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Educational Researcher
Journal Prestige (SJR): 3.473
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 166  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0013-189X - ISSN (Online) 1935-102X
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1087 journals]
  • Estimating Teacher Attrition for Impact Study Design
    • Authors: Joseph A. Taylor, Brady West
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      The goal of this article is to provide guidance on teacher attrition rates that can inform power analyses. The subjects were a nationally representative sample of teachers responding to the National Center for Education Statistics Schools and Staffing Survey and Teacher Follow-Up Survey (2011–2013). The findings indicate that at the national average of percent free and reduced-price lunch (FRL), approximately one in six teachers move schools or leave the profession between adjacent academic years. The odds of this type of attrition happening increase by approximately 0.8% for each 1% FRL difference (increase) of a planned study context from the national average.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-10-10T08:33:37Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19880550
  • Troubling Practice: Exploring the Relationship Between Whiteness and
           Practice-Based Teacher Education in Considering a Raciolinguicized Teacher
    • Authors: Julia R. Daniels, Manka Varghese
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      In this essay, we argue that teacher education is increasingly marginalizing the relevance of teacher subjectivity and recentering Whiteness, especially in its uptake of practice-based teacher education. Whereas teacher subjectivity has been pushed to the margins of recent conversations about teacher education—and has therefore narrowed our understanding of the ideological and practical affordances and constraints of practice-based teacher education—we show that it must be centered in teacher education and understood as fundamental to all teachers’ embodied practice. We draw from literature exploring critical Whiteness studies, raciolinguistics, poststructural understandings of teacher subjectivity, the experiences of teachers of Color and practice-based teacher education. By showing how a raciolinguicized teacher subjectivity has been marginalized, we simultaneously argue for the centrality of the role of subjectivity in shaping teaching and, therefore, in defining critical dimensions of what and how novice teachers need to learn.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-09-24T09:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19879450
  • Racial and Ethnic Discrimination in the Labor Market for Child Care
    • Authors: Casey Boyd-Swan, Chris M. Herbst
      First page: 394
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines racial and ethnic discrimination in the child care teacher hiring process. We construct a unique data set that combines a résumé audit study of center-based providers with a follow-up survey of those in the original audit sample. Fictitious résumés were randomly assigned White-, Black-, and Hispanic-sounding names and submitted in response to real teacher job advertisements. The survey was then administered to capture the characteristics of children, teachers, and administrators within the center. These data reveal three key results. First, we find robust evidence of discrimination: Black and Hispanic applicants receive significantly fewer interview requests than observationally equivalent Whites. Second, our results are consistent with a model of customer discrimination: The racial and ethnic composition of the center’s customer base is correlated with the characteristics of job seekers receiving an interview. Finally, we show that states’ child care regulations mitigate the racial and ethnic gap in interview requests.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-09-09T06:29:20Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19867941
  • Worsening School Segregation for Latino Children'
    • Authors: Bruce Fuller, Yoonjeon Kim, Claudia Galindo, Shruti Bathia, Margaret Bridges, Greg J. Duncan, Isabel García Valdivia
      First page: 407
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      A half century of research details how segregating racial groups in separate schools corresponds with disparities in funding and quality teachers and culturally narrow curricula. But we know little about whether young Latino children have entered less or more segregated elementary schools over the past generation. This article details the growing share of Latino children from low-income families populating schools, 1998 to 2010. Latinos became more segregated within districts enrolling at least 10% Latino pupils nationwide, including large urban districts. Exposure of poor students (of any race) to middle-class peers improved nationwide. This appears to stem in part from rising educational attainment of adults in economically integrated communities populated by Latinos. Children of native-born Latina mothers benefit more from economic integration than those of immigrant mothers, who remain isolated in separate schools. We discuss implications for local educators and policy makers and suggest future research to illuminate where and how certain districts have advanced integration.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-07-29T11:07:29Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19860814
  • Rookie Mistakes: The Interplay of Teacher Experience and Racial
    • Authors: Katie Vinopal, Stephen B. Holt
      First page: 421
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      A growing body of research has documented the important benefits teachers of color bring to students of color, including higher expectations. Separately, researchers have shown that teachers improve student achievement with increasing effectiveness over their careers. We bridge these two streams of research by examining the extent to which teachers’ perceptions of racially dissimilar students vary by experience in the teaching profession. Using nationally representative data, we show that while the expectations gap between non-Black and Black teachers regarding Black students’ academic potential persists regardless of experience, the gap is much larger among first year teachers. We demonstrate that non-Black teachers with more than one year of experience have higher expectations of Black students than non-Black rookie teachers, and perhaps surprisingly, Black teachers with more than one year of experience have lower expectations of Black students compared to rookie Black teachers. We do not find such results for Latino/a students. We discuss the implications of these results for both research and practice.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-09-11T11:00:01Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19867699
  • Schoolhouse Democracy: Public Opinion and Education Spending in the States
    • Authors: David M. Houston
      First page: 438
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      Using new estimates of state-level public opinion, I explore the relationship between support for increased education spending and statewide per-pupil expenditures from 1986 to 2013. In the 1980s, there was a modest, positive relationship between public opinion and actual spending: States with greater support for increased education spending tended to have slightly higher per pupil expenditures. Over the next three decades, this relationship reversed. States with relatively low per-pupil expenditures tended to increase their spending at a slower rate despite steady growth in support for more spending. As a result, public opinion and education spending became inversely related. By the end of the time series, states with greater support for increased education spending tended to spend less per pupil. The changing distribution of local, state, and federal sources of education spending partially explains this pattern. As federal education expenditures rose, some states spent proportionally less from state and local sources, resulting in smaller overall spending increases in those states.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-08-06T08:30:48Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19867948
  • Mathematics Learning in Language Inclusive Classrooms: Supporting the
           Achievement of English Learners and their English Proficient Peers
    • Authors: Geoffrey B. Saxe, Joshua Sussman
      First page: 452
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      National and state assessments show that English language learners (ELs) in elementary and secondary grades score lower in mathematics compared with their matched English proficient peers (EPs). To provide information on strategies for enhancing learning opportunities for ELs in language inclusive classrooms, we analyze the efficacy of Learning Mathematics Through Representations (LMR), a curriculum unit on integers and fractions designed to support learning opportunities for ELs as well as EPs. LMR features the number line as a principal representational context and the use of embodied representations to support students as they explore mathematical ideas, construct arguments, and elaborate explanations. The study used a quasi-experimental design: Twenty-one elementary classrooms employing a highly regarded curriculum were included. Forty-four ELs were enrolled across 11 LMR classrooms, and 51 ELs were enrolled across 10 matched comparison classrooms. Multilevel analysis of longitudinal data on a specialized integers and fractions assessment, as well as a California state mathematics assessment, revealed that the ELs in LMR classrooms showed greater gains than comparison ELs and gained at similar rates to their EP peers in LMR classrooms. Further, contrasts between ELs in the LMR classrooms and EPs in the comparison classrooms revealed that LMR narrowed or eliminated the pretest achievement gap in mathematics. Both theory and empirical results support the value of LMR as a mathematics intervention benefitting both EL and EP students.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-09-16T10:59:33Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19869953
  • Identifying Naturally Occurring Direct Assessments of Social-Emotional
           Competencies: The Promise and Limitations of Survey and Assessment
           Disengagement Metadata
    • Authors: James Soland, Gema Zamarro, Albert Cheng, Collin Hitt
      First page: 466
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      Social-emotional learning (SEL) is gaining increasing attention in education policy and practice due to growing evidence that related constructs are strongly predictive of long-term academic achievement and attainment. However, the work of educators to support SEL is hampered by a lack of available, unbiased measures of related competencies. In this study we conducted a literature review to investigate whether assessment metadata (typically data relevant to how students behave on a test or survey) can provide information on SEL constructs. Implications of this new source of SEL data for practice, policy, and research are discussed.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-07-11T05:07:18Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19861356
  • How Much Should We Rely on Student Test Achievement as a Measure of
    • Authors: Dan Goldhaber, Umut Özek
      First page: 479
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      The use of test scores as a performance measure in high-stakes educational accountability has become increasingly popular since the enactment of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), which imposed sanctions such as the threat of losing federal funds unless a state implemented a school accountability system that measures student progress continuously. Since then, many in the education community have questioned whether differences in student test scores reflect actual discrepancies in the long-term well-being of individuals. In this review, we try to address this question in the light of the extant literature that examines the relationship between test scores and later life outcomes. We show that while there are certainly studies that contradict the causality of this relationship, there is also abundant evidence suggesting a causal link between test scores and later life outcomes. We conclude that any debate about the use of test scores in educational accountability (1) should be framed by use of all relevant empirical evidence, (2) should also consider the predictive validity of nontest measures of student success, and (3) should keep in mind that the predictive validity of test scores could be stronger in some contexts than others.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-09-06T05:47:29Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19874061
  • “Achievement Gap” Language Affects Teachers’ Issue
    • Authors: David M. Quinn, Tara-Marie Desruisseaux, Akua Nkansah-Amankra
      First page: 484
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      The term “achievement gap” is regularly used to describe between-group differences in educational outcomes. However, critics of the term argue that it implies the problem is merely one of student performance and may depress support for policies aimed at structural solutions. We hypothesized that the phrase “racial achievement gap” would elicit lower levels of issue prioritization than the phrase “racial inequality in educational outcomes” due to the latter’s connotations of social justice. In a randomized survey experiment with a national teacher sample (N = 1,549), our hypothesis was confirmed. However, language did not affect teachers’ explanations for existing academic outcome disparities.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-07-11T05:10:18Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19863765
  • Socioeconomic Segregation and School Choice in American Public Schools
    • Authors: Dave E. Marcotte, Kari Dalane
      First page: 493
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      We examine the effect of the expansion of charter schools on socioeconomic segregation in American public education. Using a district-level panel data set from 1998 to 2015, we describe and model changes in within-district segregation of low-income students, proxied by free-lunch eligibility (FLE). We show that the segregation of FLE students from non-FLE students increased by about 15% in large school districts and find that charter school penetration and growth played a role in increasing socioeconomic segregation within districts. We estimate that a one standard deviation increase in charter enrollment rates increases the dissimilarity index in a district by 6% of a standard deviation. Although this impact is modest, we do find that segregation is more pervasive in the charter sector. So, continued growth of charter schools could exacerbate socioeconomic segregation.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-10-23T04:22:28Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19879714
  • The Price of Mission Complexity: A National Study of the Impact of
           Community College Baccalaureate Adoption on Tuition and Fees
    • Authors: Justin C. Ortagus, Xiaodan Hu
      First page: 504
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      The traditional mission of community colleges is rooted in the provision of sub-baccalaureate education at a low price, but a total of 19 states have changed their legislative policies and currently allow community colleges to offer community college baccalaureate (CCB) degree programs. This study examines the impact of CCB adoption on the tuition and fees at CCB-adopting institutions. We leverage a novel national dataset and employ a difference-in-differences regression approach to find that CCB adoption is associated with increases in tuition and fees at public community colleges.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-09-12T05:14:49Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19872494
  • Not Just Generalizability: A Case for Multifaceted Latent Trait Models in
           Teacher Observation Systems
    • Authors: Stefanie A. Wind, Eli Jones
      First page: 521
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      Teacher evaluation systems often include classroom observations in which raters use rating scales to evaluate teachers’ effectiveness. Recently, researchers have promoted the use of multifaceted approaches to investigating reliability using Generalizability theory, instead of rater reliability statistics. Generalizability theory allows analysts to quantify the contribution of multiple sources of variance (e.g., raters and tasks) to measurement error. We used data from a teacher evaluation system to illustrate another multifaceted approach that provides additional indicators of the quality of observational systems. We show how analysts can use Many-Facet Rasch models to identify and control for differences in rater severity, identify idiosyncratic ratings associated with various facets, and evaluate rating scale functioning. We discuss implications for research and practice in teacher evaluation.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-09-12T09:27:29Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19874084
  • Aligning English Language Proficiency Standards With Content Standards:
           Shared Opportunity and Responsibility Across English Learner Education and
           Content Areas
    • Authors: Okhee Lee
      First page: 534
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      The Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015 mandates that English language proficiency (ELP) standards align with content standards. As the fast-growing population of English learners (ELs) is expected to meet college- and career-ready content standards, the purpose of this article is to highlight key issues in aligning ELP standards with content standards. The overarching question is how to align ELP standards with academically rigorous and language-intensive disciplinary practices of content standards while respecting and maintaining the nature of the discipline within each area. I begin by describing contributions and shortcomings of content standards and ELP standards. Next, I propose consideration of three components in aligning ELP standards with content standards: (a) norms of disciplinary practices across content areas, (b) developmental progressions of disciplinary practices across K–12 grade levels or bands and across content areas, and (c) language use across levels of English proficiency. For each component, the challenges in establishing alignment and potential trade-offs in addressing these challenges are discussed. Finally, I highlight how these challenges present opportunities for substantive collaboration between EL education and content areas to move these fields forward and ensure ELs achieve academically rigorous content standards while developing ELP.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-10-03T03:45:46Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19872497
  • Toward a Synergistic Model for Improving the Use of Research in
           Court-Driven Educational Reform: Examining Gary B. v. Snyder and Literacy
           Improvement in Detroit
    • Authors: Benjamin Michael Superfine, Susan R. Goldman, Meagan S. Richard
      First page: 543
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      Gary B. v. Snyder, a federal class action lawsuit originally filed in September 2016, is one of the most recent and high-profile entrants into the line of cases involving large-scale education reform. In this case, seven students from traditional public schools and charter schools in Detroit sued various Michigan state officials, arguing that the U.S. Constitution includes a fundamental right of access to literacy and that the state had denied them this right. Although the federal trial court in Detroit that initially heard the case found that students were not denied their right of access to literacy by the state, the plaintiffs appealed the case, and it is now being considered in the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals. Given the difficulties that have historically emerged with court-driven education reform, we examine the opportunities and challenges inherent in Gary B. to provide insight into the prospects of Gary B. and similar cases to effectively promote educational improvement. Grounded in this examination, we also present an argument for the utility of a new model for education litigation. We specifically argue that courts acting as agenda setters and working in concert with stakeholders to tailor reform to ground-level conditions is a model that is highly compatible with contemporary education research on effective models of systemic improvement. A court-mandated agenda for educational improvement must be structured in a way that engages stakeholder groups in implementation efforts precisely because improvement naturally involves dynamic, contextual conditions that cannot be completely accounted for in advance.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-09-06T05:43:07Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19874067
  • Immigration Policy and Education in Lived Reality: A Framework for
           Researchers and Educators
    • Authors: Erica O. Turner, Ariana Mangual Figueroa
      First page: 549
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      The urgency of immigration policy in the lives of immigrant students and families and educators is more evident than ever; however, education theories and educators’ practices are not keeping pace with this lived reality. We draw on scholarship that examines the lives and educational experiences of undocumented students and undocumented or mixed-status families; research on classroom, school, and district policy and practice for immigrant students; and critical sociocultural approaches and critical race theories to develop a conceptual framework for understanding the intersection of immigration policy and education in a nuanced way. We highlight conceptual insights—on people, policy, context, outcomes, and power—for making sense of this nexus. We conclude with implications for our work as researchers and educators and how we conceptualize citizenship.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-09-05T09:59:12Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19872496
  • Indebted Over Time: Racial Differences in Student Borrowing
    • Authors: Monnica Chan, Jihye Kwon, David J. Nguyen, Katherine M. Saunders, Nilkamal Shah, Katie N. Smith
      First page: 558
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      Recent trends in higher education financing have increased students’ need to borrow to afford college. This brief examines how federal student loan borrowing has changed from 2000 to 2016 by student race/ethnicity using logistic regression analysis and data from the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS). We find that the odds of borrowing have diverged over time across racial and ethnic subgroups even after controlling for institutional sector and students’ financial circumstances. This divergence in student loan borrowing has important implications for policymakers and researchers interested in closing racial gaps in college access and success.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-07-23T08:09:28Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19864969
  • Examining DACA Students’ Financial Experiences in College
    • Authors: Erica Regan, Anne McDaniel
      First page: 564
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to gain a greater understanding of the financial experiences of students with Deferred Action for Childhood Arrival (DACA) status enrolled in college. The study uses a data set that includes 317 self-identified DACA college students enrolled in 65 two- and four-year institutions nationwide, one of the largest samples of DACA students available. Results suggest that DACA students have higher levels of financial stress than their non-DACA counterparts but report similar levels of optimism about their own financial futures.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-09-13T07:22:24Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19875452
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