasi masalah kesehatan. Pepaya mengandung beberapa substansi fitokimia seperti saponin, alkaloid, terpenoid, dan flavonoid. Saponin dan alkaloid diketahui mampu berinteraksi dengan membran eritrosit dan menyebabkan disintegrasi membran sehingga dapat menyebabkan kerusakan pada eritrosit. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui toksisitas akut ekstrak air buah pepaya muda terhadap morfologi eritrosit melalui pengamatan sediaan apus darah tepi. Metode penelitian ini adalah eksperimental laboratorium dilakukan di Laboratorium Biomedis, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Islam Bandung pada Januari–Februari 2016. Penentuan kelompok dosis berdasar atas proposed (new) recommended method menggunakan 11 ekor tikus yang diberi dosis oral ekstrak air buah pepaya muda 50, 200, 400, 800, 1.000, 1.500, 2.000, 3.000, 4.000, 5.000 mg/kgBB masing-masing dan satu tikus hanya diberikan air sebagai kelompok kontrol. Pengamatan dilakukan setelah 24 jam pemberian ekstrak. Hasil pengamatan sediaan apus darah tepi menunjukkan tidak terdapat perubahan morfologi eritrosit baik bentuk, ukuran, dan warnanya. Simpulan, ekstrak air buah pepaya muda tidak memiliki toksisitas akut terhadap morfologi eritrosit
      Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of traditional medicines which was used to overcome health things. It is contained of some phytochemicals substance such as saponin, alkaloid, terpenoid, and flavonoid. Both saponin and alkaloid were known having an ability to interract with eryhtrocyte membran and cause membrane disintegrity that can destruct the erythrocyte. This study was aimed to know the acute toxicity of the aqueous extract of unripe papaya fruit to the erythrocyte morphology by observe the peripheral blood smear. The method of this study was conducted experimental laboratory at Loboratory of Biomedical, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Islam Bandung in January–February 2016. Determination of dose group is based on proposed (new) recommended method with 11 rats were administrated oral dose 50, 200, 400, 800, 1,000, 1,500, 2,000, 3,000, 4,000, 5,000 mg/kgBW of unripe papaya fruit aqueous extract, and one rat was only given water as control group. Observation had been done at 24 hours after extract administrating. It showed that there was not any abnormal morphology, size, and chromatic changes of erythrocyte in blood smear observations. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of unripe papaya fruit do not have the acute toxicity to erythrocyte morphology.
      PubDate: 2017-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
 
 
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