Journal Cover Peace and Conflict Studies
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 1082-7307
   Published by Nova Southeastern University Homepage  [3 journals]
  • Toward a Buddhist Theory of Conflict Transformation: From Simple
           Actor-Oriented Conflict to Complex Structural Conflict

    • Authors: Tatsushi Arai
      Abstract: This paper presents a working theory of conflict transformation informed by Buddhist teachings. It argues that a Buddhist approach to conflict transformation consists of an integrated process of self-reflection on the roots and transformation of suffering (dukkha), on the one hand, and active relationship-building between parties, on the other. To overcome a deeply structural conflict in which parties are unaware of the very existence of the conflict-generating system in which they are embedded, however, Buddhist-inspired practice of conflict transformation requires building structural awareness, which is defined as educated consciousness capable of perceiving a complex web of cause and effect relationships in which one’s well-intended action can inadvertently generate the suffering of others. A Buddhist approach to the transformation of structural conflict builds on such awareness. This approach advocates for constructing social systems and practices that actively and continuously promote compassion (karuna), nonviolence (ahimsa), and creative problem-solving. These insights presented in this paper build on thirty-seven interviews with experienced Asian Buddhist practitioners, mostly Burmese, as well as four Buddhist workshops that examined the author’s main argument. Given its unique focus, this paper contributes to diversifying and globalizing the discourses of peace and conflict studies outside the prevailing mode of western thinking.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Oct 2017 11:05:20 PDT
  • U.S. Domestic Vulnerability and the Supply of Third-Party Mediation

    • Authors: James P. Todhunter
      Abstract: Most U.S. presidents will pursue third-party conflict mediation sometime during their administration. However, the approach and level of commitment to those endeavors vary greatly across time and results are often minimally successful. This study explains this variation in terms of domestic political considerations, suggesting that the potential risks and payoffs in the domestic sphere primarily drive the supply of mediation, rather than conflict characteristics, “ripeness” for resolution, or the national interest. Presidents are shown to engage in mediation when they are relatively secure domestically, enjoying legislative success in Congress. The results are consistent with the notion that presidents prefer political cover when engaging in foreign policy. Thus, the argument informs the literature on mediator behavior by linking it with theories of foreign policy decision making and suggests that the political context in which mediation is offered will influence its prospects for success, often explaining why mediation efforts fall short. Moreover, given the trend toward divided government in the United States, the results presented here suggest that mediation will become less prevalent in U.S. foreign policy.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Oct 2017 11:05:15 PDT
  • Facing History In The Aftermath Of Gukurahundi Atrocities: New Media,
           Memory And The Discourses On Forgiveness On Selected Zimbabwean News

    • Authors: Mphathisi Ndlovu
      Abstract: In 1983, the Robert Mugabe-led government deployed a military unit to the Matabeleland and Midlands provinces under the guise of quelling a “dissident” movement. This army unit went on to commit atrocities on the civilians in these south-western parts of Zimbabwe. By the time this violence ended in 1987, at least 20 000 Ndebele people had been killed. This violence is known as Gukurahundi, and remains a dark chapter in the national memory. Given that the regime that committed these atrocities is still in power and the perpetrators have not been brought to justice, it is timely to probe how online participants are employing news websites to recollect and negotiate the memories of Gukurahundi that are repressed in official circles. This paper examines the discourses on forgiveness that are being reproduced and shaped on selected Zimbabwean news websites as online participants attempt to deal with the painful Gukurahundi past. In probing the complexities, ambiguities and limits surrounding the imaginations on forgiveness, this article demonstrates that forgiveness is not always a virtue as some narratives seek to perpetuate state-imposed amnesia and shield the perpetrators from prosecution.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Oct 2017 11:05:11 PDT
  • “If You Want Peace, Work For Justice:” Assessing Pope Paul VI as a
           Peacebuilder on the Levels of Insight and Action

    • Authors: Christopher W. Hrynkow
      Abstract: Paul VI was the first reigning pope to travel via airplane. On one such trip, he addressed the UN General Assembly, emphatically declaring “War never again! Never again war!” During the same period, Paul VI also saw the Second Vatican Council through to its completion. Vatican II produced an articulation of substantive peace in one of its final documents, Gaudium et Spes. This article employs an analytical yardstick through reading Gaudium et Spes in conversation with a Peace and Conflict Studies perspective, as a means to assess Paul VI’s peacemaking efforts on the levels of insight and action. Specifically, this article addresses Paul VI’s diplomatic initiatives, ecumenical outreach, and his contributions to Catholic Social Teaching, inclusive of the establishment of the annual World Day for Peace Messages. One of those messages is the source of what is his most repeated social teaching: “if you want peace, work for justice.”
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Oct 2017 11:05:06 PDT
  • The Political Cost' Religious Segregation, Peace Walls, and House

    • Authors: John A. McCord et al.
      Abstract: The longstanding issue of discrimination and segregation in housing markets has enveloped housing market analysis and particularly the understanding of house price determination. Whilst the relationship of segregation in residential space is diverse and encompasses numerous taxonomies, in Northern Ireland, the high level of market segregation is compounded by the addition of tactile barriers such as Peace walls. The existence of these tactile barriers serves to physically segregate communities and have the capacity to prevent the restoration of normal community interactions and market processes. This paper attempts to quantify and measure the disamenity implications and costs of these hard structures on segregated communities. It achieves this by measuring the pricing effect of peace walls within segregated market areas within the Belfast housing market employing a hedonic pricing approach using data obtained from 3,836 house sales transactions over a one year period in 2014. The findings emerging from the research demonstrate that peace walls have clearly had a more detrimental and adverse effect on the consistency and application of policy and practice. Indeed, the existence of the peace walls appear to have occasioned or facilitated differential practices in housing strategies either ‘side of the wall’. The results show a clear differential distance decay effect limiting market and efficiency opportunities.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Oct 2017 11:05:00 PDT
  • Appraising positive aspects of shared history through contact- A
           preliminary model of reconciliation among Hindus and Muslims of the
           Kashmir Valley

    • Authors: Sramana Majumdar Dr
      Abstract: The long-standing political conflict in the Kashmir Valley has resulted in identity based polarization and subsequent displacement of communities. Reconciliation between Hindus (also known as Pandits) and Muslims is viewed as an important step in any sustainable effort towards conflict resolution and peacebuilding in the Valley. This paper begins by examining the much debated territorial and cultural concept of ‘Kashmiriyat’ and instead proposes an alternative lens that emphasizes on shared history as opposed to common identity. We approach reconciliation through a socio-psychological lens by examining the role of a shared cultural past and historical coexistence- or simply put as shared history, as a positive resource that can be appraised by facilitating intergroup contact through certain channels. The possible impediments are discussed and future directions have been outlined. The conclusion emphasizes on the need to focus on intra-communal reconciliation in populations suffering from ongoing intractable conflict, and the necessary need for future research to focus on elements like shared history and collective memory that can be essential in post conflict recovery.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Apr 2017 14:23:20 PDT
  • Negotiating Under the Security Dilemma A Loss-Framed Approach to the
           Question of Cyprus

    • Authors: Pavlos Ioannis Koktsidis Dr.
      Abstract: The present study introduces a revised adaptation of the “ethnic security dilemma” theory to explain the nature of antagonisms between the Greek and Turkish Cypriots in negotiations for resolving the Cyprus Question. The proposed theory accounts for security positions adopted by parties under conditions of fear and uncertainty. The indistinguishability of offensive-defensive positions and the perceived windows of opportunity have turned the negotiating process into a competitive cost-benefit problem marked by their distinct security considerations. Furthermore, the study develops a loss-framed negotiations model to illustrate likely choices when perceived costs outweigh the importance of prospective gains. The analysis concludes that although parties could be better off by cooperating, suspicion and distrust encourages defection by creating fears of prospective losses with regards to security.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Apr 2017 14:23:15 PDT
  • Subject Formation, Fundamentalism and Instrumentalist Nationalism in
           Zimbabwean politics

    • Authors: Joram Tarusarira Dr.
      Abstract: This article argues that despite presiding over a failed economy, the Zimbabwe African Union Patriotic Front (ZANU PF) led by Robert Mugabe, has willing and enthusiastic supporters. There are claims that the large crowds witnessed singing and dancing at ZANU PF rallies are mobilized by force because the attendees do not benefit anything from supporting the regime. In a divergence from the consensus of the literature, this article surfaces other explanations than coercion for the huge turnout at rallies, rented crowds, handouts, and well-articulated election manifestos. The psychological dimension, especially the fundamentalist mindset created by instrumentalist nationalism, is one such other perspective to clarifying why this is the case. It might also explain why some Zimbabweans are so susceptible to compliance with power relations that subordinate them. Thus, a psychological dimension is added to the level of analysis beyond the often resorted to socio-economic and political explanations for political mobilization. Willing and enthusiastic support is not to be necessarily judged by ZANU PF’s winning or losing elections, or the number of supporters it has, but more by the effervescence observed at rallies and other political activities. The article interrogates ZANU PF’s instrumentalist nationalism through both religious and non-religious lenses, such as the education system, media, church platforms, music, history and culture, galas, and its usual political campaigns.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Apr 2017 14:23:10 PDT
  • The Togolese Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission: Lessons for
           Transitional Justice Processes Elsewhere

    • Authors: Jeremy J. Sarkin Prof et al.
      Abstract: Certain truth and reconciliation processes around the world remain understudied. This means that valuable lessons for transitional justice processes elsewhere are not learned. This article therefore examines lessons from the Togolese Truth, Justice, and Reconciliation Commission (CVJR). It examines the historical context of violence in Togo in order to understand why the country decided to establish a truth commission and looks at how previous inquiries established the need for such a process. Other issues examined are the CVJR’s mandate, the time period provided to do its work, and the pros and cons of the choices made with respect to these matters. The article looks at the powers of the CVJR, its recommendations, and examines issues related to truth recovery, victims’ needs, and the Commission’s ability to combat impunity. Finally, the Commission’s effectiveness and legacy for the country are assessed. The article argues that for an under-resourced process the commission performed well in some areas but not so well in other areas. It is argued that it was a useful process in some respects, but that more could have been done had the process optimally worked. The article provides lessons that can be ascertained from the Togolese process.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Apr 2017 14:23:04 PDT
  • Rethinking Baloch Secularism: What the Data Say

    • Authors: C. Christine Fair et al.
      Abstract: Since 1947, Baloch have resisted inclusion into the Pakistan and have waged several waves of ethno-nationalist insurgency against the state. Scholars and Baloch nationalist leaders alike generally assert that Baloch are more secular than other Pakistanis, more opposed to the political Islamist policies pursued by the state, and less supportive of Islamist militancy in the country. However, these claims lack empirical support. We employ data derived from a large national survey of Pakistanis from 2012 to evaluate these conventional wisdoms. Contrary to claims in the literature, we find that Baloch resemble Pakistanis generally with few important exceptions
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Apr 2017 14:22:58 PDT
  • Israeli Peacemaking Since 1967: Factors Behind the Breakthroughs and
           Failures, by Galia Golan. Reviewed by Michael Garver

    • Authors: Michael E. Garver
      Abstract: This book review analyzes Galia Golan’s recent book Israeli Peacemaking Since 1967: Factors Behind the Breakthroughs and Failures. Using seven (7) conflicts following the 1967 Seven-day War, Golan identifies the actors and processes that were factors that led to progress or failure in the peacemaking relations between Israel, neighboring Arab nations, and international parties. Leadership, security, and interstate negotiation were the three (3) primary factors that were identified as having the greatest impact on Israeli peacemaking process, both positive and negative. The interplay between primary leaders and leaders of opposing factions (spoilers) is traced through the course of the initiation of conflicts and the peace process to illustrate the importance of regime change and public opinion pressure on Israel and parties negotiating with Israel. The legitimate security concerns of Israel were also analyzed and were criticized in light of changes in the relations between different neighboring parties. Golan also covers the complex impact of the variety of actors and interests that have comprised the interstate negotiations that have supported and sabotaged the peacemaking process in the Middle East. Written from the perspective of an Israeli academic and a private citizen, Golan makes compelling arguments that illustrate the conditions under which the peace process has resulted in breakthroughs and the conditions that have resulted in failure.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Oct 2016 11:44:39 PDT
  • Democratization, Parliamentary Power, and Belligerency: A Quantitative

    • Authors: AFA'ANWI MA'ABO CHE
      Abstract: Research linking democratization, institutional strength, and war prescribes the construction of strong central government institutions prior to mass elections as a prime mechanism for mitigating the danger of international belligerency associated with democratization. However, institutional analysis of the democratization – war linkage skews institutional strength measures in favour of the executive, overlooking the other arms of government. Drawing on Côte d’Ivoire’s 2010 – 2011 internationalized post-election civil conflict, which was largely engendered by excessive executive powers and limited legislative leverage, this paper quantitatively evaluates the effect state legislatures bear on the democratization – war linkage. The evaluations yield at least some evidence for the postulated influence of state legislatures. Thus, whilst heeding extant scholarly recommendations for strengthening state institutions, foreign policies promoting liberal democracy should ensure the ultimate institutional configuration of power in aspirant democracies favours parliaments over executives for more auspicious outcomes.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Oct 2016 11:44:35 PDT
  • Sport and Peace-Building in Divided Societies: A Case Study on Colombia
           and Northern Ireland

    • Authors: Alexander Cardenas
      Abstract: In recent years, sport has been acknowledged by a broad range of organisations as a viable tool to promote peace in highly volatile contexts. Acknowledging the complexity and myriad of issues that shape and define the Colombian and Northern Irish struggles, this article explores the use of sport to advance peace-building as seen through the lenses of the personnel involved in designing, supporting and implementing sport-based peace interventions (SDP officials) in both regions. This paper found points of commonality and divergence between Colombia and Northern Ireland showing that the unique conflict dynamics in both cases have played a major role in shaping the perceptions of SDP officials with regards to the peace-building dimension of sport, their role as drivers of change and the structure and content of sport for development and peace programs.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Oct 2016 11:44:30 PDT
  • Examining Peacebuilding Through a Trauma Lens: Practitioner Reflections on
           Programs for Youth Exposed to Traumatic Stressors in Intergroup Conflict

    • Authors: Liza Hester
      Abstract: The international community recognizes that young people are increasingly vulnerable to psychosocial trauma within in intergroup conflict. Exposure to traumatic stressors within these conflicts poses unique risks not only to the neurological and social development of youth, but also to their capacities to fully engage in peacebuilding interventions. With a growing focus on youth programming in peacebuilding strategies, there is greater imperative to explore the intersections of trauma and peacebuilding, which are naturally linked in their focus on intra- and inter-personal transformation. This intersection has largely been overlooked in the literature, though it deserves far greater attention based on the growing knowledge of the psychological sequela of youth in intergroup conflict. Through a qualitative evaluation of practitioner reflections, this study explores how practitioners conceptualize and approach issues of traumatic stress in youth peacebuilding programs focused on youth in intergroup conflict. The aim is to identify the working assumptions related to trauma undergirding peacebuilding practice and determine how to revisit these assumptions to account for the traumatic dimensions of intractable identity-based violence. The study's findings offer practical steps forward to enhance trauma-sensitive peacebuilding practice.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Oct 2016 11:44:26 PDT
  • Looking for Peace in the National Curricula of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Katerina Standish et al.
      Abstract: What values do national curricular statements communicate related to peace, conflict, violence and nonviolence' Schools are places that teach morals and mind-sets—transmission belts—cultural establishments that can contribute to how a student learns (pedagogy) and what a student learns (curriculum). Informed by Curriculum Theory and Peace Education Theory this mixed-method study utilizes directive and summative content analysis to inspect the General Statement, Teachers Guide and Shari’a national curricular statements at the elementary and preparatory level (mandatory education) for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). It examines each document for three elements found routinely in peace education (PE): recognition of violence; addressing conflict nonviolently; and, creating the conditions of positive peace. Elementary and preparatory education is compulsory in the KSA and this study found the mandatory education of the KSA has variable content that relates to the three PE elements and that the KSA mandatory curricula only minimally teaches peace.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Oct 2016 11:44:21 PDT
  • Gendering Human Rights: Threat and Gender Perceptions as Predictors of
           Attitudes towards Violating Human Rights in Asymmetric Conflict

    • Authors: Yossi David et al.
      Abstract: We introduce, in this study, a gendering human rights model in which perceiving outgroups as having stereotypical feminine traits predicts decreased support for violating their human rights through the mediation of threat perception. This model is tested in the context of the asymmetrical protracted Israeli-Palestinian conflict using Jewish-Israeli public opinion polling data (N=517). In line with our expectations, the findings indicate that Jewish-Israeli perceptions of Palestinians as having stereotypical feminine traits predict lower levels of threat perception from Palestinians and consequently less support for violating their human rights. We discuss the implications of our findings for understanding factors that attenuate support for violation of human rights of an outgroup in other situations of violent asymmetric conflict.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Oct 2016 11:44:16 PDT
  • A Comprehensive Mapping of Conflict and Conflict Resolution: A Three
           Pillar Approach

    • Authors: Dennis J. D. Sandole
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Aug 2016 10:36:59 PDT
  • The Two Faces Of Peace Building

    • Authors: Michael Harbottle et al.
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Aug 2016 10:36:29 PDT
  • Reasons for Illegalization of Nuclear Weapons

    • Authors: Takashi Hiraoka
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Aug 2016 10:36:15 PDT
  • Peace in Our Global Neighbourhood

    • Authors: Shridath Ramphal
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Aug 2016 10:36:02 PDT
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