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Educational Researcher
Journal Prestige (SJR): 3.473
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 170  
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 1 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 0013-189X - ISSN (Online) 1935-102X
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1086 journals]
  • High School GPAs and ACT Scores as Predictors of College Completion:
           Examining Assumptions About Consistency Across High Schools

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Elaine M. Allensworth, Kallie Clark
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      High school GPAs (HSGPAs) are often perceived to represent inconsistent levels of readiness for college across high schools, whereas test scores (e.g., ACT scores) are seen as comparable. This study tests those assumptions, examining variation across high schools of both HSGPAs and ACT scores as measures of academic readiness for college. We found students with the same HSGPA or the same ACT score graduate at very different rates based on which high school they attended. Yet, the relationship of HSGPAs with college graduation is strong and consistent and larger than school effects. In contrast, the relationship of ACT scores with college graduation is weak and smaller than high school effects, and the slope of the relationship varies by high school.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2020-01-28T12:00:01Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X20902110
  • (Re)Defining Urban Education: A Conceptual Review and Empirical
           Exploration of the Definition of Urban Education
    • Authors: Richard O. Welsh, Walker A. Swain
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      Generally, educational studies do not problematize the definition of urban education or examine the positionality of sites along a spectrum of urban districts and schools. This study addresses the definitional gap by (a) examining the conceptualization of urban education through an integrative review of prior definitional research and (b) exploring how an urban district may be defined in empirical terms. Our findings indicate six categories are typically used to define urban education: (a) population/location/geography, (b) enrollment, (c) demographic composition of students, (d) resources in schools, (e) disparities and educational inequality, and (f) social and economic context. The results indicate that deficit-oriented language permeates prevailing definitions of urban education and that large-city-centered conceptualizations of urban education may overlook a substantial number of smaller districts with similar levels of educational inequality and diversity.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2020-01-27T06:14:14Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X20902822
  • Intrastate and Interstate Influences on the Introduction and Enactment of
           Campus Carry Legislation, 2004–2016
    • Authors: David R. Johnson, Liang Zhang
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      Using a data set that captures the introduction and enactment of “campus carry” bills between 2004 and 2016, we examined how the state policy adoption and diffusion framework explains the policy process related to allowing concealed weapons on the campuses of U.S. colleges and universities. Panel data logistic regression analyses revealed that active shooter incidents, the percentage of Republicans in state government, citizen political ideology, and policy diffusion influence the introduction of campus carry legislation. In addition, survival analysis showed that conservative citizen political ideology and anti-gun-control interests are positively related to the enactment of campus carry laws. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical analysis of the policy process related to campus carry legislation. It expands the empirical scope of higher education policy research by considering a social problem that, like free speech and transgender “bathroom bills,” is only indirectly related to student achievement but nevertheless a high priority for some state legislators. Importantly, the results underscore the importance of examining how the influences of state characteristics and interstate dynamics vary across stages of the policy process.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2020-01-27T06:08:34Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X20902121
  • Disability Identification and Educational Accommodations: Lessons From the
           2019 Admissions Scandal
    • Authors: Benjamin J. Lovett
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      A recent, widely publicized scandal involved students who obtained fraudulent diagnoses of learning disabilities in an effort to get accommodations on college admissions tests. Although the exact circumstances of the scandal are unusual, the methods used to obtain diagnoses and accommodations illustrate widespread problems with current policies. These problems include certain disability identification methods that overemphasize performance on diagnostic tests, a lack of attention to the unfair advantages that unwarranted accommodations can provide, and a lack of commonly used guidelines for making accommodations decisions based on credible, objective data. The scandal was a rare consequence of these problems, but far more frequent consequences involve unequal treatment of students from different backgrounds and test scores that fail to reflect actual student skill levels.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T05:12:49Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X20902100
  • Identifying Critical 21st-Century Skills for Workplace Success: A Content
           Analysis of Job Advertisements
    • Authors: Joseph A. Rios, Guangming Ling, Robert Pugh, Dovid Becker, Adam Bacall
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      This article extends the literature on 21st-century learning skills needed for workplace success by providing an empirical examination of employers’ direct communication to potential employees via job advertisements. Our descriptive analysis of 142,000 job advertisements provides two contributions. First, this is one of the first studies to empirically rank-order skill demand. In doing so, it is clear that oral and written communication, collaboration, and problem-solving skills are in high demand by employers, with particular emphasis on the pairing of oral and written communication. Furthermore, it is apparent that many of the skills suggested in the literature as being critical for workplace success are in very low demand by employers, and some were not found to be mentioned at all (e.g., social responsibility). Second, this study explicitly examined whether 21st-century skill demand varied by job characteristics, which was found to be the case, with differences being noted for both education level and degree field requirements. Results were replicated with a sample of roughly 120,000 job advertisements collected 1 year from the initial data collection. Implications for developing educational standards around 21st-century skill development are discussed.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T05:00:01Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19890600
  • Principal Quality and Student Attendance
    • Authors: Brendan Bartanen
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      Student attendance is increasingly recognized as an important measure of educational success, which has spurred a body of research examining the extent to which schools can affect this outcome. However, prior work almost exclusively focuses on teachers, and no studies have explicitly examined the importance of school leaders. This study begins to fill this gap by estimating principal value-added to student absences. Drawing on statewide data from Tennessee over a decade, I find that principal effects on student absences are comparable in magnitude to effects on student achievement. Moving from the 25th to 75th percentile in principal value-added decreases student absences by 1.4 instructional days and lowers the probability of chronic absenteeism by 4 percentage points. Principals have larger effects in urban and high-poverty schools, which also have the highest baseline absenteeism rates. Finally, principals who excel at decreasing student absences may not be those who excel at increasing student test scores, and high-stakes accountability measures, such as supervisor ratings, fail to identify principals who decrease student absenteeism.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2020-01-13T11:54:59Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19898702
  • Mis/Alignment Between High School and Community College Standards
    • Authors: Tatiana Melguizo, Federick Ngo
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      This study explores the extent to which “college-ready” students, by high school standards, are assigned to remedial courses in college. We used a unique longitudinal data set that links high school and community college transcript data. Focusing on math, we developed a naming device—inter-sector math misalignment (ISMM)—to measure mis/alignment between high school and college-level math standards. The results confirm that ISMM was prevalent and substantial with respect to high school grades, moderate to substantial based on different measures of math course-taking, and minor to moderate based on standardized test results. We see each of these cases as problematic—for equity, for efficiency, and for educational opportunity.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2020-01-07T06:06:21Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19898697
  • Nothing Lost, Something Gained' Impact of a Universal Social-Emotional
           Learning Program on Future State Test Performance
    • Authors: Susan Crandall Hart, James Clyde DiPerna, Pui-Wa Lei, Weiyi Cheng
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      Although the promise of universal social-emotional learning (SEL) programs enhancing student academic outcomes has captured public attention, there has been limited research regarding such programs’ impact on students’ state test scores. We used multilevel modeling of follow-up data from a multiyear, multisite cluster-randomized efficacy trial to investigate the impact of a brief universal SEL program on students’ subsequent state test performance. Although somewhat smaller in magnitude than those reported in previous SEL meta-analyses (e.g., Durlak et al., 2011), observed effect sizes generally were positive and consistent with other studies employing similar designs (i.e., randomized trial, state test outcome, baseline academic covariate). These findings may assuage concerns about the program negatively impacting state test scores due to lost instructional time; however, they also temper expectations about large academic gains resulting from its implementation.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2020-01-14T12:11:19Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19898721
  • Reassessing Disparities in Online Learner Student Engagement in Higher
    • Authors: Justin Paulsen, Alexander C. McCormick
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      Online learning is the fastest growing segment in U.S. higher education and is increasingly adopted in public and private not-for-profit institutions. While the impact of online learning on educational outcomes is becoming more clear, the literature on its connection with student engagement is sparse. Student engagement measures identify key aspects of the learning process that can improve learning and outcomes like retention and achievement. The few studies investigating the link between online learning and student engagement found positive benefits for online learners compared to face-to-face learners in terms of perceived academic challenge, learning gains, satisfaction, and better study habits. On the other hand, face-to-face learners reported higher levels of environment support, collaborative learning, and faculty interaction. However, these studies did not effectively account for the differences in background characteristics like age, time spent working or caring for dependents, and enrollment status. Further, they did not consider the increasingly large population of students who enroll in both online and face-to-face courses. In our study, we used propensity score matching on the 2015 National Survey of Student Engagement data to account for the disparities in these groups’ demographics variables. After matching, we found that some of the previous literature’s differences diminish or disappear entirely. This suggests differences in supportive environments and learning strategies have more to do with online student characteristics than learning mode. However, online learning still falls well below other modes in terms of collaborative learning and interaction with faculty.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2020-01-14T12:06:19Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19898690
  • Social Position or School Participation' Access and Mobilization of
           Social Capital in a School-Based Network
    • Authors: Rand Quinn, Amanda Barrett Cox, Amy Steinbugler
      First page: 44
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      Through school-based networks, parents obtain information, practical help, and other resources. Because networks vary by size and structure, access to these resources is uneven. What accounts for differences in access to social ties and in the mobilization of those ties to provide resources' In this article, we analyze a network of mothers of eighth graders at a Philadelphia public school. With a near-complete census of network ties, we explore mothers’ access to and mobilization of information and practical help through social ties. We find that mothers’ school-based participation, rather than their race or class-based social position, is associated with resource access and mobilization. Importantly, greater levels of participation increase the likelihood that a mother will provide—but not obtain—information and practical help. Our results can help inform public policy and practice on family and community engagement in schools.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2020-01-17T05:30:30Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19898700
  • Corrigendum to “How Can Educators Confront Science
    • First page: 75
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2020-01-17T05:23:05Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X20903276
  • Editors’ Introduction: Randomized Controlled Trials Meet the Real World:
           The Nature and Consequences of Null Findings
    • Authors: Carolyn D. Herrington, Rebecca Maynard
      Pages: 577 - 579
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Volume 48, Issue 9, Page 577-579, December 2019.

      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19891441
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 9 (2019)
  • A Framework for Learning From Null Results
    • Authors: Robin T. Jacob, Fred Doolittle, James Kemple, Marie-Andrée Somers
      Pages: 580 - 589
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Volume 48, Issue 9, Page 580-589, December 2019.
      A substantial number of randomized trials of educational interventions that have been conducted over the past two decades have produced null results, with either no impact or an unreliable estimate of impact on student achievement or other outcomes of interest. The investment of time and money spent implementing such trials warrants more useful information than simply “this didn’t work.” In this article, we propose a framework for defining null results and interpreting them and then propose a method for systematically examining a set of potential reasons for a study’s findings. The article builds on prior work on the topic and synthesizes it into a common framework designed to help the field improve both the design and interpretation of randomized trials.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19891955
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 9 (2019)
  • Using Implementation Fidelity to Aid in Interpreting Program Impacts: A
           Brief Review
    • Authors: Heather C. Hill, Anna Erickson
      Pages: 590 - 598
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Volume 48, Issue 9, Page 590-598, December 2019.
      Poor program implementation constitutes one explanation for null results in trials of educational interventions. For this reason, researchers often collect data about implementation fidelity when conducting such trials. In this article, we document whether and how researchers report and measure program fidelity in recent cluster-randomized trials. We then create two measures—one describing the level of fidelity reported by authors and another describing whether the study reports null results—and examine the correspondence between the two. We also explore whether fidelity is influenced by study size, type of fidelity measured and reported, and features of the intervention. We find that as expected, fidelity level relates to student outcomes; we also find that the presence of new curriculum materials positively predicts fidelity level.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19891436
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 9 (2019)
  • Making Every Study Count: Learning From Replication Failure to Improve
           Intervention Research
    • Authors: James S. Kim
      Pages: 599 - 607
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Volume 48, Issue 9, Page 599-607, December 2019.
      Why, when so many educational interventions demonstrate positive impact in tightly controlled efficacy trials, are null results common in follow-up effectiveness trials' Using case studies from literacy, this article suggests that replication failure can surface hidden moderators—contextual differences between an efficacy and an effectiveness trial—and generate new hypotheses and questions to guide future research. First, replication failure can reveal systemic barriers to program implementation. Second, it can highlight for whom and in what contexts a program theory of change works best. Third, it suggests that a fidelity first and adaptation second model of program implementation can enhance the effectiveness of evidence-based interventions and improve student outcomes. Ultimately, researchers can make every study count by learning from both replication success and failure to improve the rigor, relevance, and reproducibility of intervention research.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19891428
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 9 (2019)
  • Commentary on the Null Results Special Issue
    • Authors: Carolyn J. Hill
      Pages: 608 - 610
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Volume 48, Issue 9, Page 608-610, December 2019.
      This commentary summarizes the three special issue articles by Robin Jacob et al., Heather Hill and Anna Erickson, and Jimmy Kim and discusses a number of broader questions and considerations for the program evaluation field that arise from those articles.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19891432
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 9 (2019)
  • Expecting and Learning From Null Results
    • Authors: Jeffrey Valentine
      Pages: 611 - 613
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Volume 48, Issue 9, Page 611-613, December 2019.
      This commentary addresses three issues raised in the articles in this issue. First, conversations about replication efforts should begin with a reasonable and agreed-upon definition of what it means to say that a study did or did not replicate the results of another study. Second, if a replication failure has been identified, using the surface similarity of the studies to reverse-engineer an explanation is unlikely to be helpful. Finally, researchers and consumers should expect small and heterogeneous effects, and this fact points to the need to think meta-analytically.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19891440
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 9 (2019)
  • Reviewers for Volume 48
    • Pages: 614 - 620
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Volume 48, Issue 9, Page 614-620, December 2019.

      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19890306
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 9 (2019)
  • College Students’ Sense of Belonging: A National Perspective
    • Authors: Maithreyi Gopalan, Shannon T. Brady
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      In a nationally representative sample, first-year U.S. college students “somewhat agree,” on average, that they feel like they belong at their school. However, belonging varies by key institutional and student characteristics; of note, racial-ethnic minority and first-generation students report lower belonging than peers at 4-year schools, while the opposite is true at 2-year schools. Further, at 4-year schools, belonging predicts better persistence, engagement, and mental health even after extensive covariate adjustment. Although descriptive, these patterns highlight the need to better measure and understand belonging and related psychological factors that may promote college students’ success and well-being.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-12-24T06:16:36Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19897622
  • Mapping and Remapping the Sociology of Chinese Education: A Review of
           Bourdieu and Chinese Education: Inequality, Competition, and Change
    • Authors: WANG Min
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-11-26T01:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19890330
  • Teachers’ Bias Against the Mathematical Ability of Female, Black,
           and Hispanic Students
    • Authors: Yasemin Copur-Gencturk, Joseph R. Cimpian, Sarah Theule Lubienski, Ian Thacker
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      Researchers have long endeavored to understand whether teachers’ evaluations of their students’ mathematical ability or performance are accurate or whether their evaluations reveal implicit biases. To disentangle these factors, in a randomized controlled study (N = 390), we examined teachers’ evaluations of 18 mathematical solutions to which gender- and race-specific names had been randomly assigned. Teachers displayed no detectable bias when assessing the correctness of students’ solutions; however, when assessing students’ mathematical ability, biases against Black, Hispanic, and female students were revealed, with biases largest against Black and Hispanic girls. Specifically, non-White teachers’ estimations of students’ mathematical ability favored White students (both boys and girls) over students of color, whereas (primarily female) White teachers’ estimations of students’ mathematical ability favored boys over girls. Results indicate that teachers are not free of bias, and that teachers from marginalized groups may be susceptible to bias that favors stereotype-advantaged groups.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-12-05T06:24:16Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19890577
  • Troubling Practice: Exploring the Relationship Between Whiteness and
           Practice-Based Teacher Education in Considering a Raciolinguicized Teacher
    • Authors: Julia R. Daniels, Manka Varghese
      First page: 56
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      In this essay, we argue that teacher education is increasingly marginalizing the relevance of teacher subjectivity and recentering Whiteness, especially in its uptake of practice-based teacher education. Whereas teacher subjectivity has been pushed to the margins of recent conversations about teacher education—and has therefore narrowed our understanding of the ideological and practical affordances and constraints of practice-based teacher education—we show that it must be centered in teacher education and understood as fundamental to all teachers’ embodied practice. We draw from literature exploring critical Whiteness studies, raciolinguistics, poststructural understandings of teacher subjectivity, the experiences of teachers of Color and practice-based teacher education. By showing how a raciolinguicized teacher subjectivity has been marginalized, we simultaneously argue for the centrality of the role of subjectivity in shaping teaching and, therefore, in defining critical dimensions of what and how novice teachers need to learn.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-09-24T09:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19879450
  • How to Review Conference Proposals (and Why You Should Bother)
    • Authors: Sarah Theule Lubienski
      First page: 64
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      This essay provides advice for effectively reviewing conference proposals, including how to write comments that are helpful to proposal authors, how to use the “Comments to Program Chair” box, and issues to consider when assigning proposal ratings and recommending acceptance or rejection. Several benefits of reviewing proposals are outlined along with advice for becoming a reviewer. This essay is situated within the American Educational Research Association conference context and considers how reviewing conference proposals differs from that of journal articles. Still, much of the advice provided is applicable to scholarly reviewing, more generally.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T12:23:16Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19890332
  • Estimating Teacher Attrition for Impact Study Design
    • Authors: Joseph A. Taylor, Brady West
      First page: 68
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      The goal of this article is to provide guidance on teacher attrition rates that can inform power analyses. The subjects were a nationally representative sample of teachers responding to the National Center for Education Statistics Schools and Staffing Survey and Teacher Follow-Up Survey (2011–2013). The findings indicate that at the national average of percent free and reduced-price lunch (FRL), approximately one in six teachers move schools or leave the profession between adjacent academic years. The odds of this type of attrition happening increase by approximately 0.8% for each 1% FRL difference (increase) of a planned study context from the national average.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-10-10T08:33:37Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19880550
  • Get Real! Inflation Adjustments of Educational Finance Data
    • Authors: Kenneth Shores, Christopher Candelaria
      First page: 71
      Abstract: Educational Researcher, Ahead of Print.
      Use of education finance data is ubiquitous. Yet, because the academic calendar circumscribes two calendar years, researchers have linked the Consumer Price Index (CPI) to three different dates: fall, spring, and academic fiscal years. We demonstrate that linking the CPI to these different academic years results in identifying different trends in U.S. educational spending during the Great Recession. Descriptive inferences should not be sensitive to researcher discretion about merge years. We provide an easy-to-use software package to facilitate implementation of National Center for Education Statistics guidelines in the hope that future analyses of education finance data will explicitly and consistently apply inflation adjustments.
      Citation: Educational Researcher
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T04:07:48Z
      DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19890338
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