Peace and Conflict Studies
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1082-7307
Published by Nova Southeastern University [3 journals]
- Israeli Peacemaking Since 1967: Factors Behind the Breakthroughs and
Failures, by Galia Golan. Reviewed by Michael Garver
Authors: Michael E. Garver
Abstract: This book review analyzes Galia Golan’s recent book Israeli Peacemaking Since 1967: Factors Behind the Breakthroughs and Failures. Using seven (7) conflicts following the 1967 Seven-day War, Golan identifies the actors and processes that were factors that led to progress or failure in the peacemaking relations between Israel, neighboring Arab nations, and international parties. Leadership, security, and interstate negotiation were the three (3) primary factors that were identified as having the greatest impact on Israeli peacemaking process, both positive and negative. The interplay between primary leaders and leaders of opposing factions (spoilers) is traced through the course of the initiation of conflicts and the peace process to illustrate the importance of regime change and public opinion pressure on Israel and parties negotiating with Israel. The legitimate security concerns of Israel were also analyzed and were criticized in light of changes in the relations between different neighboring parties. Golan also covers the complex impact of the variety of actors and interests that have comprised the interstate negotiations that have supported and sabotaged the peacemaking process in the Middle East. Written from the perspective of an Israeli academic and a private citizen, Golan makes compelling arguments that illustrate the conditions under which the peace process has resulted in breakthroughs and the conditions that have resulted in failure.
PubDate: Mon, 03 Oct 2016 11:44:39 PDT
- Democratization, Parliamentary Power, and Belligerency: A Quantitative
Authors: AFA'ANWI MA'ABO CHE
Abstract: Research linking democratization, institutional strength, and war prescribes the construction of strong central government institutions prior to mass elections as a prime mechanism for mitigating the danger of international belligerency associated with democratization. However, institutional analysis of the democratization – war linkage skews institutional strength measures in favour of the executive, overlooking the other arms of government. Drawing on Côte d’Ivoire’s 2010 – 2011 internationalized post-election civil conflict, which was largely engendered by excessive executive powers and limited legislative leverage, this paper quantitatively evaluates the effect state legislatures bear on the democratization – war linkage. The evaluations yield at least some evidence for the postulated influence of state legislatures. Thus, whilst heeding extant scholarly recommendations for strengthening state institutions, foreign policies promoting liberal democracy should ensure the ultimate institutional configuration of power in aspirant democracies favours parliaments over executives for more auspicious outcomes.
PubDate: Mon, 03 Oct 2016 11:44:35 PDT
- Sport and Peace-Building in Divided Societies: A Case Study on Colombia
and Northern Ireland
Authors: Alexander Cardenas
Abstract: In recent years, sport has been acknowledged by a broad range of organisations as a viable tool to promote peace in highly volatile contexts. Acknowledging the complexity and myriad of issues that shape and define the Colombian and Northern Irish struggles, this article explores the use of sport to advance peace-building as seen through the lenses of the personnel involved in designing, supporting and implementing sport-based peace interventions (SDP officials) in both regions. This paper found points of commonality and divergence between Colombia and Northern Ireland showing that the unique conflict dynamics in both cases have played a major role in shaping the perceptions of SDP officials with regards to the peace-building dimension of sport, their role as drivers of change and the structure and content of sport for development and peace programs.
PubDate: Mon, 03 Oct 2016 11:44:30 PDT
- Examining Peacebuilding Through a Trauma Lens: Practitioner Reflections on
Programs for Youth Exposed to Traumatic Stressors in Intergroup Conflict
Authors: Liza Hester
Abstract: The international community recognizes that young people are increasingly vulnerable to psychosocial trauma within in intergroup conflict. Exposure to traumatic stressors within these conflicts poses unique risks not only to the neurological and social development of youth, but also to their capacities to fully engage in peacebuilding interventions. With a growing focus on youth programming in peacebuilding strategies, there is greater imperative to explore the intersections of trauma and peacebuilding, which are naturally linked in their focus on intra- and inter-personal transformation. This intersection has largely been overlooked in the literature, though it deserves far greater attention based on the growing knowledge of the psychological sequela of youth in intergroup conflict. Through a qualitative evaluation of practitioner reflections, this study explores how practitioners conceptualize and approach issues of traumatic stress in youth peacebuilding programs focused on youth in intergroup conflict. The aim is to identify the working assumptions related to trauma undergirding peacebuilding practice and determine how to revisit these assumptions to account for the traumatic dimensions of intractable identity-based violence. The study's findings offer practical steps forward to enhance trauma-sensitive peacebuilding practice.
PubDate: Mon, 03 Oct 2016 11:44:26 PDT
- Looking for Peace in the National Curricula of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Authors: Katerina Standish et al.
Abstract: What values do national curricular statements communicate related to peace, conflict, violence and nonviolence' Schools are places that teach morals and mind-sets—transmission belts—cultural establishments that can contribute to how a student learns (pedagogy) and what a student learns (curriculum). Informed by Curriculum Theory and Peace Education Theory this mixed-method study utilizes directive and summative content analysis to inspect the General Statement, Teachers Guide and Shari’a national curricular statements at the elementary and preparatory level (mandatory education) for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). It examines each document for three elements found routinely in peace education (PE): recognition of violence; addressing conflict nonviolently; and, creating the conditions of positive peace. Elementary and preparatory education is compulsory in the KSA and this study found the mandatory education of the KSA has variable content that relates to the three PE elements and that the KSA mandatory curricula only minimally teaches peace.
PubDate: Mon, 03 Oct 2016 11:44:21 PDT
- Gendering Human Rights: Threat and Gender Perceptions as Predictors of
Attitudes towards Violating Human Rights in Asymmetric Conflict
Authors: Yossi David et al.
Abstract: We introduce, in this study, a gendering human rights model in which perceiving outgroups as having stereotypical feminine traits predicts decreased support for violating their human rights through the mediation of threat perception. This model is tested in the context of the asymmetrical protracted Israeli-Palestinian conflict using Jewish-Israeli public opinion polling data (N=517). In line with our expectations, the findings indicate that Jewish-Israeli perceptions of Palestinians as having stereotypical feminine traits predict lower levels of threat perception from Palestinians and consequently less support for violating their human rights. We discuss the implications of our findings for understanding factors that attenuate support for violation of human rights of an outgroup in other situations of violent asymmetric conflict.
PubDate: Mon, 03 Oct 2016 11:44:16 PDT
- A Comprehensive Mapping of Conflict and Conflict Resolution: A Three
Authors: Dennis J. D. Sandole
PubDate: Fri, 19 Aug 2016 10:36:59 PDT
- The Two Faces Of Peace Building
Authors: Michael Harbottle et al.
PubDate: Fri, 19 Aug 2016 10:36:29 PDT
- Reasons for Illegalization of Nuclear Weapons
Authors: Takashi Hiraoka
PubDate: Fri, 19 Aug 2016 10:36:15 PDT
- Peace in Our Global Neighbourhood
Authors: Shridath Ramphal
PubDate: Fri, 19 Aug 2016 10:36:02 PDT
- From Test Ban to Ban on Nukes: From French Testing to a Convention on The
Prohibition and Elimination of Nuclear Weapons
Authors: Stephanie Mills
PubDate: Fri, 19 Aug 2016 10:35:49 PDT
- Tempting Simplicity and Robust Complexity: Conflict Management in Selected
Authors: Steve McGuire
PubDate: Fri, 19 Aug 2016 10:35:45 PDT
- Peacemaking Primer
Authors: Hal Pepinsky
PubDate: Fri, 19 Aug 2016 10:35:42 PDT
- East is East and West is West: Informalization in the Age of
Authors: Nelson Keith
PubDate: Fri, 19 Aug 2016 10:35:39 PDT
- The Evolution of an Interdisciplinary Peace Studies Centre: The Bradford
Authors: Paul Rogers
PubDate: Fri, 19 Aug 2016 10:35:31 PDT
- Indigenousness as a New Global Norm: Barter and the Related Ethic of
Authors: Nelson Keith
PubDate: Fri, 19 Aug 2016 10:35:28 PDT
- A Concomitant of Conflict and Consensus: Case of a Chieftaincy Succession
Authors: Kaderi Noagah Bukari
Abstract: Ghana is often seen as peaceful, but is faced with many chieftaincy conflicts that result mainly from succession to the throne (skin or stool) for traditional political power. Ghana has more than 230 chieftaincy disputes dotted across many parts of the country. However, the Bulsa Traditional Area (Buluk) of Ghana has had a stable and resilient chieftaincy succession despite conflicts arising out of the selection of chiefs. In the selection of chiefs, the adoption of a voting system is said to lead to consensus based decision-making which is largely responsible for the non-violent nature of the Buluk chieftaincy succession as compared to other areas in Ghana. Using a qualitative methodology, this case study examined in detail the chieftaincy succession system in the Bulsa Traditional area of Ghana, both conflict and consensus, and how this has helped over the years to maintain peace and avoid violence. The paper also examines whether this case could be a model for chieftaincy succession in Ghana.
PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2016 07:23:07 PDT
- Peace Building in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Effects of Ingroup
Identification, Outgroup Trust and Intergroup Forgiveness on Intergroup
Authors: Melinda A. Leonard et al.
Abstract: The current study examines the effects of ingroup identification, outgroup trust, and intergroup forgiveness on intergroup contact quantity in the diverse cities of Sarajevo and Tuzla in Bosnia and Herzegovina. A total of 455 individuals ranging in age from 14 to 102 self-reported as either Muslim, Roman Catholic, Orthodox Christian, or Other completed a questionnaire. Analyses revealed that ingroup identification was significantly and negatively correlated with intergroup contact quantity; however, ingroup identification was not significantly correlated with outgroup trust or intergroup forgiveness. The comparison between groups revealed significant group differences across all predictor and criterion variables. To confirm whether age or community background had a moderating effect on predicting the relation between ingroup identification, outgroup trust, and intergroup forgiveness on intergroup contact quantity, moderated regression analyses were conducted. Results revealed community background, ingroup identification, and outgroup trust were all significant contributors to the model; however, age and forgiveness were not. Taken as a whole, the entire model accounted for approximately 21% of variability in intergroup contact quantity. The results from the current study reinforce the supposition that the two cities of Sarajevo and Tuzla in Bosnia and Herzegovina cannot move towards reconciliation without first understanding the effect that strong ingroup identification has on mixing with the other diverse groups, and implementing proactive measures to enhance outgroup trust and cross-community outreach. Implementing these measures in the two cities of Sarajevo and Tuzla, along with other areas in Bosnia and Herzegovina, may improve future intergroup relations and move the country closer to reconciliation and peace.
PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2016 07:22:56 PDT
- You Have Atomic Bombs, We Have the Martyrdom-Seekers: Ayman
Al-Zawahiri’s Narrative Arc of the Martyr
Authors: Tim Huffman
Abstract: Martyrdom has an undeniable rhetorical dimension, and part of a martyr’s voice is the manner of his or her death. However, martyrdom does not stand alone. It is contextualized and constructed by the voice of ideologues. This project looks at the spoken and written rhetoric of Ayman Al-Zawahiri, leader of al-Qaeda, and seeks to understand his descriptions, attributions, and stories about martyrs and martyrdom. An analysis of 93 statements by Zawahiri was performed to identify his overarching martyr narrative and archetype. Major findings include a taxonomy of martyr attributes and a narrative trajectory of martyrdom. While pro-USA rhetoric constructs al-Qaeda’s martyrs as radical terrorists, Zawahiri tells a tale of stalwart, pious, and simple men.
PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2016 07:22:49 PDT
- "Our Branches Are Broken:" Using the Tree Of Life Healing Methodology with
Victims of Gukurahundi in Matebeleland, Zimbabwe
Authors: Dumisani Ngwenya
Abstract: Between 1983 and 1987, an estimated 20,000 people from Matabeleland and parts of Midlands Province in Zimbabwe were killed by government forces in an operation code-named Gukurahundi. Since that time, no official apology, justice, reparations or any form of healing process has been offered by the government which was responsible for these atrocities. Many people still suffer trauma from the events of this time. The overall question that this research project sought to answer was whether a small group of survivors of Gukurahundi could heal via participation over time in a group action research project directed at their healing.This article assesses the effectiveness of the Tree of Life healing approach, which was one of the methodologies tried during the course of the research with a small group of survivors of the 1980s atrocities. We found that while the approach was very helpful to the participants, it was difficult to talk about “total healing” due to the fact that the perpetrators are still in power. In addition, no effort had been made to even acknowledge the harm done, and the participants still felt marginalized politically and economically, while the perpetrators appeared to be care-free and enjoying life. Participants agreed that, given the circumstance, this approach offered them a measure of relief and that it was still necessary to address healing holistically. It was however acknowledged that some form of relief was better than a lifetime of painful memories even if systemic change remains to be seen.
PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2016 07:22:42 PDT