The Qualitative Report
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1052-0147
Published by Nova Southeastern University [3 journals]
- Demystifying the Analysis Process of Talk Data: A Review of Analyzing Talk
in the Social Sciences: Narrative, Conversation & Discourse Strategies
Authors: Andrea E. Lypka
Abstract: In Analyzing Talk in the Social Sciences: Narrative, Conversation & Discourse Strategies, Katherine Bischoping and Amber Gazso introduce three analytical approaches to talk data: narrative analysis, conversation analysis, and discourse analysis. Taking a sociological perspective, the authors engage in critical dialogue on research that employs these approaches, and provide step-by-step guide to analyzing talk data, using these strategies. They expand on introductory qualitative research concepts by taking up the complex interrelationships among epistemological, ontological, paradigmatical, and theoretical lenses that guide these analytical strategies. Through examples from a wide range of studies and their own research and advising experiences, Bischoping and Gazso articulate various analytical approaches to talk data to demonstrate the strength of these strategies in qualitative inquiry. Despite its minor shortcomings, such as its narrow focus on three analytical approaches and prevalent focus on talk data elicited in interviews, this book offers insights and strategies for students, faculty, and researchers interested in fine-tuning approaches guided by narrative analysis, conversation analysis, and discourse analysis.
PubDate: Sun, 19 Mar 2017 14:29:25 PDT
- Teaching Irish Sign Language in Contact Zones: An Autoethnography
Authors: Noel Patrick O'Connell
Abstract: The central purpose of this autoethnographic study is to provide an account of my experiences as a deaf teacher teaching Irish Sign Language (ISL) to hearing students in a higher education institution. My cultural and linguistic background and personal history guided the way I interacted with students who found themselves confronted by a unique culture quite separate from what they had known before. By engaging in autoethnographic journal writing recorded over a period of three months, I reveal the complex social and historical relations manifested in the contact between deaf and hearing cultures in the classroom. More specifically, I consider how language conflict and different communication modes might affect teaching and learning in concrete situations. In particular, I advocate an understanding of Pratt’s (1991) “contact zone” theory to see deaf-hearing contacts not just as challenges but possibilities for new ways of understanding the experience of sign language teaching and learning.
PubDate: Sun, 19 Mar 2017 14:29:20 PDT
- Analysis of Marital Expectations in African Immigrant and United
States-Born Married Couples
Authors: Evadne Ngazimbi et al.
Abstract: The current phenomenological qualitative study aimed to understand marital expectations in married African immigrants and United States-born (U.S.-born) married couples. Eighty-five African-born immigrant and U.S.-born couples from a predominately Seventh-day Adventist sample residing in the U.S. completed the Marital Expectations Questionnaire (MEQ). We analyzed data collected in response to the first question. Data analysis revealed 12 codes associated with four themes related to marital expectations: (a) Care and Support; (b) Love and affection (c) Commitment and (d) Shared Values. We present implications for marital relationships and future research.
PubDate: Sun, 19 Mar 2017 14:29:16 PDT
- Challenges and Facilitators of Recruitment: Lessons Learned from
Conducting a Focused Ethnography in a Vulnerable Rural Population
Authors: Debra Kramlich et al.
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to describe the challenges and facilitators of recruitment encountered in an ethnographic dissertation study of rural women with substance use disorders during the perinatal period. While the study is being conducted in the hospital setting post-delivery, potential participants who meet inclusion criteria are identified by practitioners through a number of perinatal practices within a wide geographic area as well as by inpatient social workers. Recruitment in this vulnerable and often socially disadvantaged population has been found to be challenging with regard to ethical approval, participant eligibility and availability, practice changes, and discrepancies in the recruitment process. The authors discuss these challenges and describe the process of practitioner engagement to facilitate participant recruitment and lessons learned in the process.
PubDate: Sun, 19 Mar 2017 14:29:11 PDT
- “It’s Not a Life or Death Thing”: A Grounded Theory Study of Smoking
Decisions among Chinese Americans
Authors: Yu Lu
Abstract: Smoking results in a high mortality rate for Chinese Americans. Little is known, however, about the decisions members of this group make that lead to these unhealthy behaviors. Examining smoking decisions could help us understand these choices as well as develop effective prevention strategies. This grounded theory study was conducted to understand Chinese Americans’ smoking decisions. Fifty-four individual interviews and three focus groups were conducted with Chinese Americans of different smoking statuses. The findings describe five smoking decisions including the trajectory of these behaviors. Optimistic bias is identified as one of the main reasons that regular smokers decide not to quit. Some Chinese Americans decide to smoke in order to protect themselves from secondhand smoke because of the perception that secondhand smoke is more dangerous than active smoking. Finally, many Chinese Americans change their smoking behaviors after immigration, with their social environment after immigration playing a key role.
PubDate: Mon, 13 Mar 2017 06:05:42 PDT
- A Phenomenological Study of Graduate Chinese Students’ English
Authors: Papia Bawa et al.
Abstract: More students from China are looking to the United States for learning opportunities. However, such students have serious English writing deficiencies. This is due to significant differences between the two languages. This phenomenological study of five Chinese, graduate level students in the United States, informs us of these issues and provides a basis upon which we can explore viable instructional strategies to deal with such issues. The key findings suggest that the participants feel marginalized due to English language deficiencies, which is complicated by a deficiently structured English language instructional system. Based on these findings, several themes are presented that underpin the core challenges faced by the participants, as well as participants’ views of desirable support mechanisms to help their English writing process.
PubDate: Mon, 13 Mar 2017 06:05:38 PDT
- Twenty Years of Technology Integration and Foreign Language Teaching: A
Phenomenological Reflective Interview Study
Authors: Nilsa Becho Sullivan et al.
Abstract: The evolution of the use of technology in the foreign language classroom has proven to be a challenge. In this paper, we highlight a study whose purpose is to understand how one retired foreign language educator reflected on the ways in which she integrated different modes of technology in her classroom. In this interview study, the participant discussed how technology has evolved in the span of her twenty-year career as a foreign language educator and how she integrated various technologies as they evolved in her classroom. The researchers employed a modified van Kaam method as defined by Moustakas (1994) to analyze the data collected through phenomenological interviews. The results revealed a complex negotiation process, a thoughtful reflection of advantages and disadvantages of technology integration in foreign language classrooms, and the value of understanding the cyclical nature of technology integration in education.
PubDate: Mon, 13 Mar 2017 06:05:34 PDT
- Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment Implementation in
the Emergency Department
Authors: Arvind Venkat MD et al.
Abstract: We sought to qualitatively evaluate impediments in implementing a novel Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) protocol into normal emergency department (ED) workflow for patients with at-risk drug/alcohol behavior. From 2010, administrative and nursing champions trained nurses at a single ED (census: 50,000 visits/yr) in SBIRT and incorporated SBIRT into normal ED nursing workflow in 2012. To qualitatively analyze impediments in SBIRT implementation, we created a semi-structured questionnaire for protocol champions with subsequent follow-up. Investigators analyzed responses using qualitative methodology based on a modified grounded theory framework. In 2012, 47693 visits by 31525 patients met SBIRT protocol initiation criteria with a protocol execution rate of 83.4%. Interview data identified the following impediments: (1) Need for multi-layer leadership support; (2) Application of an overarching vision to constantly address personnel attitudes towards SBIRT appropriateness in the ED; (3) Continuous performance monitoring to address implementation barriers close to real time; (4) Strategic and adaptive SBIRT training; and (5) External systemic changes through internal leadership. Qualitative analysis suggests that impediments to SBIRT implementation in the ED include views of SBIRT appropriateness in the ED, need for continuous reinforcement/refinement of personnel training / protocol execution, and fostering of additional administrative/financial champions.
PubDate: Mon, 13 Mar 2017 06:05:30 PDT
- Antecedents of New Venture Creation Decision in Iranian High-Tech
Industries: Conceptualizing by a Non-Teleological Approach
Authors: Mehdi Zivdar et al.
Abstract: Entrepreneurs’ decision-making process is one of the main research topics in entrepreneurship studies. This research aims to conceptualize the antecedents of new venture creation decision in Iranian high tech industries. The research utilizes an innovative non-teleological approach in order to take into account the specific regional context of Iran. Most research into entrepreneurial decision making utilizes teleological approaches; however, these models could not adequately explain the phenomena within the Iranian context. This qualitative study utilized event- based interviews with 20 nascent entrepreneurs. Results from coding, categorizing and validating the research findings, revealed 3 main categories as antecedents of new venture creation decision. Accordingly, concepts of entrepreneurial meta-cognition; primary actions and receiving feedback; and positive attitude toward change, constitute the main antecedents of new venture creation decision in this context. The findings also reveal the non-teleological nature of entrepreneurial decision-making, and adoption of some effectuation logics in the studied decision-making process.
PubDate: Sun, 05 Mar 2017 09:51:15 PST
- Learning to Teach: A Case Study of Student Teachers’ Practicum and
Authors: Urip Sulistiyo et al.
Abstract: This qualitative case study was conducted to gather information on the implementation of teaching practicum in order to improve the quality of the program in an English teacher education program at a state-owned university, Jambi, Indonesia. Information was gathered from five recent teacher graduates, five beginner teachers, five school principals, and five teacher educators on their perceptions of English Foreign Language Teacher Education Program (EFLTEP) graduates as beginner teachers. This qualitative study employed a background survey, document analyses and interviews for data collection. Document analyses were used to examine the aims and content of the English teacher education program and official Indonesian English teacher education curriculum and policies. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore the main data from graduates and collect information from the beginner teachers. Interviews with principals and teacher educators were used to obtain further data and evidence about the beginner teachers’ knowledge and preparedness to teach. We organized our analysis, findings, and discussion around the implementation of teaching practicum. The analyses of the documents and texts revealed that major themes related to (1) the standards for implementing the teaching practicum in the program, (2) quality of the teaching practicum, (3) duration of the teaching practicum, (4) the roles of mentor teachers and teacher educators, and (5) selecting school partners for the student teacher practicum. Particularly, the findings indicated that teaching practicum projects undertaken during the program provided suitable but limited experience for student teachers to translate their knowledge learnt at university into the real practice of teaching at school levels. For future improvement of the program, the role of supervising teachers and teacher educators in assisting student teachers during the teaching practicum project should be a priority. The organisation and management of school–university partnerships for schools taking part in the teaching practicum require attention to maximise benefits to student teachers.
PubDate: Sat, 04 Mar 2017 09:42:56 PST
- Life After NBC’s “The Biggest Loser”: The Experiences and
Perspectives of Former Reality TV Contestants
Authors: Darren D. Moore et al.
Abstract: Utilizing Qualitative Description influenced by aspects of phenomenology, we conducted fifteen open-ended, semi-structured interviews with former contestants of NBC’s “The Biggest Loser.” The purpose of the study was to explore experiences of significant weight loss. We focused on challenges, emotional well-being, and relational dynamics of contestants transitioning through their weight loss journeys, which included what happened after the show was completed. Further, we analyzed perspectives regarding the utility of Marriage and Family Therapists (MFTs) in working with this population. In the study, three themes emerged which included: (1) Living at the ranch: It’s reality TV, not reality; (2) After the confetti falls: Post-Traumatic Reality TV Syndrome and The Whiplash Effect; and (3) Therapeutic treatment: Much needed but nowhere to be found. The study includes a rich description of the data, as well as a discussion of clinical implications.
PubDate: Sat, 04 Mar 2017 09:42:51 PST
- Revitalizing the HERO within Teachers: An Analysis of the Effects of the
PsyCap Development Training
Authors: Mahmut KALMAN et al.
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to investigate middle school teachers’ perceptions of the effects of a teacher-targeted intervention, that is, Psychological Capital Development Training Intervention (PCDTI), aiming at enhancing positive psychological capacities of teachers. The PCDTI was prepared and implemented by the researchers at a state university in a large city in Turkey during the academic year of 2014-2015. The implementation of the PCDTI lasted for 2 months, once in a week, and after completing the training intervention, interviews were conducted with twelve teachers who were the participants in the experimental group. Data were gathered through one-on-one interviews and were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The participants stated that the PCDTI had some positive effects in terms of their personal and professional awareness and development. Raising awareness about some key issues in teachers’ lives, experiencing positive emotions, cognitions, and attitudes, and experiencing changes in their attitudes towards students and teaching profession were the perceived effects of the training intervention. The participants also made suggestions to enhance the effectiveness of the intervention. Some implications are offered for the benefits of enhancing teachers’ psychological capital in schools.
PubDate: Sat, 04 Mar 2017 09:42:47 PST
- Use of Research by Undergraduate Nursing Students: A Qualitative
Authors: Salima Moez Meherali et al.
Abstract: Research utilization (RU) is crucial to preparing the next generation of registered nurses, since they are expected to stay abreast of research, read and use existing research to improve their ability to solve problems, and make decisions independently in clinical settings. Also, baccalaureate nursing programs often identify RU as an expected curricular outcome. The purpose of this study was to identify nursing students’ perceptions about RU. In this study, we used a sequential mixed methods approach. In this paper, only qualitative analysis related to RU is reported. A qualitative descriptive design was used to address the study questions. A purposive sample of 20 undergraduate students enrolled in their final year of study in BScN programs (four-year basic, honors, and accelerated programs) was recruited via e-mail to participate in the study. The study findings were categorized into the components of the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework, which is comprised of evidence, context, and facilitation. Findings disclosed some key themes that nursing students perceive as facilitating or restricting their use of research. These themes include level of education preparedness, clinical experience and expertise, lack of time, theory practice gap, and clinical evaluation criteria, nursing faculty support for using research, and faculty’s’ competency in research. The majority of students stated that they did not utilize the research findings in clinical practice. Insufficient knowledge about RU was the most prominent reason. These results suggest that students should be encouraged and supported to utilize research findings in their practice settings
PubDate: Mon, 27 Feb 2017 06:14:45 PST
- Exploring Family Change Processes: A Dynamic Qualitative Analysis of
Family Trajectories, Change and Coordination in Child Protection Cases
Authors: Ana Teixeira de Melo et al.
Abstract: This paper reports an exploratory discovery-oriented study aimed at inspecting change processes and dynamics in families referred by the Courts and Child Protection Services for family assessment in the Integrated Family Assessment and Intervention Model (IFAIM; Melo & Alarcão, 2011, 2013) due to child neglect. The families received support for change during an assessment aimed at facilitating and exploring their potential for change. The parents reported, in quantitative diaries, their family’s experiences and changes inside and outside the sessions. We coded the data with a qualitative coding-scheme emergent from a preliminary qualitative exploration based on grounded theory methods and sensitizing concepts from Complexity Science and Dynamic Systems Theories. Core categories of Trajectories of States, Trajectories of Coordination and Influence and Other Coordination Effects emerged as relevant indicators to understand the families’ potential for change, describing basic dynamic change processes and contributing to understand therapeutic outcomes. We discuss the implications of the results and directions for future studies.
PubDate: Mon, 27 Feb 2017 06:14:39 PST
- Opening Up about Birth: An Autoethnographic Account of Prolonged Labour
Authors: Petra B. Elias
Abstract: A woman’s first pregnancy can be both emotionally exciting and daunting. There are many changes to make, but there is little emotional support to adjust to the role, the focus being on the physical process which is most often managed medically (Spear, 2008; Zasloff, Schytt, & Waldenström, 2007) though warnings about what could occur are not routinely told (Kaitz, 2007, pp. 720-721). This paper presents an autoethnographic story of first time pregnancy and the unfolding labour. The methodology of autoethnography is a useful tool for conveying stories of lived experience at a level of detail often previously unrecorded, evoking for the reader a powerful insight into sometimes very personal but universal human experiences. Utilising the tools of narration, autoethnography is a powerful device for conveying plot, character and events. This autoethnography provides the vehicle to juxtapose the joy and excitement of a first pregnancy and the plan for a natural delivery with a developing complicated labour and the ongoing difficulties of breast feeding, and concludes with some thoughts about how better to support first time mothers through the process.
PubDate: Mon, 27 Feb 2017 06:14:33 PST
- Pathways to Self-Injury: A Qualitative Exploration of Social Psychological
Authors: Thomas W. Wojciechowski
Abstract: Self-injury is a deviant behavior often understood as the intentional infliction of harm onto one’s own body that exists absent of suicidal. This study uses a qualitative methodology to examine the etiology and perpetuation of self-injury using the terminology of relevant social-psychological theories to determine which processes best describe a causal pathway leading to self-injury and its perpetuation after the onset of the behavior. Data obtained from 16 semi-structured interviews with former and current self-injurers indicate that the processes described in general strain theory, social learning theory, and social control theory are all important for understanding the etiology and perpetuation of self-injury. Analytic induction was utilized as the method of analysis in order to parse out only the elements universal to pathways to self-injury evident in all of the examined cases. All participants used self-injury as coping response for mitigating negative affect stemming from strain, thus, implicating general strain theory as important for understanding the onset of self-injury. Participants were categorized into two subtypes of self-injurers based upon the temporal dimension of the social learning process. Future research should attempt to use quantitative methodologies to provide generalizability for the results of this study and examine how changes in risk and protective factors over the life-course modify one’s propensity to engage in self-injury.
PubDate: Mon, 27 Feb 2017 06:14:28 PST
- Frustrations, Fights, and Friendships: The Physical, Emotional, and
Behavioural Effects of High-Density Crowding on Mumbai’s Suburban Rail
Authors: Lily Hirsch et al.
Abstract: Crammed together in tight folds of humanity, the suburban rail passengers of Mumbai, India, experience the most densely crowded trains in the world (Basu & Hunt, 2012). Whilst the immediate physical descriptors of crowdedness in Mumbai are well understood (Hirsch, 2016), there is little knowledge of the effect this has on the multitude of passengers. This is an important omission, as the effects of crowding on passengers impact their attitudes, travel behavior, and travel decisions. This paper therefore seeks to discern the physical, emotional, and behavioural effects of rail passenger crowding in Mumbai, India. To achieve this, a qualitative methodology, including 49 face-to-face interviews and 48 hours of ethnographic and autoethnographic observations in Mumbai were conducted. Mumbai is an ideal place to study these effects as it has high-density crowding, the likes of which are not experienced elsewhere. Additionally, there is a limited understanding of the effect of crowding on passengers in non-Western societies. With increasing rail ridership worldwide, the experiences of Mumbai’s passengers within high densities may align with the future experiences of passengers in other Western and non-Western countries. For academics and service providers, understanding the specifics of the crowd, such as the density, passenger perceptions, and culture is important. With that knowledge, strategies to improve the experience of crowding would be more effective.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Feb 2017 06:38:28 PST
- Leaving Home for African Americans in the Emerging Adulthood Era: A
Authors: Natosha N. Wilson et al.
Abstract: There has been limited research regarding how minority culture youth experience leaving home. Eight African American individuals who had “launched” from their families-of-origin were interviewed. By using Moustakas’ Transcendental Phenomenological method, several themes emerged to describe the lived experience of leaving home. The themes included need for independence, a comparison of privilege for others and oppression for self, obligation to family, and pride in self-sufficiency. According to the findings in this study, leaving home for young African Americans is a culturally distinct experience which aligns more closely with traditional patterns of leaving home. Although the emerging adulthood era functions as a context in which the participants exist, the young African American participants in this study identified delayed launching as a “failure.”
PubDate: Sat, 18 Feb 2017 08:39:22 PST
- Constructing a Sociological Biography: A Surprisingly Complex
Authors: Sara Louise Wheeler
Abstract: Biographical statements are an important part of impressions management in the academic milieu. These statements provide an online presence, accompany our academic products, and represent us in the academy. This becomes a high stakes activity, which can be quite anxiety provoking. As a qualitative sociologist with a particular interest in auto/ biography, producing such a statement really ought to be easy - putting into words: who I am, what I do, and where I am currently located. However, writing sociological biographies requires a fine balance, particularly during the early career phase, when we may be juggling projects, research directions and institutions. An additional concern is that of selecting the appropriate “voice,” which of course can vary depending on the nature of the journal, conference, or other destination for the biography. In this article I draw on examples from my own autobiographical experiences to explore the dilemmas faced when constructing academic biographies.
PubDate: Sat, 18 Feb 2017 08:39:18 PST
- The Role of Pedagogical Beliefs in Emerging Technology Integration: An
Exploratory Case Study of Faculty Perspectives
Authors: Marianne Justus
Abstract: The integration of social media, mobile/wireless and Web 2.0 technologies in higher education supports student engagement locally and globally to create new knowledge using innovative strategies. However, there remains a disconnect between the positive perceptions of faculty regarding the value of integrating technology and its adoption in online contexts. The purpose of this qualitative exploratory case study was to investigate the factors that influence faculty to integrate innovative and emerging technologies, and to consider whether pedagogical beliefs influence choice and adoption of technology. Participants included graduate and undergraduate faculty members who had experience teaching online; were representative of diverse disciplines and courses and were familiar with using technology in the classroom. Using qualitative content analysis, the data from in-depth interviews, questionnaires and researcher reflective journal entries were analyzed. The findings indicate that faculty are convinced of the benefits of technology and its potential impact on student success. However, their choices are influenced by those tools that align with their pedagogical beliefs and have a foundation in learning theory, that are easy to learn, and that demonstrate increased student engagement and motivation. This study contributes to the current gap in research related to low technology adoption rates by faculty, and highlights the complexity of selecting innovative technology for online global environments
PubDate: Sat, 18 Feb 2017 08:39:14 PST