Journal of Interdisciplinary Conflict Science
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2377-6382
Published by Nova Southeastern University [3 journals]
- “Bracketing” Foreign Policy from Domestic Affairs: A New Paradigm for
International Negotiation and Decision-Making
Authors: Scott Gerschwer Ph.D.
Abstract: This paper argues that geo-political negotiators must separate domestic issues from their calculations and consider only strategic goals and international concerns when working through issues with other global leaders. The impetus for this paper is a recent poll that shows that 52% of Americans want to bomb Iran, apparently without considering the consequences. I will give some history, present some recent cases and attempt to create a mechanism for separating international and domestic issues to relieve a source of pressure on negotiators.
PubDate: Sun, 01 May 2016 12:55:38 PDT
- Corporate Responsibility in Peace building, Conflict Prevention and
Development: The Role of the Mining Sector in Ghana
Authors: Abdul Karim Issifu
Abstract: This article seeks to explore the role of the mining sector in peace building, conflict prevention and community development in Ghana. After thoroughly reviewing secondary data, including articles, books, journals, newspapers, etc., via critical document review and qualitative research approaches the research found that, there is no legal document on CSR in Ghana, yet mining companies in a free will, have executed CSR programs laying down for peace, security and development in the country. More so, this article provides a theoretical support for the Integrative theory of CSR on the basis that, the socio-economic, political, cultural and environmental needs of communities should be integrated into a corporate business objective for peace and security. Therefore, the article provides information on the need for a holistic and collaborative approach between civil society groups and government agencies in Ghana to work out for a comprehensive CSR policy backed by law.
PubDate: Sun, 01 May 2016 12:55:32 PDT
- The Ombatse Crisis in Nigeria: Background, Recent Developments and
Authors: Simeon Onyemachi Hilary Alozieuwa Ph.D.
Abstract: This paper focuses on the hegemonic politics between the Eggon and Hausa/Fulani ethnic groups in Nasarawa, North-Central Nigeria, which eventually erupted into the Ombatse crisis of May 2013- a precursor to the 2015 general elections. It addresses four research questions seeking to unravel whether or not: (1a) the crisis truly reflects a spiritual revivalist agenda as projected by the Ombatse promoters or merely espouses Eggon rejection of Muslim-Hausa/Fulani ethnic hegemony- mirroring broadly the identity, hegemonic and exclusionary politics in the area cum the larger Nigerian society;(b) the Eggon-Hausa-Fulani feud has the potential to exacerbate the sectarian strife in Nigeria’s northern region and therefore deepen the polarization among Nigeria’s disparate social groups-thereby threaten the consolidation of Nigeria’s young democracy; (2) there are any institutional safeguards in place to forestall the promotion of discriminatory tendencies in the politics of the state;(3) there is the likelihood of the tendencies in the Nasarawa politics nudging the state into violence after the 2015 elections; and (4) there are viable solutions [RN1] available to address the potentially violate situation. Methodologically, using both primary and secondary sources- interviews and works of scholars, and media reports on the crisis, the study came up with the following findings: (1) the Ombatse crisis is not a religious-[RN2] puritanical cause, but fits into the themes of identity conflict, hegemonic and exclusionary politics; (2)the election outcome still reflected the deep divisions and polarization among Nigeria’s disparate social groups- projecting Nigeria yet as a deeply-divided society; (3) contrary to the pre-election anxiety, there were no violence during and after the elections-owing essentially to the moderating presence in Nigeria during the 2015 election of the International Criminal Court (ICC), who threatened to prosecute person(s) or group(s) that perpetrate violence in the course of the election; (4)Nasarawa politics lacks any ‘institutional safeguards to prevent the emergence of conditions in which divisions within the society gain a salient discriminatory dimension and eventually facilitate the rise of violence as a means to realize group interest’. The study suggests six recommendations that can promote the solution of the potentially violate situation; importantly, evolving a well-defined power-sharing framework, which aims at rotating such political offices among the ethnic groups for a better inter-group relations, implementing past recommendations of commission of inquiries and having the presence of the ICC during elections.
PubDate: Sun, 01 May 2016 12:55:24 PDT
- Hostage at the Table by George Kohlrieser: A Critical Book Review
Authors: Bimal Dahal et al.
Abstract: Being a hostage impedes. One must strive to get out of the hostage mindset and situation to realize peace. This review analyzes George Kohlrieser's approaches from peacebuilding perspective.George Kohlrieser is a professor of leadership and organizational behavior, psychologist, and veteran hostage negotiator. In his book Hostage at the Table, he contends that conflict resolution is not difficult if we understand how human self-esteem operates. He believes that deep within humans reside slumbering powers that most of us do not even activate. These latent powers can revolutionize our lives if aroused and put into action.In the following pages, we explore his ideas in three steps. First, we look at his premises: the bonding and secure bases as a base of relationships and motivation of basic needs, the broken bond or loss as a source of conflict, and conflict management through the lens of healthy bonding. Second, we explore the tools that Kohlrieser offers to the negotiator: seeing through the mind’s eye and understanding, controlling, and using these emotions. Finally, we discuss dialogue as the element that brings together the elements of bonding, seeing through the mind’s eye, and harnessing energy for the common benefit. In this way, dialogue can be understood as an indispensable stage of negotiation in every step.In our review, we aim to bring alive the concepts of the author through connections with the responsible negotiation approach; however, this exercise is also vigilant of potential limitations of Kohlrieser’s approach and tools.
PubDate: Tue, 01 Mar 2016 09:05:32 PST
- Defeating ISIS: the Need for a Cooperative Effort
Authors: Sabrina Chikhi
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of a collective approach in the fight against the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria also known as ISIS. The approach of the international community had been doomed to failure because it excluded key players in the region. In order to annihilate this terrorist group and the threat it poses to international security, this article proposes a revision of the approach to the resolution of this problem through the inclusion of all the parties susceptible to secure an efficient contribution to that endeavor before the situation becomes irremediable. In order to do so, the inclusion of Syria and the regional powers is indispensable to for a workable resolution of the conflict. As a result of a theoretical analysis building on realism, rational choice and international terrorism, a proposal to a more inclusive approach to negotiations is recommended. It argues for the imperative to put aside the disagreements concerning the fate of President Assad for the purpose of preventing further chaos regionally and internationally.
PubDate: Tue, 01 Mar 2016 09:05:26 PST
- The West and the Rest of Us: Islamic Militancy, Refugee crisis and the
Migration wave towards Europe
Authors: Simeon Onyemachi Hilary Alozieuwa Ph.D.
Abstract: The recent migration wave to Europe from the Arab world thrusts to the fore for serious discourse, an issue the world has hitherto shied away from: the gradual Islamization of the world beginning with the west. The issue is not the Islamic faith itself. Certain elements of the faithful are imbued with hegemonic-domination tendencies marked by the excessive obsession to obliterate others’ cultures. This paper views the Euro/West-ward movement of the Muslim Arab refugees/migrants as a grand strategy for the Islamization agenda; the smuggled Islamists militias are its foot-soldiers. The West needs to interrogate its overextended human rights regimes.
PubDate: Tue, 01 Mar 2016 09:05:19 PST
- Understanding Transitional Justice and its Two Major Dilemmas
Authors: Jared Bell
Abstract: Transitional justice is an ever growing field and greatly intersects with conflict science and peace studies. With the horrific crimes committed during World War II and the latter half of the 20th century societies now more than ever before are devising processes, mechanisms, and policies to move past gross human rights violations or communal violence. However, these mechanisms much like anything else are not perfect and come with a variety of dilemmas. In particular two main dilemmas plague transitional justice which this paper aims to deal with: Getting to Truth and Reality versus Expectation. Within the context of a theoretical analysis methodology, this paper explores these two by dilemmas explicating and analyzing them while looking at definitions of transitional justice, its processes, their pros and cons, its history, as well as how they impact transitioning societies
PubDate: Tue, 01 Dec 2015 09:51:25 PST
- Evaluating the “Success” of Disarmament, Demobilization, and
Reintegration Programs: The Case of Congo-Brazzaville
Authors: Zachary Karazsia
Abstract: The end of hostilities between warring factions in Congo-Brazzaville has marked a decisive moment in the state’s developmental history. Post conflict reconstruction is a foundational component of public policies that restore order within society, igniting the engines of economic development, and in obtaining sustainable peace. In recent years, Africa has experienced a disproportionate share of conflicts compared with other regions; and leads the world in the number of present intrastate conflicts. Since the end of the Cold War, some African states have made advances in post conflict peacebuilding and intergroup reconciliation. This article focuses on post conflict reconstruction through the lens of security sector reforms, primarily disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) programs. This study asks, how can postconflict scholars and practitioners determine if a DDR program has been a success or failure' Using Congo-Brazzaville as a case study, this article integrates the literature of political science and program evaluation to assess the level of “success” in Congo’s DDR programs. DDR is a highly complex and contingent process, and complete success or failure is unlikely, with most program outcomes result in a series of mixed effects. In summing the successes of individual indicators (e.g., weapons collected, munitions destroyed) DDR may be commonly perceived as successful, however, the conflict context, power dynamics, level of development, or social reintegration of ex-combatants may retard short-term gains for long-term instability. DDR programs should not carry the burden of peacebuilding themselves, and donor summary reports should not rely on easily quantifiable indicators in decreeing a program’s success without contemplating domestic power politics and elite cooptation mechanisms.
PubDate: Tue, 01 Dec 2015 09:51:23 PST
Authors: Mark George Bound
PubDate: Mon, 09 Nov 2015 10:45:11 PST
- Why Terrorist Networks Maintain Viability within Today’s Modern
Authors: Cade Resnick Ph.D. et al.
Abstract: Common concepts of terrorism refer to acts which are intended to create a system of fear. The ideological argument for terrorism relates to a politically and emotionally charged scenario in which terrorism is necessary. The development of a terrorist organization requires an environment that is ripe with social degradation and has idealistic minded people who are able to believe in a cause. The organization utilizes a social system to maintain its own stability and to retain the people who are involved within its self-contained community. Suffering oppression from its own government or an-other nation is a crucial component in fostering the development of terrorist organizations. The system of development is entrenched within the culture of a people who feel separated from the traditions and cultures of societal expectation. The perceived oppression is vital for creating blame for the current status of the surviving people. Furthermore, oppression allows for the development of hate to occur, which in turn creates a psychological opportunity to develop a terrorist narrative.This paper seeks to discuss how terrorist organizations like Hezbollah and Al Qaeda are developed around an oppressed society which has found its voice through aggression and violence. Their cause is said to be for the benefit of a societies which is enveloped into the ideological word of God. Terrorist organizations have targeted different types of nations for their continued existence; yet, these organizations still use the primary focuses of psychological influence of world view and prejudice theories to maintain their existence.In understanding terrorism, the characteristics of involvement must also be evaluated from a lens of world view understanding in combination of prejudice and psychological theories.
PubDate: Fri, 06 Nov 2015 15:40:10 PST
- Mediation Model Differences between China and Australia and Their Possible
Authors: Yang Zhang
Abstract: This manuscript compares and contrasts the mediation models in Australia and China, and analyses the possibility of their combination. As an alternative to the court system, in the 1970s and 1980s, mediation became widely used as a method for dispute resolution in western countries in which the rule of law is highly valued, such as Australia. Whereas in China, the tradition of mediation has lasted for thousands of years and never ceased.Chinese culture treats dispute as a shame because China has a proverb, “harmony is valuable.” The traditional dispute mediator was an honorable elder of the community. In China, mediation is not only a dispute resolution process, but also an educational process.In the past century, although Chinese society has been rapidly changing and Chinese people are criti-cizing and rejecting their own traditions, the practices of mediation continue to maintain a strong traditional flavor. This results in an unsatisfied need of effective dispute resolution in China.In western society, contemporary mediation is not based on collectivism or the traditional virtue of caring for others within the community, but rather for following the value of self-determination and individualism. Therefore, unlike the Chinese mediation model, the western contemporary mediation process is not bound by culture and tradition.This essay also examines whether the Australian mediation model can address the unsatisfied need for effective dispute resolution in China. Because mediators maintain neutrality and impartiality, and empower parties to find their own solutions, among the urban professional population the Australian mediation model is more likely to satisfy parties’ various interests than the Chinese model.
PubDate: Fri, 06 Nov 2015 15:40:09 PST
- Liberia and Sierra Leone: Sustainable Paths to Development'
Authors: Adam Howe
Abstract: Over a decade removed from devastating civil wars in Liberia (2003) and Sierra Leone (2002), both states have unsurprisingly placed a strong emphasis on post-conflict economic development. Despite a streak of impressive GDP growth in both states, a host of underlying structural deficiencies are readily apparent. Long-term natural resource reliance subjects both economies to the boom and bust cycle of global commodity markets while simultaneously encouraging rent-seeking behavior. More specifically, Liberia’s growing iron ore sector and Sierra Leone’s diamond exports have generated pockets of wealth, though the profits have not trickled down to the public at-large. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. I first explore how two very similar countries have approached post-conflict development. Secondly, I analyze the opportunities and obstacles to sustainable economic develop-ment in both states. The preliminary evidence presented in this paper suggests that Liberia’s pursuit of good governance policies through the Governance and Economic Management Assistance Pro-gram (GEMAP) places it in a relatively better position to attract both foreign direct investment and bilateral aid in the coming years. Conversely, Sierra Leone’s unwillingness to seriously combat institu-tional corruption will likely serve as an impediment to stable economic development. While develop-ment in both states could very well be mitigated by a host of exogenous factors (environmental catas-trophe, conflict-spillover, disease), this paper advances the argument that good governance and eco-nomic diversification must remain top priorities.
PubDate: Fri, 06 Nov 2015 15:40:08 PST
- Poverty and Conflict: Can Economic Development Prevent Conflict'
Authors: Kirk Galster
Abstract: War and widespread poverty plague the developing countries of the world in a devastatingly violent cycle. This paper illustrates a correlation between economics and the role it can play in violence. The author surveys three theoretical approaches to understanding conflict resolution and socioeconomic causal relationships of violence, summarizes empirical evidence of those causal relationships, ex-plores these relationships in terrorism and civil war, and utilizes those theories and empirical data in an analytical case study of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, including a correlation coefficient ma-trix and regression analysis with policy implications. The theoretical approaches surveyed include hu-man security and development, the horizontal inequalities theory, and structural demographic theory. The unique and peaceful approach of growing a developing nation’s economy could be key to break-ing the cycle of violent conflict in war-torn countries and avoiding such violence in countries on the verge of civil war.
PubDate: Fri, 06 Nov 2015 15:40:07 PST